in one hand, and fire and sword in the other; and when they consider the heroic resistance of our ancestors, during an exterminating period of five hundred years.

§ III. Our National hatred to England not owing to difference of Religion.

1. Are we to forget, that during this horrible period, both nations were Catholic; and that England was even more Popish than Ireland? for England not only revered the doctrines of the Catholic Church, in common with Ireland, but she did more, she obeyed the

Boswell.-Pray Mr. Dilly how does Dr. Leland's History of Ireland sell?-Johnson, bursting forth with generous Indignation,—“ The Irish are in a most unnatural state, "for we see there the minority prevailing over the majority. "There is no instance even in the ten persecutions of such

severity, as that which the Protestants of Ireland have "exercised towards the Catholics. Did we tell them we have


conquered them it would be above board. To punish them "by confiscations and other penalties, as Rebels, was mon"strous injustice. King William was not their lawful 16 Sovereign; he had not been acknowledged by the Parlia"ment of Ireland, when they appeared in arms against him." Boswell's life of Johnson, vol. 2, p.. 120.

mandates of the Roman Court, which the Irish did not. I appeal to the History of King John, laying his crown, and his bags of money, at the feet of the imperious Legate Pandolf, on one side, and to the Irish Remonstrance of 1315 on the other. * dreadful period,

Throughout that long and

through which
through which

we cannot travel without shuddering at every step, difference of Religion was not the cause of hostility; and although the true cause of hatred was aggravated by the Reformation, yet it is a well ascertained fact, that the religious feuds which ensued, were not the causes but the consequences of the Desmond and of the Tirone wars. Morrison acknowledges that more than one half of that gallant army under Lord Mountjoy, which so successfully attacked, and

* See the Irish Remonstrance to Pope John XXII. published by Hearne, in his edition of Fordun.

The Pope's commission to his Legate at the English Court in the reign of Richard I. empowers him to exercise his Legantine Jurisdiction in England, Wales, and those parts of Ireland over which the English had dominion. Math. Paris Hist. Angl. Mag. p. 110. Therefore, even at this period, the Native Irish elected and appointed their own Bishops, without any communication with Rome.

at last entirely defeated Tirone, was Irish, * Don Juan de l'Aquila's Proclamation to the Irish Catholics, who adhered to Queen Elizabeth, which I have seen in the Cotton Library, complains bitterly of them, because they do not consider as they ought, that Elizabeth was an excommunicated Heretick, and that they cannot fight in her cause without being Hereticks themselves; and this Proclamation is dated so late as September, 1601, when it was printed in Spain. † "Neminem persuadere

* Morrison's Hist. Lond. 1617, p. 112, 176, 256, &c. &c.

+ Cotton M. S. Julius F, iv, No. 110.-Leland insinuates that the first religious insurrection was in 1539, when Con Baccach O'Nial was defeated by Lord Grey at Bellahoe. But he acknowledges with Sir John Davis, that " the Abbies and "religious houses, in Tirone, Tirconnel, and Fermanagh,

though they were dissolved in the thirty-third year of "Henry VIII. were never surveyed nor reduced into charge, "but were continually possessed by the Religious, until the "reign of James I. that the practices of Francis I. whose Emis


sary applied to the Chief of Tirconnel, (Magnus mac Aodha "duibh, mc Aodha ruaidh, mc Neill Garbh) could not seduce "the Irish to revolt, and that Henry was attended to Calais "by a considerable body of Irish forces, who distinguished "themselves by their undaunted spirit. The enemy, says he, "were astonished at seeing them traverse the country with an

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conamur, ut debitam servitutem, secundum "Dei legem, deneget suo Principi: sed bene "nostis, ante multos annos, ipsam Elizabetham

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privatam esse regno, subditos omnes absolutos "esse a juramento fidelitatis per summum "Pontificem, &c.

After lavishing the fairest promises on the Irish gentry, if they will abandon the Queen, Don Juan concludes by declaring, that if they will obstinately persevere in supporting the cause of an excommunicated Heretick, he will be compelled to treat them as incorrigible Hereticks themselves, and to persecute them as such, even unto death,-" usque ad necem !"

"agility to which they had been trained in their own wars, " and were terrified at the ferocity of their execution, as well "as their intrepidity." B. 3. c. 7. p. 185.

Hugh O'Nial, was the first Irishman who made religion a pretext for civil war. Our Annals never notice religious warfare before that event; and O'Sullivan, a chief Agent, dates that war in these words: "Memorabile bellum sum "scripturus, a multis Hibernis cum Elizabetha Angliæ Regina "pro Catholicæ Religionis libertate, a principio anni 1588 ad "annum 1603, per annos fere 15 m gestum, quo non modo "Hibernia tota fuit penitus devastata et excisa, sed etiam "Anglica Nobilitatis flos deletus, magnisque viribus, sed odiis "majoribus dimicatum." Hist. Cathol. Ulyssipon 1621.

fol. 113.

2. O'Sullivan gives what he styles a deplorable Catalogue of Irish Lords and Chieftains, professing the Catholic Religion, who having compounded for their several Estates and Principalities with Queen Elizabeth, during the Administration of Lord, Perrot in 1585, adhered to her interests in defiance of the Pope, and were by far the greater number, and fought against the Pope, against the King of Spaine, and against O'Nial, O'Donnel, and O'Sullivan, in favour of an Heretical Queen! These deluded Irish, says he, may be divided into two classes, of whom the great leaders were Native Irish Chiefs, and many of the Great Lords of the English Pale.-Amongst the former were Denis O'Brian, Earl of Thomond, and Lord of Limerick; Mac Carthy Dun, or Mac Carthy the Dark, Chieftain of Carbry; Cathal Mac Carthy, Son of Diarmard, Chieftain of Muscry; Maurice O'Brian, Baron of Inchiquin ; O'Conor Dun, titular King of Connaught; O'Melachlin, Prince of Meath.-Amongst the latter, were Thomas Boutiler, Earl of Ormond; Barry, Viscount Buttevant; Mac Pierce Bou

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