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for the Sunday-schools. He also pointed in the world. It was a matter of anxiety out the congregations at Padiham and to him to perceive that religion was Trowbridge, and in conclusion illus- becoming too exclusively a matter of trated his topic by a reference to the interest to the middle classes. It was recently published Life of Channing. a matter too much of mere taste and a

In proposing the health of the Preach- mark of outward respectability. It er and Supporter, the CHAIRMAN said was impossible to conceal from them. that in the sermon of the morning they selves that there was some defect in had been carried back by the earnest- their ministrations. He did not speak ness and strong sense of practical reli- this in the way of reproach to others. gion in the preacher to the times of He felt it strongly himself, and wished their good Puritan ancestors.

to impress a deeper sense of duty on The Rev. P. P. CARPENTER could not himself. When they agreed last year expect or wish all his brethren to agree to meet at Gee Cross, it was in the with him in all his views, but it was expectation that they should be received cheering to him to find that there was in the beautiful and graceful structure a disposition to accept and approve his which they had that morning seen all general principles.

but completed. He had heard one or Rev. JAMES MARTINEAU expressed two murmurs that the old roof should his great regret at the occasion of his cover them that day. For his own part, having been that day called to under- he rejoiced at that circumstance. It take the duties of supporter, in the was a fit place for their reception. This absence through illness of Rev. D. was the first occasion of their visiting Davis. They were that day surrounded Gee Cross as the Provincial Assembly. with objects of interest. It would have Looking to their history, it was right added to the many gratifications of the that they should take a parting view of day if the Chairman had favoured them the ancient chapel. They had one foot with the history of his congregation upon the grave-place of the old insti. and predecessors in the ministry. In tutions, and another upon the birthlooking over the history of the early place of the new.-Mr. Martineau conNonconformity of Dukinfield and that cluded an interesting speech, of which neighbourhood, he had been struck by the above is a very faint outline, by the fact that the ministers there ap- expressing for himself and his brethren peared to have lived to a good old age, earnest wishes for the prosperity

of the and to preserve the interest and affection Gee-Cross congregation and the health of their flock to the last. This proved and happiness of their minister. the good sense of the people, and their In acknowledging the toast, Rev. J. appreciation of the faithful performance BROOKS said, that happy as his lot at of duty in those that ministered to them. Hyde had been, of late his pleasure had The history of the congregation at Gee been mingled with some pensive and Cross for the past promised stability painful feelings. Looking round him, for the future. The neighbourhood he did not see a single minister whom was rich in the records of the “old he was accustomed to meet when he Dissent,” and exhibited many of the first came into that neighbourhood. characteristics of sterling and enduring He rejoiced, however, to see so many worth. They had also the elements of young men springing up to carry on the the new civilization. The swarming work of religious reformation. In referfactories which covered the less fertile ence to his chapel, he would only remark hills of Cheshire afforded the grounds that it had been built 140 years. The for a new hope and for the exercise of families who had now with princely fresh zeal. The two worlds, the old liberality united to build the new chaand the new, met together on that spot. pel, were the lineal descendants of the It was easier for them, it must be con- original founders. The names of those fessed, to build their proud remem- who that day mingled with them as brances on the past, than it was faith- guests, were the same as those that fully to perform their duty to the present might be found in the original Trustgeneration. He could not but some- deed. He rejoiced to say that a happy times ask whether their old institutions agreement, now as of old, existed beand modes of usefulness were suited to tween minister and people on theology the present day. He feared they had and politics. For a long time he was to learn many lessons. They must the bishop of an extensive district. For devise a means of acting on the lower a long time all the funerals and all the classes of the people, or their Chris. baptisms were celebrated at the ancient tianity would not do its proper work chapel of Gee Cross. At length the church arose, and then it was prophe- tated speech. I trust, however, on this sied by some that Mr. Brooks would interesting occasion to be able briefly soon lose some of his wealthier hearers. to express my feelings. I thank you The saying prevailed, that when Dis- for your kind and gratifying notice of senters began to keep their carriages, me. My family has been most closely they soon rolled off to the church. He united with the English Presbyterians. was happy to say it had not proved so My grandfather, as is known to many at Hyde.

of you, shewed his attachment to the Rev. J. G. ROBBERDS hoped that the House of Hanover and the cause of munificence of the Gee-Cross congre- civil and religious liberty, by leading gation would not indispose them to re- his congregation (at Preston) to resist member and help their poorer brethren. the Rebellion of 1715. For the serLiving in a magnificent mansion, they vices he was enabled to render to the must be prepared to receive many calls Royal cause, he received publicly the for help. Unless the Unitarian de- thanks of General Willes, the comnomination exerted themselves in be- mander of the King's forces at the fight half of their poorer congregations, many of Preston. I need scarcely tell you of them must cease to exist. He wanted that my father was well and honourably to see such a state of things that a mis known as a minister and an author. nister should not feel it to be a matter He was the intimate friend of Dr. of great importance where he was situ. Priestley, whom he assisted in the ated ; that he might feel assured that composition of that valuable series of so long as he continued to do his duty, Theological Essays, known as the the means of subsistence would never “ Theological Repository.” For sixty be denied him. He wanted to see them years, I was spared to exercise my miall members of one body.

nistry amongst the people of NewcastleThe Rev. John ROBBERDS spoke to upon-Tyne. I left them some years the sentiment of the Emancipation of ago, and rejoice to know that they are the Jews.

in a flourishing state, under the care of Rev. R. BROOK ASPLAND said that my friend, Rev. George Harris. I feel the “Provincial Assembly ” was, he that I have great reason to be thankful believed, the oldest existing Noncon- to God for good health, and for the formist meeting in England. They had power of still testifying my interest in entered on the third century of their the cause of civil and religious liberty.* existence; the first Assembly took place Rev. Dr. Beard illustrated the necessity at Preston in the year 1646. After stat- of Popular Education to the peace, prosing some facts illustrative of the spirit of perity and happiness of the English nation. the Presbyterian churches of Lancashire Though the gentlemen present, being, and Cheshire two centuries back, Mr. both in theory and practice, friends and Aspland drew the attention of the As- promoters of such education, needed no sembly to a venerable man who was a enforcement of the topic, yet the speaker link between the past and present age was glad that the sentiment to which he of Presbyterianism, who, now approach- had been invited to speak had been dising his ninetieth year, was amongst tinctly enunciated on the occasion, if for them that day, with his faculties unim- no other reason, for this, that so many paired; who had received Presbyterian ordination, in a neighbouring county, as * At the meeting the following day, far back as 1782; had exercised his mi. an interesting anecdote was told by nistry with distinguished usefulness Rev. W. Fillingham. He was a native for nearly sixty years; and had, since his of a northern county, and born of orthoretirement from the active duties of his dox parents. When he went forth from profession, lived several years amongst the parental roof and settled at Newthem, honoured for his years and his castle, his good parents thought it their virtues. He proposed the health of duty to warn him against giving ear to their truly venerable guest, Rev. Wm. the minister who had come from the Turner.

south, and who taught the people of Mr. TURNER immediately rose, and Newcastle that they could get to heaven with a firm voice, audible to the end of simply by good works. Their injuncthe room, spoke as follows :-Although tion was vain ; he soon became a hearer I trust my life has been by no means of the teacher of truth and righteousundevoted to civil and religious liberty, ness, and ultimately saw reason to deI must confess that one faculty I have part from the Methodist communion never had the opportunity of cultivating and embrace the opinions of their veneto any great extent, that of unpremedi: rable friend.

persons, of some of whom better things its ordinary routine. He was afraid that might have been expected, were at the circumstances would compel them to add present moment drawn away under the another point to their Educational char. fascination that the salvation of the coun- ter, in order in some way “to compel try was to be wrought out by some exter- them to come into" their schools, for nal operation on the British Constitution. many parents shewed a lamentable inHe wished, indeed, to see an extension difference to the education of their chilof political privileges; but unless educa- dren. Any way, something must be tion was extended in the same degree, done. The present plans satisfied no the result would be an increase in Par- one, and the amount of ignorance, negliament of ignorance, narrowness and lect, disorder and vice around them was corruption. There was as much need as pitiable as it was dangerous. for the improvement as for the increase Mr. TRAVERS MADGE addressed the of popular education. The mere culti- company in a very interesting speech on vation of the intellect was not education, Domestic Missions.- We the less regret useful though it was as a preliminary. our inability to report his speech, as we The essence of education lay in the deve. hope soon to present to our readers, in lopment of the religious and moral nature. another shape, his opinions on this subIn this respect the English people stood ject. higher in the scale of education than sta- The CHAIRMAN proposed as a toast, tistical figures shewed. The English peo- Manchester New College,” and reple educated each other in their Sunday: marked that its past success in training schools, in their religious discussions and ministers for our pulpits was the best efforts, especially under the influence of proof of its value, and gave the conthe Bible. The strong religious convic- ductors of the institution a right to appeal tions, the spiritual elevation and moral to the Unitarian body for their conticontrol that ensued, had been the chief nued support. cause why England had been so little af. The Rev. William Gaskell, having fected by the revolutionary storm that been called upon to reply, alluded to his was now sweeping over Europe. In long connection with the College, first as France and Germany, intellectually the a Student, then as an Officer and Trusmost educated nations in Europe, were tee, and now as a Professor. Any one to be seen striking and painful illustra- who looked with candour through their tions of the insufficiency of education churches, and observed the standing apart from the expanding, controling and taken by the ministers who have been mellowing influence of religion. Some indebted to it for their training, either friends of education had sometimes seem- wholly or in part, could not deny that it ed to shun the necessity of religious edu- had been successful. Of the former class cation, from the practical difficulties that he might point to Mr. Madge, Mr. Robbeset the subject. But truth should be pro- berds, Mr. Wallace, Dr. Beard, Mr. Ta. claimed as truth, and the result left with gart, Mr. Martineau; of the latter class, Providence. No doubt religion was in this to Dr. Hutton, Mr. J. J. Tayler, Mr. case made use of as a weapon of secta- Aspland, and many others. Their ex. rianism. The Bishop of Manchester had pectations must be high indeed who lately intimated that the education of the could bring themselves to declare that people must be in episcopal hands. That an institution which had furnished to our doctrine had been advanced by others, churches men distinguished by such a va. and would find very zealous advocacy. riety of talents as those men were, had What was to be done? The end is not failed in its object. Notwithstanding oc. yet. Great and ultimate principles must casional murmurs, he did not believe be put forward, and in the long run truth that the body at large was dissatisfied would prevail. Those principles, the with the College. If, indeed, he was comspeaker believed, had been well enun- pelled to suppose that certain correspond. ciated by the Lancashire Educational ents of one of our periodicals spoke the Society: What were they? Mainly general sentiments of the denomination these local support and local govern- — writers who seemed to go on the prin. ment in every part of the country, ori- ciple that "Whatever is, is wrong"-he ginated, enforced and improved by legis- should look upou them as the most dislative acts and governmental supervision. satisfied and discontented body living. Another important principle was found But, happily, the complaints of the faultin the distinction between general and finders often amusingly enough neutral. sectarian education: the former to be ized one another. For instance, one corcarried on in the general working of the respondent complained that the plans of school, the latter to be given apart from the institution were not of such a kind as to train useful and popular preachers; Widows' Fund, concerning which we too much attention was devoted to nice propose giving some particulars in our points of useless criticism. But another next number. correspondent gave it as his opinion that the Faculty of Theology should consist of ten or twelve, instead of three, Pro

Western Unitarian Association. fessors. Should that idea be carried out, The annual meeting of this Association the poor students would, he feared, have was holden at Bridport on Wednesday, little time or thought left for the Pro- the 21st June. The service was introfessors of the Literary and Scientific duced by the Revds. Messrs. Walker, department. On the whole, he believed of Yeovil, and Russell Carpenter, of the College gave, and was believed to Bridgewater. An interesting discourse give, a sound and the requisite training was delivered by the Rev. Thomas both to the theologian and the general Hincks, of Exeter, which was listened student. He looked on Manchester as to by a numerous audience with marked a very suitable locality for the College. attention. The object of the preacher The more the question of the removal of appeared to be to shew the desirablethe Institution to London was discussed, ness of adapting the mode of advocating the more satisfactorily did it appear that our opinions to the wants of the age, it was for the interest both of Manchester and in so doing to lay aside the controCollege and University Hall that they versial and aggressive spirit for one of should be kept distinct.-The sentiments enlarged Christian philanthropy. The of Mr. Gaskell were very heartily second business of the Society was transacted ed by Mr. Randal HIBBERT, an old mem- after the service, W. Colfox, Esq., in ber of the Gee-Cross congregation. the chair. In the evening, the congre

In reply to the toast of the “Memory gation and visitors partook of tea in the of the Two Thousand,” the Rev. J. J. school-rooms; after which the party Tayler delivered an eloquent speech, of adjourned to the chapel, the Rev. J. L. which our exhausted space prevents our Short, of Bridport, in the chair. Suitgiving even a brief outline. The health able and animated addresses were deof“Mr. Whitehead and Prosperity to the livered by the Revds. S. Walker, of Widows' Fund,” was then given from Frenchay; E. Whitfield, of Ilminster; the chair. -Rev. John Owen, of Lydiate, T. Cooper, of Dorchester; R. Carpenter, acknowledged, in a very neat speech, the of Bridgewater ; T. Hincks, of Exeter; health of the Visitors. The valuable ser- Walker, of Yeovil; J. Smethurst, vices of Mr. Brooks, as Chairman, were of Moreton Hampstead ; and Mr. Wilthen very cordially acknowledged, and braham, from the Staffordshire Potthe Assembly dispersed.

teries ; after which a hymn was sung, On the following day, the ministers and the Chairman concluded the meetmet to transact the business of the ing with prayer.

MARRIAGES.

1848. May 14, at George's meeting, GEORGE, fifth son of James BUCKTON, Exeter, by Rev. Thomas Hincks, Mr. Esq., of Potter Newton, near Leeds, to ROBERT CRISPIN, of Crediton, to ELIZA- ELIZABETH ANNE, elder daughter of the BETH, fourth daughter of the late Mr. late William MARRIOTT, Esq., of PlumpThomas COOPER, of Exeter.

ton House, Alverthorpe, near Wake

field. May 29, at the Ancient chapel, Gee Cross, Hyde, Cheshire, by Rev. James Brooks, Mr. Thomas HIBBERT, of God- Portsmouth, by Rev. Henry Hawkes,

June 12, at the Unitarian chapel, ley, to Miss Eliza MARSH, of Hyde.

Mr. VINE to Miss HARRY, both of

Landport. May 30, at Hackney, by Rev. Joseph Hutton, LL.D., CHARLES, eldest son of the late John STEER, Esq., barrister-at- June 20, at the Great meeting, Leilaw, to Martha, eldest daughter of cester, by Rev. R. Brook Aspland, J. S. NETTLEFOLD, Esq., of Highgate. M.A., of Dukinfield, RICHARD KER

SHAW LUMB, Esq., of Savile Green, May 31, at the Westgate chapel, Halifax, to ÉLLEN, daughter of the late Wakefield, by Rev. Edward Higginson, Rev. Robert ASPLAND, of Hackney.

THE

CHRISTIAN REFORMER.

No. XLIV.]

AUGUST, 1848.

[Vol. IV.

VERACITY OF THE EVANGELISTS.-RULES OF JUDICIAL EVI.

DENCE IN THEIR APPLICATION TO THE GOSPELS. * Only a few pages of the work before us are set apart for its leading subject. But the scantiness of their number is compensated by the nature of their contents. Dr. Greenleaf's comparison of the evangelists with the rules of evidence administered in courts of justice, forms a welcome present to thinking readers, on both sides of the Atlantic. We hail its appearance in a second edition, revised and corrected by the writer: we hail any reprint of it in our country; and, deferring a notice of the London Publisher's advertisement, and indeed, of most of the volume, we shall at once enter on this treatise, dedicated by its author to the members of his own profession.

It should be premised that he fills the Dane Chair of Law in Harvard University, and has obtained far more than a national reputation in this faculty; his treatises on legal topicst being well known and highly valued among ourselves and on the continent of Europe.

Such a man brings rare and special qualifications to his task : such a man is eminently warranted in saying,

“If a close examination of the evidences of Christianity may be expected of one class of men more than another, it would seem incumbent on us, who make the law of evidence one of our familiar studies. Our profession leads us to explore the mazes of falsehood, to detect its artifices, to pierce its thickest veils, to follow and expose its sophistries, to compare the statements of different witnesses with severity, to discover truth and separate it from error. Our fellow-men are well aware of this; and probably they act upon this knowledge more generally, and with a more profound repose, than we are in the habit of considering. The influence, too, of the legal profession upon the community, is unquestionably great.”—Þ. 7.

These are sound remarks. The enlightened student and practitioner of the Law, is in a signally favourable position for weighing evidencenor least the evidence which results from testimony. His habits of mind and life, guard him against being imposed upon by mere appearances : they screen him, too, from constant and unreasonable doubts. The legal is not, as such, a sceptical profession. If individuals belonging to it have spurned the authority of religious principle, this has been the effect not so much of speculative disbelief and erroneous theories, as of those " cares of the world,” and of that thirst and “ deceitfulness of”

An Examination of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists, by the Rules of Evidence administered in Courts of Justice. With an Account of the Trial of Jesus. By Simon Greenleaf, LL.D. Second Edition. London. 1847.

† Among these is one “on the Law of Evidence." VOL. IV.

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