somewhat incorrectly stated the law and the facts, when he says, "all the cases come under the same Acts of Parliament, by which bishops are distinctly added to the Committee in cases of heresy," and that the rectification of this error will answer his query.

The first Act of Parliament, in recent years, entrusting the Judicial Committee with jurisdiction in ecclesiastical cases, was the Act constituting that Committee in 1833.

Ecclesiastical cases were not specifically mentioned, and only passed under that jurisdiction along with others; and it has been stated by Lord Brougham, the author of the Act, that it was, per incuriam, that cases of doctrine were allowed to come before that new tribunal.

In 1840, Parliament seems to have felt that it was rather too great a change from the ancient law, which left the decision of doctrinal matters wholly to spiritual persons, to one which wholly excluded them; and, in tinker-like fashion, proceeded to cobble the Act by adding to the Committee certain prelates; but only to the members of the said body when the cases arose under the same Act which so added them-commonly called the Church Discipline Act of 1840.

The Gorham case did not arise under that Act, but was prosecuted by the Bishop of Exeter from his own Diocesan Court through the Court of Arches. The prelates, therefore, could not sit as members of the tribunal; but of course, being Privy Councillors, they might be allowed to sit extra-legally as assessors by direction of Her Majesty."

The other cases arose under the Act of 1840. For all the above, see Joyce's Ecclesia Vindicata, pp. 23-27, 59, 74-80, 81-85.


MOTHER GOOSE (3rd S. v. 331.) - The Oxford "Mother Goose was an old woman, who sat by the "Star Inn" in the Corn Market, and sold nosegays from a basket in her lap. Her lineaments have been abundantly preserved for posterity in at least three engravings-1. Folio, coloured by Dighton; 2. Folio, three qrs. by Cardon, with the inscription "Ob. æt. 81; 3. Full-length, small 8vo, engraved by "T. W., Oxon," published in The Young Travellers; or, a Visit to Oxford, by a Lady, 1818, in which a very brief account of Mother Goose is also given. In the "Advertisea little work to the work, it speaks of " which it is in contemplation shortly to publish," which was to "contain correct likenesses of the curious characters here referred to, with some The biographical or other accounts of them." plate of Mother Goose is given as a specimen of those that would accompany the forthcoming volume. Query, Was it ever published? Concerning the "Mother Goose" of pantomime, an anecdote will be found in the Illustrated News


of this day (April 16, 1864), at p. 367, under the heading of "The late Mr. T. P. Cooke." But a full account of its production at Covent Garden Theatre, Dec. 26, 1806, and its immediate popularity and run of ninety-two nights will be found in chap. xii. of the Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi, CUTHBERT Bede. edited by Boz.

COLIBERTI (3rd S. v. 300.)-THOMAS Q. COUCH will find a very interesting account of the Colliberts in Histoire des Races Maudites de la France et de l'Espagne, tome ii. p. 1, by Francisque Michel, 1847. A very clear abstract from M. Michel's work is given by A. Cheruel in his Dictionnaire Historique des Institutions, Mœurs et Coutumes de la France. Paris, 1855, vol. i. p. 173:

"Colliberts. The word collibert has been understood in several ways: in the Middle Ages it denoted a class of At present the appellation of serfs also called cuverts. collibert is given to certain inhabitants of Aunis and BasPoitou. The Colliberts,' says M. Guérard (Prolégomènes du Cartulaire de Saint Pere de Chartres, § 32), may be classed either in the lowest rank of freemen, or at the head of those bound by serfdom. Whether their name signifies free from the yoke, free-necked-according to D. Muley's definition-or to denote the freed men of a patron, as Du Cange has it, it is not the less certain that the Colliberts were deprived in some measure of liberty. The son of a Collibert remained a Collibert whatever change


might happen to the person, tenure, goods, or position of his family. Colliberts were also sold, given, or changed like serfs. Thibaut, Comte de Chartres, made a donation in 1080 to the Abbey of St. Père de Chartres of several colliberts, with the condition that the monks

should sing a psalm for him every day of the year, except feast days. Colliberts were, therefore, bound by serfdom. Their position appears to have borne a great analogy to

that of the ancient coloni.

"A council of Bourges, held in 1031, excluded them from the priesthood. Some writers think that they were strangers or the descendants of foreigners, and in this see the reason of their inferior condition. Hence the taxes laid on them, and the right of mortmain which affected their inheritance. Probably the colliberts of our days are the successors of these oppressed classes. The fact is, that in the part of Poitou known as 'Le Marais,' there are still miserable districts, whose inhabitants are fishermen, and known as Colliberts or Cagots."

The colliberts seem to have fraternised with the

Protestant party, especially at the time of the

battle of Jarnac. Persons called Colliberts inhabit the arrondissement of St. Jean d'Angely, St. Eutrope (arrondissement de Barbezieux, canton de Montmoreau), and many other places. W. H. P.

CHAPERON, CHAPERONE (3rd S. v. 280, 312.). One of your correspondents wishes the "British public" to be authoritatively informed that the word chaperon "does not assume a feminine form when applied to a matron protecting an unmarried girl;" and also complains that "almost all our authors, especially our novelists, write the word 'chaperone' when used metaphorically." This newer form, chaperone, is termed by another of an ignorant barbarism.” your correspondents,

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The French word is unquestionably assuming amongst us the form chaperone; and chaperone, as applied to a matron, has of necessity become feminine; but I really can see nothing in this to make any man bilious. The case stands thus :-French words ending in on, when, with or without change of meaning, they find a place in our language, experience various treatment. Many retain their French spelling unaltered, as cordon. Many change the terminal on into oon, as in the case of ponton, pontoon. Some, however, change on into one. Such are baryton, semiton, pompon, chaperon. Exactly as baryton and semiton have in English long been barytone and semitone, exactly as pompon has more recently become pompone, so chaperon is gradually becoming chaperone. And what harm? The word is merely passing into our language, as other words have passed before it, and is undergoing, in the transit, just the same process of naturalisation.

Words which we find it convenient to adopt from the French often retain for a time what is meant to be their French pronunciation, but ultimately become Anglicised. When this occurs, the spelling frequently changes with the pronunciation. In our English pronouncing Dictionaries chaperon, viewed as French, stands in all its beauty, "shap'-er-ong"! Now "shap'-er-ong," in the lips of an Englishman who knows he cannot speak French, either is mumbled, or produces horrible contortions; while in the lips of an Englishman who fancies he can speak French, it is often that kind of French which makes a Frenchman say, "Plaît-il?" What is the practical inference? French for the French, English for the English. No bad riddance, surely, to get quit of "shap'-er-ong." So let us give the word chaperone a civil welcome, and not call it "an ignorant barbarism." Moreover, when ("metaphorically," as your correspondent says, but in plain English, as I should say) we apply the term in its ordinary acceptation to a matron who is kind enough to take under her wing an unprotected spinster, the chaperone must still be "she," not "he," or the penalty of doing gooseberry would be too great.


WITCHES IN LANCASTER CASTLE (3rd S. v. 259.)-According to Mr. Crossley's Introduction to Pott's Discovery of Witches (Chetham Society), seventeen convicted witches were pardoned by Charles I. in 1633.

At the autumn assizes, in 1636, we learn from the Farington Papers (Chetham Society), that the following witches were prisoners in Lancaster Castle. Those to whom an asterisk is prefixed were amongst the convicts of 1633: Robert Wilkinson; Jennett, his wife; Marie Shuttleworth ; *Jennett Device; *Alice Priestley; Jennett Cronkshawe; Marie Spencer; *Jennett Har

greaves; *Frances Dicconson; and * Agnes Raw


Can what Mr. Crossley calls a pardon have been a commutation in some cases to a long imprisonment? P. P.

WHIPULTRE (2nd S. v. 24, 225; vi. 38, 57.) — Is F. C. H. in right suggesting, "this must be the holly, the only English tree not previously named"? "Holm" is thus interpreted in Halliwell's Dictionary,-"the holly. Some apply the term to the evergreen oak, but this is an error." H. F. N. observes, that the hornbeam, and A. HOLT WHITE that the crab, is not named by the poet. So far each is correct. But MR. WHITE asserts that "the ash is the only indigenous poplar." Is the ash a poplar at all ? VRYAN RHEged.

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GEORGE AUGUSTUS ADDERLEY (3rd S. v. 297.)The only George Adderley in the Army List of 1792 is Ensign George Adderley; appointed to the 63rd (or the West Suffolk) Regiment of Foot the 30th Sept. 1790. I know nothing further about him. Ŏ. H. P.

PASSAGE IN "TOM JONES" (3rd S. v. 193.) The following extract, from Hatcher's Salisbury (p. 602), will answer the query of your correspondent J. S. as to the meaning of the passage alluded to:

"It is well known that Fielding, the novelist, married a lady of Salisbury named Craddock, and was for a time a resident in our city. From tradition we learn, that he first occupied the house in the close, on the south side of St. Ann's Gate. He afterwards removed to that in St. Ann's Street, next to the Friary; and finally established himself in the mansion at the foot of Milford Hill, where he wrote a considerable part of Tom Jones. We need not observe that the scene is laid in the neighbourhood, and that a few of the incidents are related as happening at Salisbury. Some of the characters are identified with persons living here at the time: - Thwackum is said

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following editions:-1. London, T. Payne, 1746; 2. Glasgow, R. and A. Foulis, 1767; 3. London, J. Adlard, 1813; 4. Buddle's edit., Newcastle, S. Hodgson, 1813; 5. Partington's edit., London, J. Murray, 1825. A. G. W.

JOHN YOUNGE, M. A., OF PEMBROKE HALL, CAMBRIDGE (2nd S. xii. 191.)—Query, if related to R. Younge, of Roxwell, in Essex? I shall be glad to obtain any particulars of the family or life of this author. Between 1638 and 1666 he wrote and published several voluminous and valuable moral subjects. I have nearly forty of these in works, besides many tracts, all on religious and tized; or the Drunkard's Character, &c.; A Countermy possession, and may indicate Sinne Stigmapoyson, or Soverain Antidote against all Griefe, &c.; The Cure of Misprision, &c. &c. On some of the title-pages he calls himself R. Younge. The e is sometimes omitted. At other times R. Junius. Frequently after the name is added "of Roxwell, in Essex;" and occasionally the works are said to be "by Rich. Young, of Roxwel, in Essex, Florilegus." A few of his tracts are in the Bodleian, and some were sold in Bliss's collection. I have failed to trace them elsewhere. If your space admitted, I could give, from his now forgotten works, some statements of historical incidence as to London, before and at the times of the Plague and the Fire.

Thomas Young, of Staple Inne, author of England's Bane; or, the Description of Drunkennesse, 4to, London, 1617. Was he related to the above R. Young? W. LEE.

AMERICAN AUTHORS (3rd S. v. 96.) — Jonas B. Phillips, the author of Camillus, is a native of the city of Philadelphia, where he was born in October, 1805. At a very early age, he exhibited his talents as a dramatic author. A drama, written by him at the age of fourteen, entitled the Heiress of Sidonia, or, the Rose of the Monastery, having been very successfully produced at one of the Philadelphia theatres. In 1826, Mr. Phillips was admitted to the bar of that city, and removed to New York in 1830. Here he commenced the practice of law, and here he wrote his maiden tragedy of Camillus for Mr. Harris G. Pearson, a rising young American actor; who produced it at the Arch Street theatre, in Philadelphia. It was triumphantly successful, and was subsequently performed in all the leading theatres in the United States.

Mr. Phillips is probably one of the most successful and popular dramatic authors of America. Among other productions of his, we may notice Oranaska, an Indian tragedy; The Evil Eye ; The Pirate Boy, an opera founded on one of Marryat's novels; Paul Clifford; Ten Years of a Seaman's Life; Guy Rivers; and, if space were allowed, I could name many more.

Mr. Phillips is also the adapter of the libretto of the Postilion of Longjumeau, successfully produced at the Park Theatre by Miss Sheriff, Mr. Wilson, and Mr. Seguin; and recently revived by Miss Riching's at Niblo's, in this city. He has also contributed liberally to the literature of his country in various other departments of belles lettres, and has filled with ability for many years the office of assistant-district attorney. He is now one of the most popular and esteemed practitioners at the bar of this city, ranking among the ablest criminal G. C. lawyers of the country. New York.


MISCELLANEA CURIOSA (3rd S. v. 282.) original work of this name is a celebrated collection of papers extracted from the Philosophical Transactions, containing writings of Newton, Halley, Hooke, De Moivre, &c. It is common enough, and easily picked up. My set, which, as so often happens with books of that period, is made up from different editions, has vol. i. 3rd ed. 1726; vol. ii. 1723; vol. iii. 2nd ed. 1727. I have a note of the Misc. Cur. of York, 1734-35, which must be that of Turner, mentioned by your correspondent, but I think his name is not given. It is in six numbers; and six numbers of Turner's Mathematical Exercises, London, 1750, is no doubt the same work with a new title-page. The Misc. Scientif. Cur. has been alluded to in speaking of Reuben Burrow. There remains the Misc. Cur. Mathem., commenced in 1749, under the editorship of Francis Holliday, the translator of Stirling's work on Series. This translation was intended for the Miscellany, in which Holliday had commenced a translation of Brook Taylor's Methodus Incrementorum, which was never finished. This Miscellany got as far as page 186 of a second volume; about thirty more pages were printed, but not issued; they are bound up in what I suppose to have been Holliday's copy, with an explanatory note by Hutton, into whose hands the copy came. This repetition of titles was a very bad practice. Many persons who would perhaps have bought these Miscellanies out of catalogues, must have passed them over with a glance, thinking they were copies of the collection

which heads this article.


HORSES FRIGHTENED AT THE SIGHT OF A CAMEL (2nd S. viii. 354, 406; 3rd S. i. 459, 496.)-Mention is made of horses being frightened at the sight of strange animals-as camels. I know not whether the fact is worthy of insertion in "N. & Q.," but on two occasions this antipathy has been forced

on my observation. A few years ago, with my wife, I was driving, down a steep hill in Derbyshire, a horse belonging to her father, when we met a long train of Wombwell's menagerie. The third or fourth caravan was being tugged up the hill by a huge dromedary; which put our steed

into so great trepidation that I became fearful of a serious accident. Happily I got down to his assistance; for the eighth carriage was drawn by the great elephant, who so completed "Jack's" consternation, that every limb quivered; and I believe he would have fallen, if I had not stood in When front and clasped his head in my arms. the cavalcade (if the word be admissible) had passed, my poor horse was steaming with a fearful perspiration. About a fortnight afterward, we again met the same "collection of wild beasts," on another road in the same neighbourhood. It was "spring time," and I had observed "Jack," the day before, nibbling the young buds of the hedge-row in his pasture: so now, before he had time to discover the approaching horror, I quietly turned him with his nose and mouth to the road side hedge; upon which he regaled himself, to the absorption of all other faculties, until we could again proceed without fear.


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CARTER LANE CHAPEL, OR MEETING-HOUSE," LONDON (3rd S. iv. 231.) This building named in reply to "Lines on London Dissenting Ministers," no longer exists. The congregation having removed to Islington, Middlesex, where they occupy the magnificent new Unitarian church, called "The Church of the Divine Unity," or "Unity Church," in the Upper Street. All the records of old Carter Lane, as well as the foundation stone of that puritan edifice, are now preS. JACKSON. served at Islington.

WELSH BURIAL OFFERINGS (3rd S. v. 296.) — Are these offerings for the clergyman? I have been told that in cases of poverty, they go to the deceased's family; that attendance at a Welsh funeral is voluntary, and not by invitation only; that every one puts something in the plate, and that thus a nice little sum is sometimes handed to the survivors. This is a far prettier story than its going to the clergyman. Query, Which is the true one?

P. P.

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have been of the same opinion. The reading of the old copies is paiock or paiocke. Peacock was first introduced by Pope. Paddock, which A. A. would now suggest as likely, was put forward early in the last century by Theobald; but this conjecture of his has not found favour with commentators in general, and I think that there are valid reasons for preferring Pope's peacock.

Hamlet, elated with the success of his play, wherein he has caught the conscience of the king, bursts out into a random rhyme:

"Why let the stricken deer go weep,

The hart ungalled play:

For some must walk, while some must sleep,
Thus runs the world away."

And presently afterwards he rattles on with another strain of the same kind:

"For thou dost know, O Damon dear,
This realm dismantled was

Of Jove himself, and now reigns here
A very, very-ass.'

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When he comes to the last word, the unseemliness of it strikes him at once, and he substitutes for it another, which, while it breaks the metre, expresses in a less offensive manner his disgust at the hollow grandeur of the new king —

"A very, very-peacock!"

Horatio intimates to Hamlet that he would have been warranted in retaining the rhyming word, but, instead of following up the train of thought, Hamlet, in a more serious tone, adverts to the confirmation of his suspicions; but all at once, while touching upon the talk of poisoning, he checks himself, and abruptly calls for music, turning off in his former tone of levity—

"For if the king like not the comedy,

Why, then, belike-he likes it not, perdy." If I have correctly caught what was passing in Hamlet's mind, it will be seen that the word paddock, as intended to convey a charge of poisoning, would have been out of place. MELETES.

THE PASSING BELL OF ST. SEPULCHRE'S (3rd S. v. 170, 331.)-In the last part (23rd) of Mr. Collier's privately-printed Illustrations of Early English Popular Literature, Richard Johnson's "The Pleasant Walks of Moore-fields," occurs the following passage:

"Citizen loquitur. (After enumerating many of the charitable actions of the worthy citizens, he proceeds, p. 30.) There is now living one Master Dove, a Marchant-taylor, having many years, considering this olde proverb, hath therefore established in his life time to twelve aged men, Marchant-taylors, 6 pounds 2 shillings to each yearly for ever; he hath also given them gownes of good brode cloth, lined throughout with bayes; and

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are to receive at everie three yeres' end the like gownes for ever. He likewise, in charitie, at Saint Sepulchre's Church without Newgate, allowes ye great bell on every execution day to be tolled, till the condemned prisoners have suffered death; and also a small hand-bell to be rung at midnight under Newgate, the night after their condemnation, and the next morning at the church wall, with a prayer to be sayd touching their salvation; and for the maintaining thereof, he hath given to Saint Sepulchre's a certaine summe of money for ever."

In the extract from the City Press, at p. 170, the worthy citizen's name is "Dowe;" in the extract from Stow's London "Done;" whilst Johnson calls him "Dove." Which is right? The donor was living when Johnson wrote, 1607. Could he have made an error in the name, or has Munday? It must not be charged on Stow, who died in 1605, thirteen years before the publication, and in the year of the bequest. What is the authority for "Dowe" in the City Press notice? JAMES BLADON.

Albion House, Pont-y-Pool.

TIMOTHY PLAIN (3rd S. v. 298.)-The real name of this author was Stewart Threipland, an Advocate at the Scottish bar. T. G. S. Edinburgh.

SALMAGUNDI (3rd S. v. 322.) — LORD LYTTELTON quotes Johnson, that Salmagundi is corrupted from selon mon goût, or salé à mon goût. I fancy a more plausible derivation, considering all things-especially culinary-might be salmi Condé, or à la Condé. You may leave the why and wherefore to anybody who has seen many French bills of fare. H. GREEN.

Arundel Club.

ENSIGN W. A. SUTHERLAND (3rd S. v. 322.) — William Alexander Sutherland was appointed Ensign by purchase, in the 78th Highlanders, on March 22, 1833, and joined the depot in six weeks from that date. The depot was then quartered in Scotland, and Ensign Sutherland never joined the service companies which were then stationed at Ceylon.

On August 29, 1834, Ensign Gillespie, on halfpay of the 89th Regiment, was appointed ensign in the 78th Highlanders, "Vice Sutherland;" but no statement was made as to what had become of Ensign Sutherland, nor did the name of that officer appear in the Army List for October or November, 1834, in the lists of officers who had retired, resigned, died, or been dismissed. However, at p. 660 of the Annual Army List for 1835, the name of Ensign Sutherland of the 78th Regiment appears in the list of deceased officers. I am certain that if your correspondent, Mr. MacKAY, will apply to Captain J. W. Collins, Union Club, Trafalgar Square, London, he will obtain full information respecting the fate of Ensign Sutherland, as Captain Collins served as an ensign

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