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As a preliminary, I ask the reader to peruse the Scriptural statements themselves, every word of which I here place before him. 1 Kings ix. 23.
2 Chrox, ii. 17, 18. These were the chief of the officers And Solomon numbered all the stranthat were over Solomon's work, 550, gers that were in the land of Israel, which bare rule over the people that after the numbering wherewith David wrought in the work.
his father had numbered them; and they were found 153,600. And he set 70,000 of them to be bearers of burdens, and 80,000 to be hewers in the mountain, and 3600 overseers to set the peo
ple a work. Now, giving the author the advantage of supposing that both these passages refer to the same event, and refer exclusively to hewing and carrying wood for the erection of the temple, I find, first, that “ their bondage was not the result of a recent conquest," since David “had numbered them” before Solomon's days. But, secondly, were these workmen in bondage at all? Yes, says our author, for “ the same word,” &c. This reason would equally prove that Josiah made bondmen of all Israel (2 Chron. xxxiv. 33). Like our own word serve (from the Latin servus, “a slave"), the Hebrew nay, which originally denoted bond-service, came to have a general import, and thus is found used even of the service or aid which one Israelite had from another (Jer. xxii. 13). Accordingly it is rendered in our version, “ to till” (Gen. iv. 12), " to do work” (Numb. iv. 30), “ bring to pass” (Is. xxviii. 21). That it does not of necessity signify the work of bondmen, appears from the fact that it is used of the service of the Levites (Numb. xviii. 23), and is the word employed in the command, “Six days shalt thou labour” (Exod. xx. 9). But had the writer looked into the original of the passage in Kings, he would have found himself at once deprived of any pretext, for the word there rendered “work," is the same as that which is employed of the act of God in creating the universe -"on the seventh day God ended his work” (Gen. ii. 2; see also Exod. xii. 16; xx. 9, 10; xxxi. 15; xxxv. 2, 21, 24, 29, seq.). What, then, becomes of all the implied cruelty of Solomon ? And what are we to think of the author's discovery-his “important fact”—and the moving terms in which he sets it forth--as "working slaves;” “their masters ;” “overseers of the slaves ;" “ the work of mules," "partially manacled," " driven;" "gang of 50 or 60 slaves ;" "the task-work of these slaves ;" “ their bondage ;"" “ their wrongs and their sorrows;" “ reduced to slavery;" "hapless multitude whose unheard groans"? The word “slave,” or a related term, is here employed some ten times for one term in the original, which may and may not denote bond-service. Ten to one is surplusage indeed !
A UNITARIAN MINISTER.
WHAT THE PREACHER SHOULD BE. LEARNING should help a preacher to separate the living spirit of the Divine Word from the learned incrustations which have formed around it. What he should aim at, is to throw himself back into the spirit of the persons whose mind is reflected in the sacred books; and having possessed himself of it, he must endeavour, when he addresses his contemporaries, to forget all that is antique in the thought or inappropriate in the phraseology of the text through which he imbibed it, and to speak under the sole consciousness of present, living interests, as Paul or John would now speak, if from our point of view they were looking out, with their own deep heart of faith and warm impulse of human sympathies, on the still enduring strife of man, with doubt and sin and woe.--Rev. J. J. Tayler's Religious Life of England, p. 480.
tem of extreme purity, and demanding Pro-Religious Socialism in France.
from society sacrifices which hitherto
have never been extorted, except under We have extracted from the “Démo- the transient influences of especial excratie Pacifique" of the 23rd of April, citement. A long catalogue of marthe following short paper, not because tyrs, political and religious, shews how we think it of any great value, for there vain such attempts have been in past is no norelty in the thoughts, and it ages. In the present age, the spirit of is purely declamatory, but because it Reform is in the ascendant; but the gives some information concerning a religious element has not been found party in France, the very existence of in any large proportion among the acts which has been hardly known in this of reformers. In our own country, country; It has been generally sup- numerous as the Calvinistic Dissenters posed that the purely anti-religious and Methodists are, the Anti-Statecharacter of the French Revolution Church Association does not appear to constitutes one of the great features by be making a progress very alarming to which it may be contrasted with our the body it would overthrow; and a English Revolution of the seventeenth coalition between the anti-religious and century; and Socialism has been deem- ultra-religious could not easily take ed the ally of impiety and irreligion. place. Possibly a conductor may be This opinion was strengthened by the raised to divert the lightning in the antichristian turn which Owenism took shape of Church Reform, by which the in this country, for it was not so at support of moderate and practical men its origin. But it could not be un- may be gained. known to any one who had seriously Ås to France, especially its present thought on the subject, that Commun- prospects, it would be idle to waste our ism in its severest form, supposing the time in speculation. A few days will utter extinction of private property, suffice to shew whether the anarchical had been found among the intensely or peaceful spirit will prevail in the religious, such as the Herrnhüter or new Government. This in the meanMoravians and the German ultra-re- while we would remark, that by far the formers of the 16th century; not the most eminent and respected member of anti-religious. These could appeal to the late Provisional Government, M. the practice of the earliest Christians, Lamartine, was first known to the and quote the words of their Founder world as a religious poet, and his prose and Master. The supporters of things writings all partook of a religious chaas they are had a sufficient answer to racter; but we do not mean to suggest these men in the use of a word. And that he belongs to the party to which they who are content with a word, were we have been alluding; and it must be satisfied with calling these sectaries owned that his conduct as Foreign enthusiasts or fanatics. In the mean- Minister since the last Revolution does while, these rejected and divided men not partake of that sentimental and had given currency to a language which dreamy character which is supposed to was employed again when
the French denote the poet or religious enthusiast. Revolution broke out. Then, indeed, We do not affect much acquaintance it was used by those who laboured to with the “Démocratie Pacifique.” We substitute for Christianity other sys- had heard the name of Doherty as its tems, such as Theophilanthropism, St. editor, but the number before us bears Simonism. The sincerity of these men, the name of Ferdinand Guillon, On and the singleness of their motives, the face of it there are no indications might reasonably be doubted; and, of a great circulation. It announces indeed, a like doubt will always rest on agents only at Lyons, Marseilles and the motives of the assailant of power- Brussels, which betrays a want of exful bodies and existing institutions. A tensive ramifications. It has very few personal knowledge of the actors can advertisements,--and those of books alone enable any one to determine whe- only, chiefly of the cheap works of v. ther the opponents of a state-religion Considerant, at the Libraire Phalansté. wear a mask only when they assume rienne, rue de Beaune, which designates that character, or whether they be genu- the system of Fourier. Among the ine enthusiasts, striving to enforce a sys- cheap works announced for workmen
(les travailleurs) is an edition of the grievous trials have been sustained by Moniteur in 32 volumes, at 5 francs mankind, before the sentiments of Christ each.
could penetrate into the souls of men and We learn also from this number that his doctrine touch their hearts. there has been a schism among the So- The gospel virtually abolished slavery; cialists, probably on the great questions and yet slavery, at the end of eighteen arising out of the rights of property. centuries and a half, is restrained, not This paper especially advocates the suppressed. It is not long since the rights of labour. It is full of catch mightiest intellects could not imagine a words by way of mottos, besides a society without slaves, and slavery had line running along the whole page, of its place in the boldest of social dreams. some significance—“The Republic of There are slaves in the democratie Utopia 1792 destroyed the ancient order; the of Sir Thomas More and the Salentum Republic of 1848 ought to establish a of Fenelon. There are, in fact, offices so new order."
burthensome and offensive, that it is hard The New Idea.
to imagine them executed by free citizens
and brethren. It is in vain that we would (From the Democratie Pacifique of April 23.)
sanctify them as an offering to the public At the hour when these lines will be weal. Sentiment protests against the saread, the elections will have commenced critice of some for all. But this sentithroughout France. In all the districts ment is insufficient and powerless in its and cantons the urn will be opened from resistance. And it is science that has which will issue the constitution of the completed the work of Christ. Republic, the legal incarnation of the To the invention of the first instru. democratic idea. It is now eighteen cen- ments of labour we owe the first forma. turies and a half since also a new idea, tion of society. And the invention of the equally fertile and glorious, arose, shed- larger instruments permitted the appliding its beams upon the world which it cation to the service of mankind of those was about to transform. Christ ascended gigantic powers whose action has a mighty from his tomb. Persecuted at once by the influence on society. In the fiery womb adepts of sophistry and the men of vio of the steam-engine is contained the selence, smitten with death, or at least sup. cret of the emancipation of the labourer, posed to be by scoffers and executioners, the final abolition of the enslavement of the Christian idea sprang at once from man by man, and of man by poverty. the sepulchre victorious over death, and But it is on condition only that the interested calumny to hover over a trans. machine act for the benefit, not of the figured universe.
privileged few, but of all; that science The scholars of that day, the men of preside over the production, and justice letters aud tradition, the organs of official over the distribution; and that social scilife, said to each other–Here is a pettyence direct and complete the blind work sect which is stirring among the lowest of natural science. The labours of moof the people. Let us crush it in its ralists, the unity of the Roman empire, leader. Let us punish this Carpenter's had prepared the way for Christian feelSon, who dares to speak of liberty while ing; the diffusion of light and the prowe are resolved to remain masters; of gress of mechanics and chemistry, have equality, while we choose to command prepared the way for the social idea. Toslaves; of fraternity, while we all find it day, as then, the nations are looking out advantageons that each should think only for a law, a faith, ready to greet the star of himself. And after having poured on that may arise in the West. him sarcasm and insult, they nailed him To work, then, you, all the workmen to the cross, not considering that a true of thought, whose voice and instruction and sympathetic idea cannot be killed; the Pharisees and official Publicans of without perceiving that a cross was a the day have stifled ! The sufferings of rostrum; without understanding that a the Passion are at an end, the darkness doctrine which aspires to break down the which enveloped souls is dispersed, and barriers raised to separate from each the old political and social organization other the various members of the great is torn like the curtain of the sanctuary. family of mankind, and which tends to The ancient law is no more. The stone realize a unity in variety, has necessarily of the sepulchre so clnmsily sealed has a futurity for its operations.
fallen on you: you are sufficiently strong In a few ages, Christian Europe ré. to raise it, now that public sympathy has vered him who was crucified at Golgotha, augmented your strength. and cursed his murderers.
Distrust and persecution await you in But long ages have elapsed, wars and this state of trial. You will find scoffers, like the disciples of Emmaus; unbeliev. to witness the laying of the stone,--a ers, like Thomas. But you will break ceremony that was performed by Mr. bread with them and say, Lo! these are Thomas Bolton, who, previous to using our works. And they will be confounded, the trowel, delivered an appropriate and rejoice in being so; for on the day of address. your ascension in the regenerated world, The ceremony of laying the stone you will draw them after you and asso- having been completed, the Rev. James ciate them to your conquests.
Martineau addressed the company as And you, electors, who are called to follows: choose the Assembly that is to incarnate
Friends and Fellow-christians,—There new France, do not imitate those execu.
are times when those who are most distioners and mer of physical force who trustful of themselves lose for awhile the took measures against the idea which depressing consciousness of fear and they thought they had buried in the tomb. frailty, and are constrained, by the bright Do not imitate those watchmen who slept aspect of the present, to look upon the while the miracle was wrought. Be the future with joy and hope. Even when angels, the messengers, who unsealed the standing at the solemn birth of a great tomb. Raise the stone which shuts up undertaking, I cannot contradict the glothe idea. Aid the resurrection and sa
rious sunshine above us, and the multilute its first beams.
tude of glad faces before me, by suffering Do not fear strange doctrines. The
any shadow of despondency to rest upon dangerous men to-day are those who have
this moment. It is a happy angury for none, and who employ constraint and terror because they are unable to organize. scends to its place beneath an eye so
any enterprize, when its foundation de. Every idea which unites a number of in- steady and a hand so firm as those of telligent minds contains, necessarily, a
our honoured friend. Nor is this the portion of the truth. Let this idea be only encouragement that cheers the day. brought to light. Discussion, that alem.
If to have lasted long already is evidence bic of thought, will separate in it all that for an institution that it will not speedily is just and applicable from what is mere
perish; if to have deep roots in the past dross, what tarnishes and corrupts. Let affords promise of blossom and fruitage there be no exclusion, no proscription. in the future; then we are not without Personal sympathies ought to be silent in
assurance of a lasting blessing on our order to assure to every one bis liberty of work. The memorials of a century and action. If you assist in its resurrection
a half lie beneath that stone, and confrom the tomb, and afford it a vehicle for stitute the autobiography of our society. exhibition, if it be trae, the world will There is a singular mixture of resemhave the benefit; if false, it will, like false blance and contrast between the present coin, be put out of circulation, and no one
occasion and the corresponding period will be injured. But if, on the contrary, when the chapel in which we now worship you seal the tomb in which it lies buried,
was commenced. The newspapers just it will not the less arise, but in its rising deposited in the vase contain tidings of and explosure it will be destructive of
recent Revolution in a neighbouring men and of institutions.
country, whose fates, interesting to all thoughtful men, are doubly so to the descendant of an exiled Huguenot. And
if, when the walls of Paradise-Street cba. Laying the Foundation-Stone of the Nero pel are levelled, any similar documents
Church, Hope Street, Liverpool. should be found beneath its corner-stone, On Tuesday, May 9th, the foundation. they,—the journals of 1789,—will be stone of a new church was laid in Hope filled with the traces of parallel events, Street, on the vacant piece of ground then equally fresh and equally portentous. lying between the Philharmonic Concert Yet there are grounds to hope that the Hall and Hope Place. This church is intervening sixty years have not been intended for the congregation of Pro- lost on European society, and that many testant Dissenters who now are, and a folly of the receding generation will for years past have been, worshiping escape repetition now. The outskirts of at the chapel in Paradise Street; and the last century's great storm reached it will, when completed, be an exceed- even the seclusion of our own societies. ingly commodious and elegant struc- In Sept., 1791, the chapel which we still ture, surmounted with a lofty tower occupy was to have been opened by Dr. and spire. There was a large assem- Priestley; but, two months before, he was blage of ladies and gentlemen present driven, by the madness of riot, from the
town which he adorned by his virtues, his and are inspired by a reliance which no philosophy and his fame:
man's wisdom can deserve. You have “Patriot, and saint, and sage, kept it in wholesome remembrance that, Him, full of years, from his loved native land, while teachers are transitory, the things Statesmen blood-stained, and priests idolatrous, By dark lies maddening the blind multitude,
to be taught are imperishable; and, in Drove with vain hate. Calm, pitying, he re- these days of giddy tastes and slight contired,
victions, have brought your homage still And mused expectant on these coming years."
to the eternal essence of Christian truth, I see near me some venerable men, not to the accident of its mutable reprewhose memory bears witness of that time; sentation. You have provided for a per. and others, again, so new to life, that its manent society of persons, bound together traditions sound like the old voice of by common attachment to certain senti. history. When thus we link ourselves, ments and purposes which will survive on the right hand, with aged who can the lapse of successive lives and the vi. tell us of these things behind, and, on cissitudes of human admiration. Un. the left, with the child whose eye shall worthy should we be of the freehold we look forward no less far into the story of have received from our fathers, did we humanity, we seem to brood over a solemn think only of a life-interest for our chil. expanse of time, and to feel upon the dren. wing of our thought the breath of the We dedicate our church to no creed. 18th and the 20th century, as well as the It is indeed most natural, indeed inevi. sunshine of our own.
table, that all the successive discoverers Under favour of this genial sky, I would of new doctrine, and all its simple disci. detain you while I say something as to ples, should hold it to be everlasting; the principles and purposes to which this should build temples, and organize endu. church is consecrated. Its claim and its ring institutions, to serve as its recepta. disclaim concur, as I fully believe, to cles. Did they for an instant allow that justify the hopes with which you will it might be perishable, they would sus. watch its rising walls.
pect it to be false. Yet who can follow We dedicate it to po priestly offices. the history of Christendom-who observe No mystic rites, no discipline of the se- the phenomena of any one period of in. cret, no magic spells of salvation, will tellectual activity-who even register the find a shelter here. The structure rising experience of his own mind--without a from this spot is not designed to interpose check to this unthinking faith? How between the soul and God, but to bring plainly is it the law of Providence, that them into intimate and personal com- There shall be a perpetual change, be it munion; not to provide a sacerdotal me- cycle or be it progress, in the forms under dium of approach, but to shut out the which the same indestructible ideas opesecular causes of forgetfulness and sepa- rate in our nature! It is time that this ration. We build a place, not for the should be openly recognized as fact, and high altar, but for the humble spirit; allowed for in our provisions for the where the worship will be, not for the future. We therefore forego all attempt people, but by them; where the minister to fix the type of belief from age to age: appears as a man amongst men, conscious and through such abstinence, we do of their frailties, their sorrows, their as conceive, the inevitable movements of pirations, and, only tbrough his sad part- opinion are likely to take place, less by nership in these, able to interpret them polemic convulsion than by peaceful dearight in preaching, and without pretence velopment. acknowledge them in prayer. It is but Not-let me be understood - that we by the sympathy of mind with mind, the are, individually, without definite belief; attraction of like to like, that the lines of or, collectively, without a belief strongly supplication from each separate and si- marked by common characteristics. We lent heart converge to the place in which do not pretend to be mere seekers, with a he stands, and finding a representative system awaiting us in the future. We are spirit there, burst into open voice. We not drawn together by the sympathies of accept here the deposit of no man's faith; a universal unsettledness, and the resolve but will help him, if we can, to use the to discuss an indefinite series of open talent with a faithful trust.
questions. No, we raise here, not a school, We dedicate this place to no indivi. but a church; not a hall of debate, but dual's teaching, and erect no throne for a shrine of God; and shall collect, not a mere personal influence. A stranger has parliament of critics, but a brotherhood but to cast his eye upon the design of of worshipers. For this end, there must this building, to see that you are raising be a faith in each not wandering far from something nobler than a lecture-room, the faith of all. Only where there is es