Evolution by Gene Duplication
Springer Science & Business Media, 11 dec. 2013 - 160 pagina's
It is said that "necessity is the mother of invention". To be sure, wheels and pulleys were invented out of necessity by the tenacious minds of upright citi zens. Looking at the history of mankind, however, one has to add that "Ieisure is the mother of cultural improvement". Man's creative genius flourished only when his mind, freed from the worry of daily toils, was permitted to entertain apparently useless thoughts. In the same manner, one might say with regard to evolution that "natural selection mere(y tnodifted, while redundanry created". Natural selection has been extremely effective in policing alleHe mutations which arise in already existing gene loci. Because of natural selection, organisms have been able to adapt to changing environments, and by adaptive radiation many new species were created from a common ancestral form. Y et, being an effective policeman, natural selection is extremely conservative by nature. Had evolution been entirely dependent upon natural selection, from a bacterium only numerous forms of bacteria would have emerged. The creation of metazoans, vertebrates and finally mammals from unicellular organisms would have been quite impos sible, for such big leaps in evolution required the creation of new gene loci with previously nonexistent functions. Only the cistron which became redun dant was able to escape from the relentless pressure of natural selection, and by escaping, it accumulated formerly forbidden mutations to emerge as a new gene locus.
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Chromosomes of Eukaryotes
The Conservative Nature of Chromosomal Evolution
The Spontaneous Mutation Rate
The Rate of Evolution and the Importance of Isolation
Duplication of Regulatory Genes and Receptors
Overige edities - Alles weergeven
acrocentrics active alleles amino acid amino acid sequence amphibians ancestor anticodon appears autosomes Barbus base pair base sequence Biol birds changes Chapter chromatids chromosome cistron codon coli contains dehydrogenase deletion diploid duplicated gene loci enzyme fish forbidden mutations function gene duplication gene product genetic genome size H-chains haploid hemoglobin heterozygote histidine histones homologous homozygote homozygous horse hybrids immunoglobulin karyotype linkage lungfish mammalian mechanism meiosis messenger RNA metacentric million years ago molecules mouse mutation rate natural selection nucleic acid nucleolar organizer occurred OHNO peptide chain placental mammals polymorphism polypeptide polypeptide chain polyploid primitive Proc process of speciation produced protein redundancy region regulatory gene reptiles ribosomal RNA Robertsonian fusions separate gene loci single gene locus specified Spring Harbor Symposia structural cistron structural genes subunits synthesis tandem duplication tetraploid tetraploid species tolerable mutations transfer RNA trypsinogen tyrosine unequal crossing-over unequal exchange