written from Khartúm that the the offensive, but to allow matters name of a pasha and the sight of to ripen, and wait till Khartúm is a tarbúsh filled him with disgust, forced through hunger to submit. and that he could not put on a This was very much the plan he fez without feeling a loss of self- followed in the case of Obeid.” respect.

He considers that the firman Stewart had left England with announcing the evacuation should little more than the traditional not be made known until the petty toothbrush and soap of Sir C. sultans had been replaced in their Napier, and though friends made districts, but doubts whether up some of the deficiencies, he Gordon would remain silent. started from Cairo with a light On the same day Gordon wired kit. He was fully aware of the to a wavering sheikh, “Come and dangers and difficulties of the en- see me at Khartúm. If you want terprise. Before leaving Cairo he peace, I am for peace; but if you wrote to a relative: “I fully realise want war, I will fight you gladly.” the dangers of this expedition, and Feb. 5th.-In the Korosko dewhat I feel most is the anxiety sert they met the late Mudir of my mother will suffer. But, after Berber, who had extorted 12,000 all, one's life is but a short one dollars from the people, and who here, and should I never return looked terribly frightened on meetshe will at any rate have the con- ing Gordon. solation of knowing that, as far Feb. 7th. They reached Abu as I could, I have done my duty." Hamed, where Gordon was well In another letter he writes : “I received by the people, to whom do not disguise the danger; but he made a speech explaining his both Gordon and I feel that we intentions. are doing what is right, and help- Feb. 9th.From Surek Gordon ing to pull our country out of a wrote to the Mahdi appointing him serious difficulty."

Sultan of Kordofan, and saying Stewart's journal and letters that as he was Governor of Kharcontain full record of all that túm there was no necessity for war occurred on the journey to Khar- between them. The same day he túm; but a few notes and extracts and Stewart discussed the course only can be given here.

they should pursue if their retreat Jan. 27th.-On reaching Asyút, by the Nile valley were cut off. no officials met them at the station, They decided to go up to the Equaan unusual course, which led them torial Province, and thence find to think that the Khedive had their way through M'tesa's kinggiven orders that they should be dom to Zanzibar. slighted.

Feb. 10th.—They met Hussein Jan. 29th.-Gordon determined Pasha Khalifa, who told Gordon to communicate with the Mahdi. that he thought the policy of writAt Esna they met M. Marquet, on ing to the Mahdi was good. He his way from Khartúm to Cairo, afterwards told Stewart that he who told them that he thought did not approve of it, as the Gordon would be well received Mahdi was a common man who by the Khartúm population but cared only for religion, and would, secretly hated by the Egyptian by being made Sultan, have better pashas and Government officials. means of stirring up the country.

Feb. 1st.-From Korosko Stew- Feb. 12th.Gordon took the leap art wrote: “It may very likely in the dark which was unfortunbe the Mahdi's plan not to assume ately to be one of the chief causes



of the failure of his mission. Stew- he could not put a sharper spur art writes : “I was called up at into them to organise their own 5 A.M. by General Gordon, who, Government. Stewart considered having pondered deeply all night, the question a difficult one, but had come to the decision to open thought it was a mistake to show the Pandora box, and openly pro. the firnan, and that it would have claim the divorce of the Súdán been better to have followed the from Egypt, the formation of local advice of Nubar Pasha, and delay militias, and the appointment of action until the political situation Súdán officials in every important had become clearer. post."

Stewart refers to Gordon's intense Gordon showed the secret fir- sympathy with the people, and his man to Hussein Pasha Khalifa inclination to use every effort to and Muhammad Tahir, who was mitigate the results of withdrawal. believed to be a bosom friend of He considers the evacuation policy the Mahdi; and with their assis- right, but is convinced that it will tance drew up a proclamation end either in anarchy or the subappointing a Provisional Govern- stitution of

tyranny for ment independent of Cairo, but another. As far as he can judge, subject to him as Governor-Gen- the people are genuinely glad to eral and British Commissioner. see Gordon; but he distrusts The proclamation was fixed to expressions of popular feeling the gates of Berber, and caused amongst people so prone to disa good deal of excitement, but simulation. the people appeared to approve Feb. 14th.-Stewart alludes to of it. On the same day a depu- the difficulty they had, “owing to tation of Notables asked Gordon their poor knowledge of Arabic,” whether the treaty he had pub- in distinguishing between el-Obeid lished in 1877, by which all slaves the man and el-Obeid the town. would be freed in 1889, was in And here we may remark on one his present programme. Gordon, of the curious features of the mis“knowing the utter futility of sion. Stewart spoke Turkish with saying Yes,' replied 'No' and fair fluency, but he and Gordon published a proclamation to this had only a slight knowledge of effect. This interested and pleased Arabic, and neither could read it the people more than anything in MS. They had no European else."

interpreter, and all letters and Feb. 13th.Gordon showed the proclamations in Arabic were writsecret firman to Hussein Pasha, ten by native clerks whose fidelity and the chief men of the province was not always assured. assembled in secret conclave. The Feb. 15th.-Referring to the joy document caused the most pro- caused by the cancelling of the found astonishment, and, appar- Slave Liberation Treaty, Stewart ently, delight. Gordon was, how- remarks :ever, told that it was

& mistake to have shown it, and that "It is necessary to consider the those who heard it would prob. position of affairs. H.M.'s Governably conolude that the concessions

ment desire the evacuation of the were only made with the view of country without bloodshed, and its getting the troops out of the retrocession to a native Government. country without danger, and leav- sion. In view of this decision and

This is the essential point of our mising the people to stew in their the result politically that will ensue own juice. Gordon thought that therefrom, it is quite evident that


H.M.'s Government will not have ments of Government. After this power to enforce the treaty unless and other business I went to the the people are inclined to carry it out. jail. Here I was mobbed by the This they are evidently not inclined 200 and odd prisoners, who were to do. In a word, the newly consti- packed very like sardines. Meeting tuted Súdán becomes a slave-holding General Gordon there, he directed me State similar to Turkey, Morocco, to inquire into these cases. I released &c."

twenty of them, and then had to defer Feb. 18th. - At 8.30 A.M. further inquiry as it was getting late. steamed up the river to Khartum, Among those dismissed were some stopping on the way at Om Durman young boys and a number of rebels. to inspect the Bashi Bazúks and They were chained two and two. regulars. At 9.30 A.M. we reached During the afternoon the General Khartúm, and were received by all visited the family of Besatu Bey, his the officials, in gorgeous uniforms, late secretary, who was killed with standing in front of a massive back- Hicks at Obeid. He then visited the ground of natives. After the usual hospital and arsenal, and on his regreetings from the select few, we turn home formed a Committee of landed, and, passing through an Defence consisting of twelve Notables. avenue of soldiers, proceeded to the He also issued a proclamation saying Divan. Here we and the officials that these Notables were his Council, sat for a short time, and then pro- that he would take their advice, and ceeded to the courtyard to have the that, if any disadvantageous step were firman, appointing Gordon Pasha, taken, the people must blame them read to the assembled multitude. and not me. He thereby shifted the A pulpit had been erected, at the responsibility for any error of judgentrance to the Divan, which one of ment to their shoulders. the Ulema ascended, and, after the Feb. 19th. - Began work in the usual ceremony, proceeded to read prisons early in the morning: Rethe document. Gordon Pasha stood leased 58 prisoners. Many of them on the lower step, as it was strictly had been years in prison without any against etiquette for him to ascend sentence ; others had been sent up by any higher. After the reading Gor- pashas of Egypt without rhyme or don addressed the multitude, saying : reason — amongst others a slave of 'I am glad to see you. It is four Sherif Pasha, who had been exiled years since I was here, and the because he was drunk and insubSúdán is now miserable, and I am ordinate. Others were there whose miserable, and I want your assistance sentence had long expired. I cannot to put it right. I have come here express what pleasure it afforded me alone without troops, and we must to set these poor people free. ask Allah to look after the Súdán if quite worth coming up here to do so. no one else can. I have granted you

“ Orders were issued to mix all the half taxes, and I will not interfere battalions together, and send the with your holding slaves. Stewart white to Om Durman under Ibrahim Pasha is my Vakíl, and he is not Pasha Hyder. The blacks, or Súdressed in uniform, as he came away dánis, were to be placed under Ferin such a hurry. After the reading ragh Bey, an old Súdán officer who of the firman we returned to the had served in Mexico. The Bashi Divan, and the people were admitted Bazúks were placed under Said Pasha, to see General Gordon. They flocked one of Zobeir's generals, who had left in in crowds, kissed his hands, and Zobeir's son previous to his revolt. appeared genuinely pleased to see Gordon's idea is to get out the white him.

element, then the whitey-brown or “After a short interval we began Bashi Bazúks, and to leave the pure work by clearing out the boxes black or Súdánis to manage their own containing old records, conveying affairs. them into the middle of the square, Feb, 20th.I was busy the whole making an auto-da-fe of them, and day with petitions and other business. crowning the edifice by stocks used Saw Farigh-alla Bey in the morning. in bastinadoing, and other instru- He is a Súdáni, and commands the

It was His son, a

garrison ; he was appointed by Gen- the bazár, and visited the Sheikh eleral Gordon. I told him to do his Beled, the soles of whose feet had best to induce the black troops now been beaten by Hussein Pasha Suri. in Egyptian regiments to remain in He had received 500 blows with the the Súdán with him. General Gor- kurbash, and although the beating don commenced work by ordering all had been inflicted six weeks ago, he the troops in the garrison to be mixed was still unable to move. up, and then the black to be separated lad of sixteen years of age, had also from the white. The whites were been beaten, and was lying in a bed sent to Om Durman. He ordered beside his father. I spoke to the three gates to be opened in the ram- poor old man, sympathised with him, parts, and proclaimed death to any and abused Hussein Pasha. On my soldier who looted the peasantry return to the serai I found Gordon coming in. The octroi tax was having an interview with a number abolished.

of Notables, including Ulemas. The Feb. 218t.-Gordon Pasha caused Ulemas and others expressed an a long Arabic letter, full of extracts opinion that the Egyptian troops from the Korán, to be written to should remain here. Gordon, taking Sheikh Bessir, now heading the re- a globe of the earth, asked them who bellion on the Blue Nile. The letter was the Lord of it. They replied began by detailing the advantages "God.' He then said that his trust was Gordon was prepared to offer in the in God, Who would direct all for the shape of reduced taxes, native em- best. The people left apparently ployés, &c.

It was then shown, by satisfied. extracts from the Korán, what a sin “A man came in from Obeid. He it was for Mahommedans to slay each stated that before Gordon's arrival other. The letter ended by an in- the Madhi had detailed two chiefs vitation from Gordon to Bessir to with a number of Arabs to march on come to Khartúm and see him. The Khartum ; but when news came that writer of the letter was Ahmed El- Gordon was coming the movement Awám, an ex - employé of Arábi had been stopped, as the Arabs Pasha's, who speaks English and is thought Gordon was bringing up an exile. During the rest of the English troops. The Arabs now say morning I transacted business, visited they will not march on Khartúm, but the arsenal, and pressed forward the will remain on the defensive, as they repairs of the steamers going to the fear the steamers on the river. Bahr Ghazelle. The list of the Egyp- Feb. 23d. In the afternoon we tian exiles was made out. Most of walked about the town. All the peothese men were described in the re- ple we spoke to assured us that they gister as vagabonds and rioters ; but had no fear of the rebels marching it is generally supposed that they were on the town. During the day many sent here owing to personal reasons of the wealthy inhabitants called on on the part of influential Egyptians Gordon, and implored him not to and mudirs. One was pointed out to send away the troops. They apme as the son of a most respectable peared to be in a great fright. Egyptian. He is described as a rob- Feb. 24th. In the morning I had ber, but both from his general ap- an interview with Sheikh Idris enpearance and respectable parentage I Núr, an Arab merchant of Khartúm, should consider the charge untrue. and a partisan of the Mahdi. He

“About 8 P.M. Farigh Bey appears stated that in his opinion the Mahdi ed, and said to Gordon that he hoped could not now march on Khartúm, as the Egyptian troops would remain at the season was late. least five days. Gordon sent him “In the afternoon messengers came away, saying he was a woman, which in from Saleh Bey at Fedassi (on the greatly vexed Farigh Bey. It is pro- Blue Nile). They stated that the whole bable that this officer had been bribed country was in insurrection ; that to tell us this by the Greek merchants, Gordon's proclamations were not to whom the idea of evacuating the worth the paper they were written Súdán is most abhorrent.

on ; that the Shukriyeh, under Awd Feb. 22d.I took a walk through el-Kerim, were on the right bank of the Blue Nile, opposite Fedassi. great hopes of the success of GorThey ended by imploring Gordon to don's peaceful politics, but that it send the Egyptian soldiers to relieve

was now thought they had failed. Saleh Bey. Gordon refused, and said

March 4th.Stewart is busy he would do nothing till he heard from Sheikh el-Obeid. In the even

"pressing forward steamers for ing letters from Sheikh el-Obeid to the Equator.” me and General Gordon. He begged March 10th.-He is warned by Gordon not to fight, saying it would a religious sheikh that most of the ruin all.

Sheikhs el-Beled and many of the Feb. 25th. In the evening a Government clerks are traitors. Mejlis sat, at which Gordon presided, and it was decided to send out all the

March 11th. — The Bashi Bazúks Bashi Bazúks, Shagiyehs, &c., against are busy building forts near KharWad el-Bessir. Gordon only con

túm; and hostile Arabs appear for sented on the Mejlis agreeing to send the first time within sight of the a letter to Sheikh el-Obeid, saying city. that the expedition had been ordered After this date there is little on their recommendation. The mes

information with regard to Stewsengers from Awd el - Kerim state

art. We know that he took an that if the Government do not send assistance to him and Saleh Bey, he active part in the defence of the will join the rebellion.

city and in the preparations for Feb. 26th. — After some trouble every eventuality. In one of his we managed to get off 237 sick Egyp- last letters he laughingly calls tian soldiers. This is the first instal- himself “ Admiral and Chief Conment of those bound for Egypt. It has been decided to send an armed

structor of the Navy," and the

steamers which met the British steamer some distance up the White Nile. She will leave to-morrow. We force at Gúbat showed how well have managed to make a parapet with and thoroughly he did his work. sacks of dried biscuits. She will hoist On May 7th Mr Power writes : a white flag, her mission being a peace- “Colonel Stewart, with two splenful one."

didly directed shots from a Krupp The next day Stewart went up 20-pounder at the palace, drove the White Nile with two steamers them (the Arabs] out of their to distribute proclamations and principal position." tell the people that henceforth the On May 25th he was slightly Súdán was to be for the Súdánis. wounded in the arm whilst workThe people appeared greatly in- ing a mitrailleuse near the palace ; terested, and spoke highly of Gor- and on July 10th, when Sáti Bey don. Stewart returned on the was defeated at Gatarneb, he had 29th, having ascertained that the a narrow escape. Mahdi had ordered the sheikhs not Stewart had the lowest opinion to fight, but to collect men, arms, of the fighting qualities of the food, horses, and camels, and await Bashi Bazúks and Egyptian troops further orders.

in the Súdán. During his first March 1st.—Gordon and Stewart visit to Khartúm he wrote: “Our hear that some of the Notables re- defenders are fit for nothing but fuse to be appointed mudirs, hav- robbing and plundering the deing a shrewd suspicion that they fenceless. . . . It is deplorable, are leaving the country, and being but I cannot help feeling a wish unwilling, by helping them, to dis- that they may be defeated. Alplease the Mahdi.

though it would vastly aggravate March 3d.—Copts and Moslems matters, still one cannot help havare leaving the city, and Stewart ing a wish of that kind.” How is told that at first there were little he then thought that he was

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