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district; they possessed little wealth ; ness and public spirit which were the they lived in those unpretending home becoming attributes of the British masteads which bore in that county the nufacturer. He offered to the congrename of " folds;" the roads were mise- gation his sincere congratulations and rably bad ;there was no busy manu- good wishes, and hoped they might all facturing population, and little oppor. have health and happiness to enjoy the tunity for the profitable sale of farm religious services of their noble chapel. produce. All honour, therefore, to the Connected with the toast he was about men who, under all these disadvantages, to propose, was an addition of great im140 years ago, erected that ancient cha- portance. Mr. Brooks had been the pel! Brighter days had now dawned minister of the Gee Cross congregation upon that district. The manufacturing for forty-two years. During that long system had arisen amongst them, and period he had been their useful and great and rapid had been its extension acceptable pastor; and he (the Chairand prosperity: Skill and industry had man) was warranted in saying that, as been exercised, art and science had years had rolled on, the attachment of been invited there; and greatly did it his people to him had increased year by redound to the credit of the people of year. Early in life Mr. Brooks shewed that district, that they had always been his attachment to the principles of free amongst the first to adopt the succes- inquiry and religious liberty, and, quitsive improvements invented by science. ting his first religious connections, had The Unitarians of the district had par- cast in his lot amongst the English taken largely of its prosperity. It was Presbyterians. Throughout his usemuch to their credit that they always ful life, he had shewn a consistent looked with reverence to what their attachment to the principles he had forefathers had done. Under the influ- early adopted. Amidst much applause, ence of that feeling, they had now done the Chairman concluded by proposing, an admirable work in erecting that “Prosperity to the Gee Cross Chapel, beautiful House of Prayer. He ex- and long life to the Rev. James Brooks." pressed his earnest hope that for cen- Rev. J. Brooks expressed his gratituries that building would stand, a tude to them, and for his congregation monument of the zeal and piety of the as well as himself thanked his friends Unitarians of Hyde of the present gene- for their presence and sympathy. He ration. Those who, like himself, were alluded to the farewell services which not members of the Gee Cross congrega- he and his flock had celebrated on the tion, felt that they owed a debt of gra- previous sabbath in the ancient chapel. titude to the Unitarians of Hyde. "He He alluded in highly complimentary well knew the value of their character. terms to the character of the Chairman, They had well sustained the upright- and stated that the ancestors of Mr.

Thornely were amongst the founders Up to a late period of the 18th cenof the chapel, their names appearing in tury, the roads of Lancashire and Che- the first trust-deed. In reference to the shire continued in a wretched state. wish for his long life, he had already had Pack-horses were almost the sole means his life prolonged to David's standard. of conveyance. In a note in the “Nor. He had been permitted by a gracious ris Papers,” recently published by the Providence to enjoy a large share of Chetham Society, it is stated that “the happiness. The greatest part of his life son of one of the principal merchants had been spent in the midst of that in Liverpool made his journey to and congregation, in pleasing intercourse from Philip Holland's celebrated school with young and old. He dwelt forci. at Bolton in the care of a carrier, and bly on the gratification to their pastor on a pack-horse." Manchester was one afforded by the zeal of the young men of the last places in the kingdom where of his flock. In respect to the new chagangs of pack-horses were used. In pel, they had spared neither cost nor the year 1764, a flying coach was adver- labour. The course pursued by them tised to run between Manchester and had afforded the purest satisfaction to London, and promised, in the follow- their fathers, who rejoiced to see that ing words, that, “however incredible the principles which they themselves vait may appear, this coach will actually lued were honoured by their children. (barring accidents) arrive in London The CHAIRMAN then, in a very im. in four days and a half after leaving pressive manner, spoke as follows :Manchester !” The distance is now The sentiment I am about to propose, daily accomplished in less than six is one which you will receive in perfect hours.--Ed. C. R.

silence. It expresses a tribute to the

VOL. IV.

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memory of a valued but departed friend. labours of Nonconformity. And in The late Mr. Thomas Ashton was one fighting their own battles, the Nonconof the most able and public - spirited formists were fighting also the battles men that this neighbourhood ever pro- of the world. He believed the cause duced. I had the honour of his ac- of Nonconformity to be no small or quaintance during the greater part of petty cause. It was as glorious a cause, my life. I met him year after year in and would be as triumphant, as man London, where he had opportunities was ever yet engaged in. It is true of promoting by his counsels the prin- that only one half of the victory had ciples of good government, free trade been achieved. They had had a reand religious liberty. Whatever Ad- markable series of successes in the strife ministration was in power, the remarks for civil equality. Each year, and espeof Mr. Ashton were received with re- cially the last wonderful twenty years, spect, as the suggestions of a wise and had shewn the growth of such princiupright man. I know, from conversa- ples. They had triumphed because tions which I held with him, how de- they were true; because men stuck to sirous he was that a new and suitable them; and what they could not accomchapel should be here erected; and if plish themselves, they handed down it had pleased Providence to spare his to their children, so that they, at the end life, I cannot doubt we should have this of two centuries, were at last landed in day seen his intelligent and benevolent the arms of victory. Now almost every countenance amongst us. Sure I am post of honour in the United Kingdom he would have been one of the happiest is open to Nonconformists as well as to men assembled to-day to celebrate the the proudest Churchman in the land. opening. I give you, " The memory of And the great cause of the freedom of the late Mr. Thomas Ashton."

mankind has been progressing in an The company immediately rose, and equal ratio. But he could not say that received the sentiment in perfect silence. he saw an equal advance in ecclesias

Mr. A. W. THORNELY, the chapel- tical restoration. When he looked at warden, next proposed, “The health Magna Charta, he saw a great comof Rev. Charles Wicksteed, who had mencement made, and now a great adthat day given them the benefit of his vance : but when he looked at the able and eloquent services.”

Articles of the Church of England, he Mr. WICKSTEED, after thanking them saw no similar progress. Those Articles for the proofs of their good-will, said are still obligatory. Their ancestors he had peculiar interest in being there objected to them, and they, in the proto-day, because at Leeds they were en- gress of free inquiry, found themselves gaged in the same work of demolition objecting to still more. Why, then, and restoration which at Gee Cross was had not they advanced in religious as now brought to a termination. His far as in civil liberty? It is because chapel had the advantage, if it were Convocation has never, or only very one, of being 40 years the older. It rarely met: because its members have was the chapel first built in the North not been elected by the free voice of of England, was founded in 1672, in the people: because religious questions the reign of Charles II., and had there. have not met in that assembly with fore stood nearly 180 years. He had full and fair debate. While a feeling also the pleasure of informing them of objection to the Articles and Liturgy that his flock had confided the task of of the Church had daily increased, not erecting their new chapel to the same a letter of those Articles, not an iota skilful and learned hands as had housed of that Liturgy, has been altered or them that day. And if he were to expunged. And not only among themjudge of the success of their attempt selves, but in the bosom of the Church by the success which had characterized itself, did these feelings prevail. There theirs at Gee Cross, he was sure his is even there a strong sympathy with Leeds friends would have reason to many of our views, and an earnest defelicitate themselves on the result. It sire for rational reformation. Now if struck him, in looking back to the old they turned their backs upon this strugtimes so often spoken of that day, that gle, handed down to them by their they had done only half the task which forefathers, they would deserve to be their forefathers undertook. The re- called cowards and cravens. The mode form in our civil relations has been of their warfare, indeed, must be enalmost thoroughly accomplished: every tirely different. They ought to take a generation has witnessed some huge quiet but firm stand against the great stride of success attendant upon the Ecclesiastical Establishment, and patiently remain till they were crowned gation, and the health of their Miniswith victory. They must imitate, then, ter, Mr. Aspland.” the spirit, and not the peculiar thoughts Mr. ASPLAND gave, in reply, some and opinions, of those who went before interesting particulars of the early them. That spirit prompted them to history, which he believed was comstrive against every thing of which mon to both of the two congregations, their consciences did not approve; to and of their parallel history afteruphold every thing which they believed wards. He rejoiced that the parallel to be truth, till the world acknowledged was completed that day by the new it. If they went in that spirit, they chapel at Gee Cross. He frankly adwould accomplish their mission as a mitted that, in beauty of design and religious body. They wished the over- the exquisite finish of the decorations, throw of no church; but they must go the Gee Cross chapel far surpassed its on till all were purified.

neighbour at Dukinfield. Dukinfield Mr. WICKSTEED proposed the health began the work of renovation. In folof the Lady Donors," which was re- lowing, Gee Cross improved upon the ceived with enthusiasm by the members example. It had profited by and avoidof the congregation.

ed the errors of its neighbours. He Dr. Beard proposed, in a very able trusted that the friendly intercourse speech, “ The Members of Parliament between the two congregations and who supported the Dissenters' Chapels their ministers which had now existed Act.” He read the appropriate and nearly a century and a half, would conchaste inscription carved within their tinue unabated, and would strengthen chapel. They had done well to con- both societies in every thing that was nect the building of their chapel with good. that act of public justice. While the In reply to the toast of “The Guests," tenure of their religious property was Rev. H. H. PIPER said he wished it insecure or disputed, renovation and were possible to carry to other congreimprovement were not likely to be car- gations what he had that day seen with ried on. The erection of such a build- his eyes and heard with his ears, to ining as that before them was a good il- spirit them to make similar exertions. lustration of the necessity and wisdom Mr. Thomas Ashton acknowledged of the Dissenters' Chapels Act. He he toast of “The Building Commitalluded to the services of Mr. Mark tee,” and proposed “The Architects." Philips and Mr. Thos. Thornely in car- The toast was acknowledged by Mr. rying this important measure through BOWMAN. The services of Mr. Orlando Parliament.

Oldham, in superintending the buildThe CHAIRMAN said, he looked back ing, were most complimentarily spoken with great interest on the proceedings to, and his health drunk. “'he Maconnected with that measure. It had gistrates of the County was acknowbeen properly regarded by all the emi. ledged by Mr. Howard and Mr. Sanent men of both Houses of Parliament MUEL ASHTON. as a question of religious liberty. He Mr. SAMUEL HIBBERT proposed the was glad that the Debates on the Dissent- grateful acknowledgments of the comers' Chapels Bill had been collected and pany to the Chairman. printed in a volume. They should be Mr. THORNELY, in acknowledging the in the hands of every friend of reli- toast, spoke nearly as follows :-It was gious liberty. The debate on the sub- always my wish to attend the opening ject in the House of Commons called of this chapel, but I had no expectation up all the highest talent of the House. of filling the situation I now hold; and Occupying only one night, it was not for the honour thus conferred on me, as was frequently the case with “ad- as well as for your having drunk my journed debates," diluted by inferior health, I return you my sincere acspeeches. It was, in reality, the best knowledgments. I cannot but take a debate he had ever heard. He re- great interest in the proceedings of this minded them, in conclusion, of the im- day, seeing that at a very early age, portant services, in preparing the way when I was about nine years old, which for the Dissenters' Chapels Bill, of the is more than half a century ago, I was late Mr. George William Wood, and placed at school with the Rev. Bristowe eulogized Mr. E. W. Field for his in- Cooper, the minister of Hyde chapel. defatigable services.

Besides the public services of Mr. CooRev. JAMES BROoks proposed, in a per, I have heard from that pulpit his very kind and genial manner, their brother, Mr. William Cooper, of Gorton; neighbours, "The Dukinfield Congre- the Rev. Dr. Barnes, of Manchester; Mr. Harrison, of Manchester, whose purchase the land on which the chapel beautiful tune of “Warrington" we was erected, and a portion adjoining it. sung this morning; and also of my The chapel, built in the early part of late esteemed minister and friend, the the last century, was in a very dilapiRev. Joseph Smith, of Liverpool, who dated state, but has been thoroughly was born at Tetlow Fold. In after life repaired, and rendered suitable for the I went to America, and there I heard purposes both of a school and of a place that distinguished man, Dr. Channing, of worship; a house has been built for the Rev. Dr. Freeman, Dr. Greenwood, the residence of a master, and a garden, Mr. Ware, Mr. Furness, and others. 80 essential in a country situation, atStill my early impressions, so long ago tached to it. These objects have been received at Hyde chapel, have never effected by an outlay of nearly four been effaced, and I could not but feel hundred pounds, and the entire sum the greatest interest in the opening of has been raised by the liberal contrithe new chapel. There is one subject butions of the members of the Knutswhich I do not address to any one ford congregation. The school was society of Unitarians, and I would not opened at the beginning of the year, allude to it on the present occasion if and its success equals the reasonable I had not some few years ago introduced expectations of its promoters. In a it at a meeting of the Unitarian Asso- neighbourhood so completely agricul. ciation, held at Essex Street, in London. tural as Allostock is, to raise a numeI allude to the very inadequate pecu- rous school will be a work of time and niary support which we give to our earnest perseverance. The managers ministers. I scarcely think there is a of the school think themselves fortucongregation in the kingdom which, if nate in having obtained the aid of Mr. they were to revise their list of annual and Miss Beil as instructors of the contributions, would not be of opinion children. The school is supported by that they ought to be increased. We subscriptions and by the payments of may well be proud of our ministers,– the scholars, and in all probability will of their high character, and their great be productive of much good in the attainments as scholars; but I entertain neighbourhood. the strongest feelings that they are not recompensed as they ought to be, and that we are not holding out the encou- Religious Objections to the use of Chloragement that should be held out to

roform. our young men to enter upon the mi- It would be amusing, were it not nistry. I have again only to thank you humiliating to our reason, to observe for all your kindness. From the place the opposition which religious fanatiwhere I now stand I witness a sight I cism attempts to throw in the way of shall never behold again. I see at the knowledge and improvement. One of same time the ancient chapel of Hyde, the most recent manifestations of this built 140 years ago, and that elegant foolish and bad spirit has been in Scotstructure that has been opened this land, where a religious objection has day, I take my leave with my best been started against the use of anæswishes for your continued prosperity. thetic agents in midwifery and surgery.

The company then broke up, but The objection rests on the words of the many of the guests remained in the primæval curse recorded in Gen. viii. neighbourhood, and joined a large party, 16, In sorrow thou shalt bring forth chil. asseinbled in honour of the great event dren, &c. It is alleged that the insen. of the day, in the beautiful gardens and sibility to pain in child-bearing, occamansion at Oaklands, in Godley, be- sioned by chloroform, is an unjustifiable longing to Samuel Ashton, Esq., Jun. attempt to interfere with God's will,

On the following Sunday, the reli- Dr. J. Y. Simpson, of Edinburgh, has gious services were conducted by Dr. published an "Answer" to this objecBeard and Mr. Piper, and collections tion in an able and very entertaining made, amounting in all to £105. pamphlet, which has had a very wide

circulation. He meets the objector on Allostock Chapel School, Cheshire.

the interpretation of Gen. ii. 14-19,

and shews that his reasoning would During the last year an effort has interdict the clearing of the ground of been made to establish a day-school “thorns and thistles," the springing up for boys and girls in connection with of which is one part of the primæval the Allostock chapel. To do this in an punishment. He brings forward a stagadequate manner, it was necessary to gering precedent for the use of narcotics. “Those that urge, on a kind of religious debarring from the communion of the ground, that an artificial or anæsthetic Lord's Supper those members of his state of unconsciousness should not be flock who thus irreverently used the induced merely to save frail humanity •Devil's wind' (as it was termed). And from the miseries and tortures of bodily such sentences were, I believe, not unpain, forget that we have the greatest common almost within the memory of of all examples set before us for follow- some aged members of the present ing out this very principle of practice. generation. Sir Walter Scott, in his I allude to that most singular description Old Mortality, introduces honest Mause of the preliminaries and details of the Headrigg as charging the Lady Marfirst surgical operation ever performed on garet Bellenden and the authorities of man, which is contained in Genesis ii. 21: Tillietudlem with abetting this repre* And the Lord God caused a deep hensible practice. And since your sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; leddyship is pleased to speak o' parting and he took one of his ribs, and closed wi' us, I am free to tell you a piece o up the flesh instead thereof." "In this my mind in another article. Your remarkable verse,” Dr. Simpson adds, leddyship and the steward hae been " the whole process of a surgical ope- pleased to propose that my son Cuddie ration is briefly detailed. But the pas- suld work in the barn wi' a new-fansage is principally striking, as affording gled machine for dighting the corn frae evidence of our Creator himself using the chaff, thus impiously

thwarting the means to save poor human nature from will of Divine Providence, by raising the unnecessary endurance of physical wind for your leddyship's ain particular pain." Dr. S. supports his interpreta- use of human art, instead of soliciting tion by a reference to the high authority it by prayer, or waiting patiently for of Calvin.

whatever dispensation of wind ProviThere is throughout the pamphlet dence was pleased to send upon the considerable sly humour. He shews sheeling hill.' that the same objections have been It is evident that the theology of brought against other medical agents Mause Headrigg is not yet driven from which are now regarded as innocent Scotland. When such a use is made and useful. It was made against in- of the records of revelation, it is not oculation, which was denounced as "a strange that, under the surface of condiabolical operation;" it was made formity to the prevalent Calvinism, against vaccination, which was de- there should be a large amount of nounced as a “bold defiance” to hea- infidelity. ven and the will of God. In a note, there is an amusing exposé of Scottish fanaticism, both past and present.

Kent General Baptist Association. “Formerly among my countrymen, The annual meeting of this Associamost agricultural operations were per- tion took place at Dover, on Tuesday, formed, as commanded in the primæval July 11. On the evening previous, the curse, by personal exertion and the usual religious service was held. Revds.

sweat of the face.' Corn, in this way, T. B. W. Briggs and J. C. Means introwas winnowed from the chaff by tossing duced the service, and Rev. W. H. Black, it repeatedly up into the air, upon broad pastor of the Seventh-day Baptist church, shovels, in order that any accidental Mill Yard, London, delivered a valuable currents which were present might carry discourse from 2 Thessalonians v. 19-off the lighter part. “At last, however, 21. The business of the Association about a century ago, 'fanners,' or ma- commenced at nine o'clock on Tues. chinery made for the production of day morning, when the letters from the artificial currents to effect the same churches were read and the business of purpose, were invented and introduced the Association transacted. Divine ser. into different parts of the country. vice commenced at eleven o'clock. Rev. Some of the more rigid sects of Dis- T. B. W. Briggs read the Scriptures and senters loudly declaimed against the gave out the hymns; Rev. Silas Henn, employment of any such machinery. of Tipton, offered up prayer; and Rev. Winds (they argued) were raised by J. A. Briggs, of Bessel's Green, SecreGod alone, and it was irreligious in tary of the Association, delivered a ser. man to attempt to raise wind for the mon from Habakkuk iii. 2, on the causes aforesaid purpose for himself and by of our decline,- which, at the urgent efforts of his own.' Mr. Gilpillan, the request of the messengers, elders and well-known Scottish poet, has furnished representatives of the General Baptist me with evidence of one clergyman churches then present and of other

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