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THIRD SERIES. No. 1-VOL. IV.]
BALTIMORE, MARCH 5,
The matter for this day's REGISTER has been held in a state of suspense, by the prospect of obtaining a copy of the inaugural address of the new president: it was received by express. The editors of the "American" politely supplied us with a copy, and we have the pleasure to lay it before our readers. See page 8.
and dispassionate review of certain late political
In our next paper we expect to give a list of all the acts passed at the late session of congress, and close our journal of its proceedings. A number of important papers, &c. however, will thereafter remain for publication.
A NEW REPUBLIC! We give a detailed account of the late final proceedings in Peru, to the exclusion of some domestic articles, in a belief that the intelliheart of every friend of liberty and the rights of man. gence from that interesting country will warm the The long continued and desolating war for the emancipation of South America, is at an end-and the people of four republics, Colombia, Peru, Chili and
Mr. Kremer has published a long address to his constituents, in support of his charges against Mr. Clay; which has been followed by a statement made by Mr. Brent, of Louisiana, of a conversation which Buenos Ayres, have nothing now to do, but to prohe had with Mr. K. (while the matter of the "card" ceed seriously to work to reduce into order and conof the last named was before the house of represen-solidate the principles which they have maintained tatives), wherein Mr. K. declared "that he never in- by the sword. Colombia has well performed the part tended to charge Mr. Clay with corruption or dis- of an elder sister; and her noble chief, BOLIVAR, by honor," &c. This conversation was also heard by his disinterestedness and valor, may well be said to Mr. Little, of Maryland, and Mr. Digges, a citizen of have "covered himself with glory." May he perseWashington, who have confirmed it. Having publish- vere-and, at the close of his useful life, like our own ed the "card" and all the other articles belonging to WASHINGTON, have the pleasure to behold the rich this unpleasant affair, we feel called upon to give Mr. fruit which the tree of liberty bears, in the increas Kremer's address and the opposing statement, though ed and increasing happiness of his fellow-men! sincerely regretting what appears to us the necessity of doing so; and with an apprehension also, that further publications on the same subject may take up more room than it will be agreeable to our readers to have occupied with it. But the uniform practice observed in the management of this work must be maintained -which is, that, in all matters of controversy, both sides shall be treated impartially, whatever our own opinion of the case may be.
MEDALS. On Saturday, last, in the presence of a number of gentlemen assembled for the occasion, the president of the United States presented the residue of the medals voted to certain officers, in testimony of the sense which the nation entertained of their services in the late war. The ceremony was interesting, thereto, shall be preserved, as belonging to the histoand the several addresses, with the replies given ry of our country. The medals presented were
To major generals Brown, Scott and Macomb; to general Jessup, for major general Harrison; to Mr. Houston, of Tennessee, for major general Gaines; to Mr. Marvin, of New York, for major general Porter; to Mr. Webster, of Massachusetts, for brig. general Miller. General Gaines was prevented from attending by sickness. The others that were absent were not expected to have been present.
THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Judging by the late London papers, the messages of our president have become quite as interesting to the British people as
The present state of our country is surely one on which the friend of man, in every clime, may congratulate himself. We have our own domestic preferences and prejudices, and differences of opinion about men and things-but still the system goes on and dispenses blessings to all the people of this widely extended republic, whether resident near the snowcapt mountains of the north, or breathing the perfumed air of the orange groves of the south-whether bordering on the broad Atlantic, or seated upon the mighty rivers of the west; which, like arteries in the human body, give life and spirit to the extremes of the land. There are now four citizens living who have the speeches of their king are to us. This is certainly filled the presidential office, and successively wield- a great deal gained, when we recollect it has been ed all the patronage and power of that most honora- proudly intimated that America was seldom thought ble place, neither of whom has any more pretension of in England, except at Liverpool! And besides, the to influence, or party to support him if he aimed at manner in which Mr. Monroe's message, on opening possessing it, than other eminent citizens enjoy. In the late session of congress, is spoken of, is kind, laying down the presidency they marched directly liberal and manly. Take the following brief extracts into the rank of citizens, and we have no jealousy of from two long articles which appear in the papers them. Their advice will always be respected as that named. of venerable fathers should be; but we are without apprehension of their power to do evil to the republic, even if we could believe them disposed to sully the reputation which they have gained. How much matzer for reflection is there in the facts here presented -in the occurrences that lately took place in the election of a new president-in the peace and prosperity of the people at large-in the march of mind and progress of improvement-in short, in the general triumph of our institutions over the fears of their friends and the predictions of their enemies!
The Times says "It is not merely as the last message which Mr. Monroe will ever communicate in his character of president, that we consider this an interesting production. To a lover of humanity and of public liberty, it possesses the valuable qualification of describing an amount of national prosperity, enjoyed by a people who speak our language and are cemented to Englishmen by a common blood and lineage, superior to all that has been recorded of any president indulges a spirit of uniform and impartial community on earth. Towards foreign states, the It is my intention to speak of these things at con- good will. Aloof from the anxieties and heart-burnsiderable length, in which shall be embraced a coolings of the old world, he disclaims all share in those
systems of policy which engage, combine, or distract] We most heartily greet the good feelings ma the European powers. The balance of power in Eu-nifested in the preceding extracts, and will gladly rerope is declared to be a thing indifferent to America. ciprocate them. Circumstances have placed the UnitThe growth of the new republics, near neighbors to ed States and Great Britain in many and severe points the United States, the sympathy between their re- of opposition, and old prejudices are not easily respective institutions, are dwelt upon with natural moved: and, if there have been too strong attachments exultation by Mr. Monroe; and we are happy to see, in some of our people, whereby the antipathies of he reiterates the maxim that no enemy from Europe others were too strongly excited, it is equally cer ought to be permitted by the United States, to molest tain that we have not been treated by Englishmen or disturb the independence of South America with with that degree of respect which our rank among impunity. It is announced as a reasonable expecta- the nations of the earth, and our condition as the best tion, that Portugal will shortly recognize the sove- customer that they had, have undoubtedly deserved. reignty of Brazil. England is spoken of in terms of It is no matter what has brought about this apparent cordial respect and amity. The abolition of the slave change-it is sufficient that it has taken place, and trade is pronounced to be an object "near the heart" we are glad of it. "England with all her faults," of both nations." now is the citadel of liberty in Europe-the only power competent to obstruct the march of barbarism in the old world, as devised by the "holy alliance;" and she acknowledges that which they all rejectthe right of revolt in an oppressed people. See the subsequent article.
It commends him also, for the manner in which he spoke of Lafayette-and, after noticing the reception of the general by congress, adds-"Who does not envy Lafayette's feelings, and still more the feelings of those who did him this homage? Upon the whole, the speech of the American president would repay the most studied and profound attention; and, as we have already hinted, might be taken as a useful model for great personages in other parts of the world, when they profess to enlighten their subjects by a royal view of the national interests and concerns."
THE SOUTHERN REPUBLICS. A London paper of the 4th January says-"The following is the substance of the communication made by Mr. Canning to the foreign ambassadors: "That, in consequence of the repeated failures of the application of his majesty's government to the court of Spain, relative to the recognition of the independent states of South America, his majesty's servants have come to the determination to send charge d'affaires to the states of Colombia, Mexico, and Buenos Ayres, and to enter into treaties of commerce with those respective states, on the basis of a recognition of their independence."
The Public Ledger speaks of the message even more warmly, and remarks-"It is, as usual, a glowing picture, though as free from exaggeration as possible, of the influence which good institutions, with a wise government, have upon the lot of a people. Their good effects are so perceptible in the present instance, that they offer a most triumphant refutation of the miserable sophistries which issue occasionally from the imperial presses of Vienna and St. Petersburgh. If we compare the situation of the Americans, as it is described in the simple language of their president's message, with that of the subjects of their imperial majesties, how the contrast strikes us; whilst it confirms those political predilections which we share common with all freemen. In one country, we see every thing having a tendency to make man what his Creator intended him to be, lending itself to this grand social consummation-universal education cherished; industry encouraged; person and property enjoying the most perfect protection; and the population increasing with a rapidity to which we can find no pais thus given to her colonies."
rallel, and, what is extraordinary, without the vice or [It is stated in the Paris papers, that the king of the misery with which it is too often accompanied Netherlands will follow the lead of Great Britain, in other countries. We may use this language now, acknowledging the independence of the South Amespeaking of the Americans, without hurting the pre-rican republics.] judices or the pride of a single Englishman; for their prosperity, instead of proving a source of alarm to FRANCE AND COLOMBIA. A letter from St. Barthous, has materially contributed to our own; whilst lomew's, dated the 8th February, received at New their emulation in the arts which we cultivate in com-York, says "I presume that you have heard that the mon, has served only to call forth the energies of French government has made a demand on the Veneour national character." zuelean government at Puerto Cabello, for property captured and carried into that port, and condemned under their flag, and that the said place is declared to be in a state of blockade, (until it is given up), by a frigate, two brigs and a schooner. A 74 is waiting the result at St. Pierre's, Martinique, ready to go, in case the demand shall not be complied with, and detain all Colombian property until full satisfaction is obtained. We have a Colombian privateer which arrived here on the 6th instant, from Laguira, and brings news for your government. I understand they permit neutral vessels to come cut, but none to go in."
The "Courier" highly approves of those proceedings of the British cabinet, and says that they have been officially communicated "to all our allies, through our ambassadors and ministers at their respective courts."
The French papers continue to complain of the British act with respect to South America. The Etoile says, "the principles of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, as well as France, are at variance with what Britain has done. If her object be commerce, France never will consent that she stipulate for exclusive privileges. Considered in a political point, England has committed a dangerous act by the example which
"Their foreign policy, as it regards Europe, consists, according to the message, in cultivating peace and friendship alike with all nations, and in carefully abstaining from all interference in their disputes. But this abstinence does not extend to transactions, where European and American interests are mingled; and here the message takes a lofty, though not an assuming tone. It states distinctly, that any attempt to interpose by force in the affairs of the new states of the American continent, will be regarded as hostile to the interests of the United States. This important declaration is made without the slightest air of bravado, but it will tell better on this account; and the simple and almost indirect manner in which it is made will since from Norfolk, for Liberia, the seat of the encourage no European power to slight it. In speak- African colony. She had on board sixty-seven emiing of the relations with those new states, the mes-grants, several of whom had been emancipated by sage contains no novelty, except a hope that it ex- their masters, that, in the land of their ancestors, they presses that Portugal will speedily recognize the in- might assist in the building up of a nation of free dependence of Brazil." blacks. We heartily wish success to this project, and,
AFRICA. The brig Hunter sailed about a month
if the happiness of the people who proceed thither is advanced, it cannot fail to do good, and must be grateful to every feeling mind: yet, we are apprehensive that it cannot have any sensible effect as to an accomplishment of the great thing aimed at a reduction of the colored population in the United States.
THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, of the state of Pennsylvania, has offered a long list of handsome premiums, for the best specimens of no less than eighty-two different branches of manufactures!-to be exhibited at Philadelphia in October next. This valuable society has already been exceedingly useful in exciting a generous spirit of emulation, and, undoubtedly, acquires strength as it goes on.
CREEK INDIANS. Private letters received at Washington, from Georgia, state that the commissioners of the United States have succeeded in making a treaty with the Creek Indians, by which they have agreed to cede and relinquish the title to the whole of their .lands within the limits of the state of Georgia.
COTTON begins to be cultivated in considerable quantities in Virginia. It is stated that some planters, not far from Richmond, appropriate from 20 to 100 acres of land annually to the growth of this staple. When the history of this valuable plant, in our country, is recollected, we ought not to be surprised if it shall be advantageously raised much farther north.
FLORIDA. A census of Florida has been ordered by the territorial government. The St. Augustine paper says, that such has been the recent influx of population, that it will be found that Florida is entitled to claim admission as one of the states.
PASSENGERS. A statement is annually laid before congress, by the secretary of state, (says the National Journal), showing the number of passengers that have arrived in the United States, from. all foreign countries, during the preceding year. This statement is made up from the returns of collectors of the customs, and exhibits, not only the rumber of the passengers, but also the age, sex and occupation of each, if known.
From the report, submitted on Monday, it appears that the whole number, (including American citiMARYLAND. The legislature of this state adjourn-zens), that arrived in the United States, during the ed on Saturday last. The "Jew bill," as it is called-year ending on the 30th of September last, amounted or a bill to alter the constitution so as to relieve per- to 9,560, viz: sons from political disqualifications on account of their religious opinions, has again passed both branches of the legislature-in the house of delegates by a vote of 26 to 25; only 51 out of 80 members being present. Before it is effective it must be passed by the next succeeding legislature. A law abolishing the imprisonment of females for debt has also passed, as well as a supplement to the usury law in favor of bona fide holders of negotiable securities, where those securities have been tainted with usury in their inception.
CANADA. The population of Upper Canada, amounts to 151,097 souls. The excess of males over females is 6,381.
present, there being upwards of 250 sail, nearly all of which are loading, or engaged to take cargoes to the numerous ports in the world."
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE U. STATES. From the synodical and presbyterial reports presented to the general assembly at their last session, it appears that there are under the care of the assembly, 13 synods, 77 presbyteries, 1,979 congregations, 1,027 ministers. The number of vacant congregations is 709; licentiates 173; candidates 195. The number of communicants added during the past year is 10,431, and the whole number of communicants 114,955. The number of adult baptisms during the year has been 2,120, and of infant baptisms 15,942. The amount of collections for missions $6,995; for commissioners' fund $2,692; for the theological seminary, $1,465; for presbyterial fund, $370, and for education fund, 7,938 dollars. As the reports are made only once in four years, we shall have no further returns till the year 1828.
1st quarter, 1823, 1,391 281
Males. Females. Age and sex, Total.
NEW-ORLEANS. Extract from a letter dated Jan.
19-"At present this place is all business and bustle,
"Our port exhibits a grand display of vessels at
Total 6,222 1,526
1,812 9.560 [Of the preceding it is probable that not more than 5,000 persons came under the class of emigrants. If to these be added 1,000 more, who have come to the United States, by way of the Canadas, we have about the whole amount gained by emigration for the last year: during which, it may be calculated, that we have lost at least 3,000, by removals to various parts of the world, and on account of the wandering habits of seamen. The real gain, by emigration, is a small matter compared with the natural increase of the population of the United States-Ed. Reg.]
COTTON. From a letter from a mercantile house at Havre, we gather the following particulars as to the importation of cotton, for the years 1822, 1923
1822. bales, 35,468 37,475
1823. 1824. 32,968 35,39
in each year.
15,098 940 15,027
7,548 1,909 1,920
12,652 17,944 13,921
LIVERPOOL. A late paper, published in this town, says-The number of vessels reported at our custom house, for the last six months, is 5,260, viz:
From foreign ports, 2,054)
PHILANTHROPIC. It will be seen by the subjoined correspondence, which a friend has transmitted to us from Gibraltar, that the American naval commander in the Mediterranean, the worthy commodore Creighton, made a humane attempt last autumn, to rescue some of the Spanish patriots from the fangs of their oppressors. Though the Spanish general O'Donnell, was not then under the necessity of shedding blood, he was not long afterwards employed in that work by to-orders from the court. Our correspondent writes thus, under date of Gibraltar, December 15th, 1824. [Nat. Gaz. "There are many of these unfortunate beings, the Spanish constitutionalists, in this bay. Driven from Spain and not being admitted to land in Gibraltar, they are compelled to remain on board of small ves
in the bay, wherein they subsist chiefly by the bounty of strangers and the fish they catch alongside. Among them are colonels and various officers of distinction, with their families, without means to go to any other country. This spectacle would harrow almost any heart."
In the half year ending, June 24th, 1824. Foreign, 4,151; Ireland, 2,200; coasters, 3,650; tal, 1,000 vessels. Tons, 1,180,917.
NEW STEAM ENGINE. The Newport Mercury states an experiment has just been made in crossing Bristol ferry, with a steam engine without a boiler, invented by Mr. John Babcock, of Portsmouth, Rhodesels Island. The experiment was completely successful, and we, (says the Providence Journal), shall be much gratified if its practical utility can be completely established. Gentlemen, however, in whose knowledge of mechanical principles we have much confidence, express doubts of the success of this invention. The following is the description of the engine:
"U. S. SHIP CYANE, Gibraltar Bay, Oct. 25, 1824. "YOUR EXCELLENCY-I have heard with deep concern, that a number of Spanish subjects are to be shot to death to-morrow, at Algeziras, for having committed an offence against the laws of Spain, the justice of which punishment, I will not presume to call in question. Should it however be in your excellency's power to pardon these unfortunate and deluded men, may I ask, in the name of humanity, that this act of clemency may be extended towards
"The substitute for a boiler, of a ten horse power engine, consists of two sections of cast iron tubes, one inch thick, each 16 fect in length, in lengths of 34 feet, and averaging 1 inch bore, and containing about 5 gallons, placed horizontally in a small furnace, S by 41 feet and 3 feet high; the end of one tube enters into the top of a cylinder 64 inches in diameter; the end of the other enters into the bottom; the other ends go out on opposite sides of the fur-them, and whether the examples already made, will Mace, and to each is attached a small forcing pump, not answer the ends of justice?-But, if your excelone inch in diameter, and they are alternately work-lency cannot pardon, may I hope that you will posted by gearing attached to the cross head-the cylin- pone the execution of their dreadful sentence, until I der is also enclosed in the furnace, and the length of can write to the minister of the United States, at the strokes of the piston is 2 feet 2 inches-the mo- Madrid, that he may intercede with his most Cathotion is communicated by shackle-bars, in the usual lie majesty, in behalf of these miserable men. Spare way, and there is no variation from the common con- them, I beseech your excellency, and stop the arteries struction of a high-pressure engine-to set it in mo- of Spanish blood, which has already been so abuntion, a fire is made in the furnace with a few sticks of dantly shed, and let Spain repose with her children, small wood, or a bushel of coal, and when the tubes but not destroy them. I appeal to your excellency are heated, only three cubic inches of water is inject-with confidence, having heard much of your exceled from the forcing pump upon the hot iron, and is lency's mild and excellent character. instantly converted into steam; a valve, at the same time, being open in the cylinder, it forces down the piston; the other pump then forces the same quantity into the tube, another valve is opened, and the piston ascends, and it continues to operate with unabated vigor, as long as it is supplied with water-the«To number of strokes made by the piston, in a minute, is about 40, while propelling the boat; and the quantity of water then used, is only a gallon in 4 minutes -it is necessary that it should be fresh water, as the tubes are so small that they get clogged by either salt or sediment; but this is no objection, as, by adding a condenser, nearly the whole can be retained, and weed to you at Gibraltar, is without foundation, and that "I hasten to inform you, sir, that such news, reportbelieve it will be found to combine the four requi-I am not for the present, under the unpleasant necessites, cheapness, simplicity, strength and utility of a perfect machine. The whole space occupied by it sity of shedding human blood, by the authority of the does not exceed that of a small tea-table, and the laws. But should I unfortunately be obliged to rewer may be indefinitely enlarged, without much in-sort, again, to such a repugnant and dreadful step, increase the size; and, with few alterations, it can be tended to repress atrocious crimes, I have no authoeasily rity to stop or suspend the execution of the sentence, nted to any engine now used." although desirous to show you, sir, the consideration The editor the Newport Mercury, in announc-which your interference greatly deserves. May your ing this inventio remarks"we have so often given life be long preserved. credence to accounts of engines and improvements, (Signed) that have been found to be wrong in principle, and "Algeziras, 26th October, 1824. useless in practice, at we have forborne to an-To the commander of the United States nounce the present one, ntil it had passed the ordeal of successful experiment-but we now firmly believe that the experiment of yesterday, has forever settled the question, that steam may generated in quantities sufficient for any power, without the aid of a boiler."
"I beg your excellency to accept the assurance of my very high consideration and respect. (Signed) JOHN ORDE CREIGHTON, Commanding the United States ships and vessels cruising in the Mediterranean. his excellency General O'Donnell, commander in chief of the royal Spanish troops, Algeziras." "SIR-I have received your kind letter, dated yesterday, by which you solicit the pardon of some unfortunate Spaniards, whom you suppose under sen tence of death, and to be executed to-day.
ships in the Mediterranean."
Annexed is the answer given by the bashaw of Tangiers, in the name of the emperor of Morocco, to the demand made by the Spanish government, that "the vassals of his most Catholic majesty," who had
taken refuge in Barbary, should be delivered up. The emperor wrote to the bashaw-"Thou hast done well in not giving up the Spaniards-they have taken refuge under our flag and must be protected." The barbarian and infidel monarch appears to great advantage in contrast with the royal dominion of the holy alliance
Answer of the Bashaw.
"His majesty cannot, for a moment, entertain the idea of delivering up the persons who came to his dominions, placing trust and confidence in a monarch, just and beneficent, who respects the precepts of God given through his prophet.
raging 41 persons. This gives an annual reward to
"If the men claimed by the king of Spain be offenders against the laws, his majesty should suspend their punishment until he be firmly seated in his throne; and when that period arrives, the emperor will have a direct understanding with the king of Spain, who may then demand them, for it is the duty of sovereigns to respect and attend to each other's wishes.
If the king of Spain considers these men as offenders, because they have not opposed destiny, be it so:-Other kings there are, and friends too of the king of Spain, who do not look on them in that light, and would, moreover, have wished them to have taken refuge in their territories, where they would have been protected.
A tax of one per cent. on all property would pay the [Dem. Press. principal of the public debt of Great Britain in less than twenty years.
"The emperor is a lover of clemency, and is not a stranger to the principles of justice; and, therefore, he cannot, without offending God, by breaking the commands of his prophet, accede to the wishes of his friend, the king of Spain."
Great Britain and Ireland. From London papers to the 16th Jan. It seems now perfectly understood that the independence of Mexico and the South American states has been, or is about to be, recognized.
Stocks, 15th Jan-3 per cent. consols 933-8; American 3's 80; U. S. bank shares 1.24 10s.
Twenty-two persons have been killed by an explosion in a coal mine at Middletown, by the imprudence of one of the workmen in taking off the top of a safety-lamp.
Mr. Rothschild has taken the remainder of the Brazilian loan-two millions sterling.
The abundance of money in England has caused a rage for speculation, in any and almost every thing, beyond all precedent. A London paper of the 10th Jan. says-Not even the South Sea Bubble, when at its extreme height, presented such a scene of insane eagerness, as that which now prevails in the foreign mining fever. On Saturday, shares in the Real del Monte mines, on which 1.70 are paid, were sold at A noble 1.1,250! To-day, they have been current at 1,500 guineas-and not to be had-buyers eager. earl, coming to the prudent resolution of realizing, is confidently said to have sold, on Saturday, 110 shares at 1,300 guineas each. Assuming the fact, as stated, a clear profit of 1.140,000 sterling, is thus sacked, by a nobleman already possessing one of the largest landed and personal properties in the kingdom! And, from what pockets are these enormous sums extracted? Those of the credulous part of society, who, sighing over the reduction of interest, consequent on the prosperous condition of the country, are From all parts of tempted to indulge in a species of speculation that may be justly termed insane. the country, orders pour in upon the bankers for investments in these bubbles, which, sooner or latter, will swallow up the property of thousands of individuals, who now indulge in glittering visions, worthy only of the inmates of a certain great house situate in St. George's Fields. In the bubble market, the performers may be divided into two classesthe foxes and the geese-the former raise the bubble, which the latter seize with all the gullibility of their species.
The British revenue is in a most prosperous condition, and increasing. The abundance of profitable PROPERTY AND INCOME IN GREAT BRITAIN. 1814, the whole amount of property in Great Bri-employment causes the taxes to be easily paid. Spain. It is stated that the inquisition is about ttain and Ireland, as estimated by Mr. Colquhoun, was 2,736,640,000l. equal to 12,150,671,600 dollars, or be re-established. It is an institution exactly suitetwelve thousand one hundred and fifty millions, six to the gloomy and remorseless mind of Ferdinand Arrests are daily making, on th hundred and seventy-one thousand six hundred dol- the perjured. lars: being nearly six times as much as the value of most trivial pretences, and the prisons are kept ful the public debt at that time. The total annual in- Blood flows freely. Twenty-two thousand Frenc come of the people of Great Britain and Ireland, at troops are to remain in the kingdom to support th the same time, was estimated at 1,919,412,000 dollars, king in his terrible measures. It happens that whol or nineteen hundred and nineteen millions, four hun- companies of accused persons are sent to the gallie or the scaffold, without suffering witnesses to be hear dred and twelve thousand dollars. in their defence!
SLAVE TRADE. According to the last annual report of the London African institution, (for 1824), in one year, 1822, there were shipped from Africa, for Rio Janeiro, 31,240 negroes, of whom 3,484 died on the passage. Into Bahia, above 8,000 were imported the same year. In 1823, the total number shipped for Rio alone, amounted to 21,472, of whom nearly 1,800 died on the passage; and there is reason to think that there was at least an equal importation into the other Brazilian ports, attended by an equal mortality. In the first six months of 1824, the number imported into Rio Janeiro alone, was not less than 26,563, with a mortality of 2,247. The trade for Brazil is carried on north as well as south of the line, in spite of treaties. Brazil ought to be outlawed by the civilized world for her obstinacy in thus openly continuing and encouraging this fell traffic.
The last number of the Edinburgh Review accuses the French government of still conniving at the equipment and escape of French slave vessels. It calculates that "about 40,000 wretched Africans were carried away in a short period by the connivance of the most Christian king's government, notwitstanding his laws and treaties," and supposes that of these forty thousand, above 9,000 must have perished miserably on the voyage.
The average annual income of the laboring people Russia. The emperor has addressed a rescript of Great Britain and Ireland, in other words, the reward for a year's labor, is estimated at 46 pounds the minister of ecclesiastical affairs, charging him sterling, or 200 dollars 46 cents, for each family are-exercise the most rigorous surveillance over all pu