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When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected b the conjunction or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling i flection: as, "Does his conduct support discipline', or destroy it?"
The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with en phasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those inflections.
The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confer so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by th young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples to induce hir to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the in flections are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are mo striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and impo tance.
"Manufactures, trade, and agriculture', certainly employ mor than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species."
"He who resigns the world has no temptation to envy', hatred`, ma lice', anger; but is in constant possession of a serene mind: he wh follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappoint ing, is in constant search of care`, solicitude', remorse', and confusion`. "To advise the ignorant, relieve the needy`, comfort the afflicted are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives.'
"Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contracted in th body habits of lust' and sensuality'; malice', and revenge`; an aversion to every thing that is good`, just`, and laudable', are naturally season ed and prepared for pain and misery."
"I am persuaded, that neither death', nor life`; nor angels', no principalities', nor powers; nor things present', nor things to come nor height', nor depth; nor any other creature', shall be able to se parate us from the love of God."
The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investiga tion of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they ar governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.
Manner of reading Verse.
WHEN we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in makin the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own: and to adjust an compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, so as neither to hurt the ear, or offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with good readers of poetry There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse: on is, the pause at the end of the line; and the other, the casural paus in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end o the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme ren ders this always sensible; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also te read it so as to make every line sensible to the ear: for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if, is reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song and tone must be carefully guarded against. The close of the line wher it makes no pause in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such
ne as is used in finishing a sentence ; but, without either fall or eletion of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspenon of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, thout injuring the meaning.
The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere out the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a use, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but l sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural tuse, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th Hlable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsupause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the e can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah
"Ye nymphs of Solyma! begin the song;
"To heav'nly themes``, sublimer strains belong."
But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate connexion, as not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided om one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle etween the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read ach lines harmoniously. The rule of proper pronunciation in such pases, is to regard only the pause which the sense forms; and to read he line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the ine sound somewhat unharmoniously; but the effect would be much worse, if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in he following line of Milton,
"What in me is dark,
Illumine; what is low, raise and support.
the sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the third syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly; though, f the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth sylhable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,
"I sit, with sad civility I read."
the ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore inust be the only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.
There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called demi-caesuras, which require very slight pauses; and which the reader should manage with judgment, or he will be apt to fall into an affected sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of this kind. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura.
"Warms' in the sun", retreshes' in the breeze,
Before the conclusiva of this introduction, tb Compiler takes the deviy to recommend to teachers, to exercise tueir pupils in discov ing and explaining the emphatic words, and the croper tones and ses, of every portion signed them to read, proriously to their bai called out to the perfz, mance These preparate lusa,,, 1, in wat they should be regularly examined, will improve hair is Igment a taste; prevent the practice of reading without atention te ‘he subjec and establis!: a habit of readily discovering the med force, a beauty, of very sentence they peruse
PIECES IN PROSE.
Select Sentences and Paragraphs.
or. 1. No rank or possesions can make the guilty mind,
SECT. 4 The misfortunes of men mostly chargeable on them-