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&c., as if he held no higher office than that of the unhappy being just alluded to, and to have the insolence to tell him, that in consequence of being schoolmaster he no longer ranked higher than the ship's cook. It is scarcely necessary to say that this piece of overbearing assumption on the part of the Lieutenant did not go down, and the Chaplain maintained the rights of his station. It shews, however, how uncomfortable the union of the offices may, at times, be rendered to the individual holding them. The great thing wanted is the unvarying cordial support of the Captain.
No Chaplain can, in fact, properly do his duty without this; such innumerable hindrances may be thrown in the way. We have heard of ships, carrying Chaplains, which in the course of a whole voyage only had divine service performed on board once! This state of things ought not to be permitted. Perhaps it might be well to order a return of all public religious services performed on board our ships; the reason to be stated when such service shall have been omitted. The state of the weather is often made, amongst other things, a frivolous pretext for the putting off divine service. Let us hear our experienced Admiral on this point
"When the ship is at sea, and even in war time, the absolute necessity of omitting divine service very rarely occurs, and particularly in fleets and squadrons. The precautions which are observed every day to secure to the ships' companies quiet and uninterrupted meals (and these are very seldom broken in upon), will be equally efficacious in ensuring the time necessary for divine service: in some ships the hands are never turned up but for general purposes, such as weighing, reefing, and anchoring; and all other duties are performed by the watch, not composing more than a third of the ship's company; and with this watch upon deck, where can be found the excuse for disobeying the first article of war,* as regards the remainder of the crew? As the time required for this most important duty seldom exceeds an hour and a half, even when a sermon is preached, this period may be in most cases secured against interruption, by judicious arrangement, whatever may be the state of the weather. It is well known to all who are accustomed to a sea life, that a gale of wind, in a well-appointed and well-conducted ship, where no danger arises from being near the land, is very far from being considered as a period of fatigue or suffering, but rather of repose, even to those who have the watch upon deck. The
* All Commanders, Captains, or Officers, in or belonging to any of her Majesty's ships or vessels of war, shall cause the public worship of Almighty God, according to the Liturgy of the Church of England, established by law, to be solemnly, orderly, and reverently performed in their respective ships, and shall take care that prayers and preaching, by the Chaplains in holy orders, of the respective ships, be performed diligently, and that the Lord's Day be observed according to law.
VOL. VIII.-B B
sails being reduced at the commencement of the gale, and the ship, in technical phrase, being made snug, the watch is exempted from work, and seldom exposed to the weather but for the few minutes which may be required in changing the direction of the course. A spirit of cheerfulness seems to pervade the whole ship's company; their meals at this time are particularly attended with mirth and good humour; which is most observable when shipping a sea, or the ship taking a lee lurch. This freedom from care at such a season may, it is true, be justly ascribed to thoughtlessness, and a total absence of any idea of danger: but it affords a convincing proof that a gale of wind under such circumstances, affords no substantial excuse for the non-performance of divine service, but, on the contrary, seems to ensure the means of its being uninterrupted; and above all, when it takes place at such a time, it would appear pre-eminently calculated to make a deep impression upon the mind. The arguments for the due performance of morning service apply equally to that of the afternoon, which is indispensable, as it enables those to attend who were necessarily absent in the morning, from having the watch upon deck."-Hope of the Navy, p. 160.
We are happy to know that many Commanders now afloat are truly anxious that their crews should regularly enjoy the benefit of the public services of the Church; and we may quote, amongst others, the admirable example of Sir Robert Stopford, Commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, who not only has regular service on the Sundays, but a portion of the prayers read by the Chaplain every morning and evening; and, as might be expected, the morals of the ship have improved in direct proportion.*
Nothing is a greater mistake than to suppose, as too many have done, that the correct fulfilment of the duties of religion are inconsistent with most determined valour and spirit of enterprise. The life of the late Lord de Saumarez affords a remarkable proof to the contrary. So far from his energies having been weakened, or his mind depressed by religious feeling, they were strengthened and elevated by the divine principle, to the devotion of all his faculties to the cause of his country. this intrepid and distinguished officer has stated in public, that he had invariably found that the best and bravest sailors were those who habitually read their Bibles ;† his experience was a
* The administration of the sacrament would be a great point gained, but we have not heard of any ship in which this has hitherto been attempted.
We have heard of course of skulkers, who, when sailing with a religious Captain, have attempted to make a pretence of reading their Bibles their excuse for neglecting duty. We suspect, however, that few Captains will allow themselves to be "humbugged" in this way. Such fellows are sure to be found out, and brought to their bearings. The Bible teaches no man to neglect his duty, and no officer ought to admit the excuse for a moment.
most extensive one: but he gave in his own person the strongest proof of the truth of this assertion.
His noble contemporary, Lord Gambier, was another illustrious instance of the deepest religious feeling coupled with the utmost degree of unflinching resolution. The Rev. E. Ward, Minister of Iver, in preaching his funeral sermon, has annexed an observation to which we heartily respond: "Thank God," he says, "the reproach of irreligion is now being wiped away from the Navy of Great Britain; and he whose bright example we are contemplating lived to see a goodly number of that gallant profession men of prayer, men of one book, living in the fear of God, and glorying in the cross of Christ."
What we admire about Sir Jahleel Brenton's book is, that it takes its stand upon the articles of war, and exhibits, in fact, in itself, a carrying out of the principles of those articles. The interest of the work, in a professional point of view, commences about the 150th page, and continues throughout the volume. This latter part will amply repay a careful perusal.
It is truly delightful to find names which belong to the history of the country, and which stand enrolled there, in a golden and a glorious page, the first and the foremost of those great and daring spirits who hurled Britannia's thunder against the foe, during the terrific struggles of the latter portion of the last century and the earlier part of the present, now coming forward in lending a hand to sanctify the wreath of victory, by emblazoning the words "Holiness to the Lord" amidst the triumphal decorations of the naval and the mural crown. The name of Brenton stands amongst the highest of those on this illustrious scroll of worthies. His action with the French frigates, when he commanded the Cæsar, is alone sufficient to immortalize his name.
But here arises another star, to claim our attention-a star of the first magnitude in the bright galaxy of naval exploit and fame. Who has not heard of the daring fire-eater, Sir Nesbit Willoughby? The hero who may well be said to have earned for himself the title of "bravest of the brave." If any there be who remain in such a state of "crass ignorance" (we thank Lord Brougham for the expression), as not to have heard of the achievements of this intrepid veteran, let them look into James's "Naval History," and there shall they read of his exploits, and there shall they see his portrait, seamed with the scars of battle on its front; and if they would go on, and learn how the fear of God can live and reign in a heart which has known no other fear,* then let them read his "Extracts from
* "Je crains Dieu cher Abner, et je n'ai aucunau tre crainte."-Athalie.
Holy Writ," with its unpretending, but admirably instructive preface, and they shall rise from the perusal wiser, and we trust better men. When the work first came out, some of the godless made, as they thought, an excellent joke upon its pubfication. They said it was the result of its gallant author's having been severely shot in the head (he carries, we believe, a bullet in his left cheek at the present moment, besides having lost an eye). All we can say is, that if such be the results of being shot in the head, the best wish which we can offer for those who cracked the joke, as they thought it, is, that they may be made, as soon as possible, partakers of a similar fate. Sir Nesbit has thought fit to have a crucifix imprinted above the title on the binding, which has given rise to the odd misapprehension, on the part of some, that the work was the production of a Roman Catholic. This is exceedingly absurd. Why should the Romish apostacy be permitted the exclusive appropriation of the sacred emblem of man's redemption? The increased use of it, on the part of Protestants, would, we think, be a token, not of a return to popery, but to that true Catholicism, from whence many ultra-Protestants have wandered far enough, in all conscience. The present edition is published chiefly for gratuitous circulation, but we hope soon to see another, which all may be afforded the opportunity of purchasing.
The book entitled "The Church in the Navy and Army," by a retired Chaplain of Stirling Castle, is published as a sort of supplement to a former work, by the same author, called "The Church in the Army." It consists of a most interesting-in fact, an exceedingly entertaining collection of correspondence and anecdotes, illustrative of the progress of religion in both services. Out of the many very delightful narratives with which the book abounds, we have only space to select one, which we present as rather unique. We cannot prefix to it a more appropriate title than that of
RETIREMENT IN A HAT.
Speaking of a conversation with a pious sailor, who distinguished himself by his desperate valour at the battle of Navarino, having rushed to a gun, at which all the men lay killed or wounded, and having been chiefly instrumental in saving two ports from being beaten into one by the heavy fire of two Turkish line-of-battle ships, which had completely cleared several of the guns for the moment, by killing or wounding every one stationed at them; our author says that he observed to him, "I should like to know what was the state of your mind
when you saw the Turkish fleet and the drum beat to quarters, as you entered the bay ?" "All I wanted," he answered, "was some retired spot for prayer, that I might commend my soul to God, for a few moments, just before I went into action." "You would find that a difficulty indeed, in a man-of-war, after the orders were given to clear away for action." "True, but there's retirement in a hat." "In a hat! I don't understand you." "Perhaps not, and therefore I'll explain myself. We were sailing into the bay, I thought there was a moment of leisure, and leaning over the bulwark of the forecastle, I took off my hat, and covering my face with the hat, I secretly breathed out this prayer: O Lord, into thy hands I commit my spirit, for thou hast redeemed me, O Lord God of truth; thou hast the issues of life and death; all events are at thy command. I leave myself entirely at thy disposal; and if I should be killed in battle take care of my family; save my soul, and receive me up into thy glory, O Lord, through Jesus Christ, my Lord and Saviour. Amen.' There, Sir, there is retirement in a hat."
We think the work, from its style and manner of compilation, likely to be not only instructive, but exceedingly entertaining, to our soldiers and sailors. It is full of anecdotes of naval and military adventure, each seasoned with some display of religious feeling-showing how God can be served, even amidst the rage of the most tempestuous conflict.
The "Reverie addressed to Red Coats and Blue Jackets" is a useful little tract or pamphlet, about sixteen pages, which originally appeared in the "United Service Gazette." For, to the honour of that journal be it spoken, it is not ashamed thus to consecrate its pages to the service of religion, as it may find opportunity. The "Reverie" is now re-published as a tract, at the wish of several Clergymen and many Officers.
The opening of it is so admirably graphic, that we cannot deny ourselves the pleasure of copying it verbatim:—
"To the Editors of the United Service Gazette.'
"Gentlemen, I picture to myself some of your readers, as soon as the heading of this article meets their eye, exclaiming-'Oh the Saints' -Hypocrites,' say others-Self-righteous Fellows-Cant-Humbug! Pray turn to something else,' is re-echoed through the club or barrack-room.
"Now, my comrades, 'judge not rashly-for God only knows who is a hypocrite, and who is not. At the great and general review of us all, at the day of judgment (and not till then), it will be seen who has done his duty in this world, and who has not," &c.
A noted divine used to say that there ought to be three R's in every sermon: Ruin by sin, Redemption by Christ, and Re