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too much for the Wintonian con “Give me my scallop-shell of quiet, ception of royalty. Feeling ner

My staff of faith to walk upon, vous about the plague in London, My scrip of joy, immortal diet, James had moved his Court to

My bottle of salvation.

My gown of glory (hope's true gage !) Winchester in 1603, and the And thus I'll take my pilgrimage.” eleven prisoners implicated in the “Main” and “Bye” conspiracies The shabby transparency of the were brought hither for trial. stratagem was a rude shock to the They were condemned to die reverence of Winchester towards among them the gentle Raleigh, royalty, nor had she in later years and one by one they were led out much opportunity of reviving it. for execution in front of Win In 1632 Bishop Curle resolved chester Castle. Brooke, as head to put a stop to the custom which of the “Bye” plot, actually was had established a thoroughfare decapitated; then on the follow- through the cathedral between ing days came the Lords Cobham the northern and southern parts and Grey, Sir Griffin Markham of the town. But he did so in a and Sir Walter Raleigh. The dignified and scholarly fashion, not king had arranged a scandalous without some antique pedantry. farce. He hoped to extract con- Instead of putting up a rude fession from them under fear of notice, “No thoroughfare : tresdeath, and as each one was about passers will be prosecuted,” he to lay his head on the scaffold, the caused the huge buttress on the groom of the bedchamber stopped south side of the church to be the proceeding in name of the king. perforated by a footway giving Raleigh's poem, the “Pilgrimage,” access through the close from one was written at Winchester on this part of the town to the other, occasion, when he was preparing and two curious Latin inscriptions for what he believed to be certain to be carved near its entrance. death. It is as remarkable for And, as if Latin should not be the beauty of the first stanza as puzzling enough to the townsfor the mediocrity of the other people, he cast the inscriptions two:

in the form of anagrams, thus :

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--that is, “ Worshipper, walk this way; traveller, that”: and again-

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--that is, “Public right ceases : now go the proper way: let this way be consecrated to the choir ; let that one lead to the market.”

gate, dating from 1266, at the in- roadway at the Westgate, and

of St Swithun. One other monu- have startled the understanding the Butter Cross, namely,--a fine Sir William Waller's Ironsides, statue of St Laurence. This had Welsh slate, that provokingly actually been sold by the commis- cheap and excellent material which

example of fiteenth-century work, Some of the shops have sported

such a familiar landmark, and but besides these novel features,

ments, and to reflect without im- centuries. The eight executioners

497 A City of many Waters. 1897.) this day by sundry green mounds sorely the acts of ambitious prel

over the grave-pits on the downs. ates and energetic councilmen, Indubitably there were heavy ar- much-very much-remains. Eng rears in the matter of sanitation, lish holiday makers

, trooping off to and the town council set about Continental towns, find no slam wiping them off with a will. But too foul to be ransacked in search also they wiped away a great deal of architectural remains. That is that would be reckoned priceless very well; but it is also well to now. Besides the wreck of Hyde bear in mind that there is a great Abbey above mentioned, and the deal to explore at home. Winloss of King Alfred's gravestone, chester perhaps is less changed inwe have to lament the destruction ternally and in her surroundings in 1778 of the Hospital of St from the city that used to be the Mary Magdalene on Morne Hill, “morning gift” of the kings of because vagrants used to harbour England to their brides, than there. Then the ruins of Norman other English town in a similar Wolvesey, where Saxon landown. time. No manufactures have

any

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In 1644, when King Charles's spirit of one who has done far
cause in the south was broken at

more than many writers of loftier
the battle of Cheriton, near Alres- pretensions to throw a charm over
ford, Waller drove the fugitives the scenes he knew and loved so
right up to the walls of Win- well. Izaak Walton, Royalist in
chester. Six nionths later Oliver sympathy, had yet managed to
Cromwell battered the town and wend a peaceful course through
took it, and his troopers wrought the manifold troubles he had wit-
irreparable havoc among the arch- nessed, and dying, as he wrote in
ives and other manuscripts in the his will, "in the neintyeth year of
cathedral library. Four years my age, and in perfect memory,
later, in 1648, the city magnates for which praised be God," was
assembled to receive their king laid to rest in the cathedral, where
when, on his melancholy journey his grave is not the least revered
from 'Hurst Castle to Windsor, he among the company of kings and
arrived, as a prisoner, to spend the spiritual rulers housed in that
night in the old town. The neigh- ancient fane.
bouring squires, too, rode in from With Charles II. and Izaak
the country, and the people as Walton let us bring this rambling
sembled in crowds, but the officer

survey of the story of Winchester
commanding the escort sternly re to a close. It were impossible
pressed the warm expressions of within reasonable limits to do
loyal welcome they were burning more than touch here and there a
to make.

salient point in it, to call over The sun shone on Winchester

more than a handful of the great once more at the Restoration, and

names which crowd the record, to its forfeited bishopric was restored mention more than a few of the to it, for Charles II. was often buildings which have resisted time there, and his sinister brother, the and fire and most destructive of Duke of York, to boot. Livelier all-improvement.

In this last company, too, he brought with respect Winchester may not have him, and such as vastly helped to suffered more in proportion than revive the local trade. Men still other ancient towns, but then she show the spot in the garden behind had infinitely more to lose than the canons' house where unflinch- most others,

Of her two castles ing Prebendary Ken spoke his and ninety-two churches, her bishmind about Nell Gwynne. Charles op's palace, her walls and gates

, loved the quiet town well, with its how comparatively little is left to grey buildings and green alleys, us!

The municipality has been and gave command to Sir Chris

as conspicuously active of late topher Wren to build him a fine times as they were negligent in palace, after the fashion of Ver- the years when their streets afsailles. But he never lived to see forded a favourite playground for it finished, the works were stopped pestilence; when “dyvers Stretes at his death in 1685, and there and Lanes of the sayd cyty, by stands to this day the “King's castynge of donge, duste and other House

monument of the last filthy thynges, are very filthy and act of royal favour to Winchester. noyfull to all such as shall passe

Two years before the king's by the same." The black death death, in December 1683, there in the fourteenth century and the passed away in Dr Hawkins's plague in 1666 raged with appalhouse at Winchester the gentle ling malignity, as is testified to

ers used to deliver their annual sprung up to sully her bright air tale of wolves' heads, were broken or soil her brighter stream ; even up for road-metal

, and these hard- the South - Western Railway aphearted reformera spared not even proaches her reverently under the city gates, of which three out screen of deep cuttings in the of five were demolished between chalk, and passes, scarcely seen, 1789 and 1791. By good luck outside her ancient walls, two of them escaped, the West

Standing in the old Roman stance of some citizens whose looking down the High Street houses had been built against it; across the Soke to St Giles's Hill, and Kingsgate, because it bearg one sees few things, except the over its archway the little church dress of the citizens, that would ment was in even greater peril- of Philip of Spain's grandees, or

and a conspicuous ornament of the plate - glass, and" nearly all the

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sioners; but popular feeling was is swiftly ruining so many land

in arms against the removal of scapes by superseding red tiles; the bargain was cancelled. It is the old town basks in the summer equally difficult to understand the baze with much the same aspect callousness which prevailed a hun. of leisurely occupation and decor. dred years ago in respect of the ous quiet as it must have worn, preservation of historic monu- but for exceptional episodes, for patience on the vast number that provide no spectacle now, so people were needlessly swept away.

stroll up to the station to watch Still

, heavily as Winchester has the passengers in the London been plundered, sorely as war has train ; the bishop's proclamations wasted her buildings, and not less are no longer of pressing moment,

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this day by sundry green mounds sorely the acts of ambitious prelover the grave-pits on the downs. ates and energetic councilmen, Indubitably there were heavy ar- much-very much—-remains. Engrears in the matter of sanitation, lish holiday-makers, trooping off to and the town council set about Continental towns, find no slum wiping them off with a will. But too foul to be ransacked in search also they wiped away a great deal of architectural remains. That is that would be reckoned priceless very well; but it is also well to now. Besides the wreck of Hyde bear in mind that there is a great Abbey above mentioned, and the deal to explore at home. Winloss of King Alfred's gravestone, chester perhaps is less changed inwe have to lament the destruction ternally and in her surroundings in 1778 of the Hospital of St from the city that used to be the Mary Magdalene on Morne Hill, “morning gift” of the kings of because vagrants used to harbour England to their brides, than any there. Then the ruins of Norman other English town in a similar Wolvesey, where Saxon landown- time. No manufactures have ers used to deliver their annual sprung up to sully her bright air tale of wolves' heads, were broken or soil her brighter stream ; even up for road-metal, and these hard- the South - Western Railway aphearted reformers spared not even proaches her reverently under the city gates, of which three out screen of deep cuttings in the of five were demolished between chalk, and passes, scarcely seen, 1789 and 1791. By good luck outside her ancient walls. two of them escaped,—the West Standing in the old Roman gate, dating from 1266, at the in- roadway at the Westgate, and stance of some citizens whose looking down the High Street houses had been built against it; across the Soke to St Giles's Hill, and Kingsgate, because it bears one sees few things, except the over its archway the little church dress of the citizens, that would of St Swithun. One other monu- have startled the understanding ment was in even greater peril— of Philip of Spain's grandees, or the Butter Cross, namely,—a fine Sir William Waller's Ironsides. example of fifteenth-century work, Some of the shops bave sported and a conspicuous ornament of the plate - glass, and nearly all the High Street, adorned with a small roofs, alas ! are covered with statue of St Laurence. This had Welsh slate, that provokingly actually been sold by the commis- cheap and excellent material which sioners; but popular feeling was is swiftly ruining so many landin arms against the removal of scapes by superseding red tiles ; such a familiar landmark, and but besides these novel features, the bargain was cancelled. It is the old town basks in the summer equally difficult to understand the haze with much the same aspect callousness which prevailed a hun- of leisurely occupation and decordred years ago in respect of the ous quiet as it must have worn, preservation of historic

monu- but for exceptional episodes, for ments, and to reflect without im- centuries. The eight executioners patience on the vast number that provide no spectacle now, so people were needlessly swept away. stroll up to the station to watch

Still, heavily as Winchester has the passengers in the London been plundered, sorely as war has train; the bishop's proclamations wasted her buildings, and not less are no longer of pressing moment,

velvety. Rise early, when the that do swim in English waters, gardens and the swifts are wheeling cult to catch and among the fairent laburnum tossed over the wayside Holland will display such delicate walls, past Headbourne Worthy, duns, such cunning quills, such

towers, and ride out, before the pone consideration of these till

King's Wortby, Martyr's Worthy, irresistible iron blues as may hardly

Martin's of Headbourne Worthy in the saddle let your thoughts

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A City of many Waters

499

And ever, as you ride, the sweet out its “George” tavern for five hundred years) and hire a hack; river will approach and retire from

for if the down roads are harsh, the roadside, reminding you, if you the turf beside them is free and are an angler, that of all the trout birds are singing in the cathedral those of Itchen are the most ditt. in endless circles round the grey when caught. But you can post

dew is off

, along the Alresford your return to the old shop behind road, between masses of lilac and the Butter Cross

, where Gossip

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but there are the evening papers towards the south country; and if !
to con over and discuss; and the they go northwards, with

a great
old military feeling is kept astir, army. The reasons why they live
as befits a city built on the lines

more in the south than the north !
of a former Roman camp, by the land there, and more people ; also

may be, that there is better con i
blare of bugles from the barracks, nobler cities and more profitable
and the measured tramp of troops havens.”
passing to the drill-ground,
It has been shown how nearly

One effect on our language, bad
the old capital of Wessex became the capital of England been fired
that of all England, and how it

on the southern instead of the certainly would have continued northern side of the Thames, the capital if the Anglo-Saxon would have been that we should monarchy had endured. Professor have had a much more elaborate Skeat has indulged in some curious system of grammatical inflexions speculations as to one result, at than at present, and instead of least, which certainly would have boasting of ourselves as " fine followed had Winchester

not

fellows who dwell in their island," yielded the first place to London.1

we should have said “vine vel “ English as she is spoke” would lows that woneth in her iland." have been but a dialect, and the Chaucer, as a Londoner, had much literary language imposed by the to do with establishing the Midcapital would have been the speech land or Mercian dialect as literary of Wessex, instead of, as now, that English ; but even his influence of Mercia with a dash of Nor- has not expunged all the Southern thumbrian. John of Trevisa, who forms: thus, though we say " for." wrote good Southern English in instead of “

vox," the female for
1387, had a poor opinion of Mer- is still known as "vixen," not
cian and Northern English.

“fixen.”
“Also Englishmen," runs one pas- aright? go visit it in May or early

Would you view Winchester
sage, rendered into modern English, June.
“though they had from the begin-

It is a fair city at all
ning three manners of speech, South-

seasons, and the wells of Itchen ern, Northern, and Middle speech (in keep its valley green and fresh the middle of the land), as they came right through the hottest summer. of three manners of people of Ger But it is in the early season,

he
many-none the less, by commixture, fore the uplands are parched, on
first with Danes and afterward with

the wealth of blossom faded from
Normans, in many of them the country
language is impaired ; and some use

wayside hedge and meadow, that
strange babbling, chattering, growl-

it is fairest. If you bicycle, it is
ing, snarling, and gnashing of teeth. well; the roads generally are

All the language of the North- mirable, though those who keep
umbrians, and especially at York, is them delight in spreading
so sharp, slitting, grating, and un-

cruciating coating of sharp flints
shapen, that we Southerners can
scarcely understand that language: such as no tyre yet devised by

over the ways across the downs

,
I believe it is because they are nigh

can resist. Almost better
to strangers and aliens that speak
strangely, and also because the kings to hie to one of those excellent
of England always dwell far from hostelries the Royal or the George
that country. For they turn rather (Winchester has never been with-

Easton, Itchen Abbas

, and 80 be matched by other tyers, tie they to Stoke Charity and Bishop's never so wisely, and discuss with Sutton. Each of these little vil

. you the season and sky most suitlages has its interesting church : St able for each. But while you are contains some rude work of Edward wander through the long story of the Confessor's reign ; Martyr's the past, for the name of each Worthy and Easton have some hamlet in your way may be found good Norman details

, and so had far back in the chronicle of the Itchen Abbas till the hand of the making of England. restorer overtook it,

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HERBERT MAXWELL.

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1 Principles of English Etymology, 1887, p. 29 et seq.

out its “George” tavern for five And ever, as you ride, the sweet hundred years) and hire a hack; river will approach and retire from for if the down roads are harsh, the roadside, reminding you, if you the turf beside them is free and are an angler, that of all the trout velvety. Rise early, when the that do swim in English waters, birds are singing in the cathedral those of Itchen are the most diffigardens and the swifts are wheeling cult to catch and among the fairest in endless circles round the grey when caught. But you can posttowers, and ride out, before the pone consideration of these till dew is off, along the Alresford your return to the old shop behind road, between masses of lilac and the Butter Cross, where Gossip laburnum tossed over the wayside Holland will display such delicate walls, past Headbourne Worthy, duns, such cunning quills, such King's Worthy, Martyr's Worthy, irresistible iron-blues as may hardly Easton, Itchen Abbas, and so be matched by other tyers, tie they to Stoke Charity and Bishop's never so wisely, and discuss with Sutton. Each of these little vil. you the season and sky most suitlages has its interesting church: St able for each. But while you are Martin's of Headbourne Worthy in the saddle let your thoughts contains some rude work of Edward wander through the long story of the Confessor's reign; Martyr's the past, for the name of each Worthy and Easton have some hamlet in your way may be found good Norman details, and so had far back in the chronicle of the Itchen Abbas till the hand of the making of England. restorer overtook it.

HERBERT MAXWELL.

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