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(Manakins, etc.), and arrived on the 27th, after which all energies were set to strengthening the fortifications until June 22, on which date Captain Newport set sail for England, leaving one hundred and four persons and provisions for thirteen or fourteen weeks.* He promised to return within twenty weeks.
In view of their "Instructions", in view of the fact that the general flow of the rivers of the Atlantic seaboard is from northwest to southeast, and in view of the immediate contact of the colonists with the Werowance of Paspihae and those living along the Chickahominy River, it was no mere accident that Newport's expedition, which planted the cross at the Falls of the Powhatan River, kept straight up the river instead of turning into the present Appomattox and reaching the falls of that river at the site of the present City of Petersburg.
During the summer of 1607, Smith explored down the river to Kiccoughtan, and across to Waroskoyack (now Isle of Wight) on the south side of the river, while there were several journeys to Paspahegh; and in the fall of that year, he started on his discovery of the Chickahominy country and,after several digressions, explored the river of that name as far as it was navigable in a canoe.
On September 17, 1607, and again in November of that year, there were trials by jury at Jamestown, and so this English custom was inaugurated at once.‡
On January 8, 1608, the first ship of the First Supply arrived some ten weeks overdue, while the second (and final) ship arrived on the 20th of April, following,-the two together bringing one hundred and twenty colonists, which gave a total of one hundred and fifty-eight, after allowing for sixty-seven deaths.§
In June of that year, Captain Smith explored as far as Cape Charles and discovered Smith's Islands, which were named after Sir Thomas Smith,% then explored up the bay to the Patuxent River, now in Maryland, later discovered the Patomack to its falls and the Rappahannock to its falls, and still later explored the Appomattox River.
On the 6th of October, Captain Newport had arrived with the Second Supply, which brought seventy more colonists, thus making a total of two hundred, after allowing for twenty-eight other deaths.§
These additional colonists gave a firmer and broader working basis, and Newport had brought back with him with the Second Supply express orders to explore the country of the Monacans (the area immediately west of the Falls), with a view to the discovery of the South Sea, which objective was sought with greater or less persistency certainly until 1621,
Arber's "John Smith", i, pp. lxx, 8.
§ Ibid., i, cxxix.
† Ibid., i, pp. lxvi-lxvii. The Chickahominy River flows into the James from the northwest at Dancing Point, some seven and a half miles above Jamestown Island.
‡ Ibid., i, pp. lxxxiii, 12.
Stith's "History of Virginia", pp. 50-1.
% Brown's "First Republic", p. 173.
when Powhatan entered into a league of friendship, which it was supposed would greatly further that much-sought-after object.‡
But Smith firmly held that Jamestown should be made secure before any effort was made to explore the wilderness west of the Falls, while it was charged that he only wished to delay Newport's efforts in order that he might later do the same thing under more auspicious circumstances and thus gain the credit of having discovered the South Sea. This charge received countenance from Smith's own activities the December before, while exploring the Chickahominy River.
However, Newport,-who had brought with him a boat built in five parts, so that it might be carried around the falls and rapids in the rivers and would be more convenient in case of portage*,-did actually explore the Monacan country to the extent of some forty miles above the Falls (approximately the western boundary of the present County of Goochland)† ; and so acquired a knowledge of this area as early as 1608, though he secured no information as to the South Sea.
In December, 1608, Smith again explored to Warrosqueake and sent Sicklemore to the country of the Chowanocks to the south, "chiefly to look for Silkgrass, and to enquire after Sir Walter Raleigh's lost Colony"** and then made an exploration up the present York River, in search of corn, information and the friendship of the Indians.
Under date of May 23, 1609, His Majesty issued the Second Charter, "which finally afforded Sir Edwin Sandys and other progressive thinkers the opportunity for developing their liberal ideas of government in a new nation in the new world".|| and gave enlarged powers to the Company, but expressly abrogated the powers of the President and Council in Virginia; and in that same year Lieutenant Percy was sent with twenty men to establish an outpost at Point Comfort, in order to help ward off starvation at Jamestown,§ and to guard against any surprise attack by the Spaniards.
Then came a few months of relief and prosperity, during which the population of the colony reached as many as four hundred and ninety,†† followed by the horrors of "Starvation Time" in 1610, during which year “of near five hundred Persons left by Captain Smith at his Departure, within
Bruce's "Economic History of Virginia", i, p. 38.
"In May, 1669", says the said authority (p. 39), "sixty years after the memorable expedition of Newport into the Monacan country, Berkeley, at that time Governor of the Colony, wrote to the authorities in England that two hundred gentlemen had agreed to accompany him in an expedition to the west, which he had arranged for the discovery of the East India Sea, but that unusually heavy and prolonged rains had for that season disconcerted his plans. He petitioned that a commission should be sent to him, which would empower him to undertake the expedition the following spring".
Stith's "History of Virginia", p. 77.
Ibid., p. 79.
** Ibid., p. 85.
Brown's "First Republic", p. 650.
Stith's "History of Virginia", pp. 97-8.
tt Yonge's "Site of Old James Towne", p. 43.
six Months, there remained not above sixty, Men, Women, and Children”+; but on the 10th of June, Lord Delawarr, with a fleet which brought the population of Virginia up to some three hundred and fifty souls, arrived as Captain-General of Virginia, took charge with a firm hand, began to set things in order, and later built two forts (Fort Charles and Fort Henry) at Kiccoughtan (Hampton), where was to be developed a plantation for acclimating the colonists as they arrived,-where "those, who came from England,‡ should be quartered at their first Landing, that the Wearisomeness and Nausea of the Sea might be refreshed, in this pleasant Situation, and wholesome Air".||
Sir Thomas Dale arrived on the 10th of May, 1611, with colonists and provisions and at once began a personal exploration of the country by "viewing" the Nansemond River and later the James River, with the result that "as early as 1611 a town named Henricopolis [at the present Dutch
Stith's "History of Virginia", p. 117.
It was at this time that the life of the Colony hung on a gossamerlike thread of Good Fortune, of which trying time, Tyler's "Cradle of the Republic", p. 36, has the following to say:
"And it now appears, indeed, as if another sickening failure would be added to the long list of fruitless endeavours to plant an English colony in America. Sending ahead the pinnace VIRGINIA, built on the coast of Maine in 1607, to Point Comfort to take on Captain Davis and the guard there, the company at Jamestown made ready for their own departure. June 7, 1610, Gates ordered all the small arms to be carried aboard, buried the cannon at the fort gate, and commanded every man to repair to the PATIENCE and DELIVERANCE at the beating of the drum; and while the men were going aboard, lest some one might set fire to the buildings in the town which they were abandoning, he caused his own company, under Captain George Yeardley, to embark after the rest, and was himself the last to leave the shore. It was in the evening that they left Jamestown, and they halted that night at Hog Island about six miles below the fort. The next morning, they resumed their voyage, and had reached Mulberry Island, about eight miles further down, when they saw the white sails of a little vessel coming to meet them. It was the pinnace VIRGINIA, and never did vessel bring more important message. Edward Brewster, its commander, informed Gates that Lord Delaware had arrived at Point Comfort with 150 settlers; and, thereupon, the colonists were unwillingly put back to Jamestown, and that evening took possession again of their forlorn habitations. Sunday, June 10, Lord Delaware arrived and went ashore in the afternoon with Sir Ferdinando Wainman. This was a great occasion and one duly appreciated at the time. Sir Thomas Gates caused his company to stand in arms, and William Strachey, the secretary of state, acted as color bearer.
As soon as the Lord Delaware arrived near the south gate of the fort opening towards the river, he fell upon his knees and made a long and silent prayer to God. Then arising, he walked to the entrance to the town, Strachey bowing before him with his colors, and letting them fall in the gateway at his Lordship's feet, who passed on to the church, where Rev. Richard Buck ("Sir Thomas Gates his preacher"), delivered an impressive sermon."
"Thus far [the Fall of 1610]", says Yonge's "Site", p. 43, "about 900 persons had been sent from England to Virginia, of whom about 700 had perished."
Stith's "History of Virginia", p. 120. It is of interest to note that in 1610 Lord Delawarr thus established what was in substance more or less of a quarantine station at a point only some thirty miles from the present U. S. Quarantine Station on Fisherman's Island, at Cape Charles.
Gap] was built by Sir Thomas Dale 'with a good church'", of which town Coxendale on the south side of the river was in substance a part.
In 1612, Captain Newport arrived with supplies and was sent to the Potomack River for corn and to explore; the next year Dale entered into an alliance with the Chickahominies by which they became "Tassautessus”, or Englishmen, and accepted as their governor, Dale, whom they recognized as the deputy of the king;* and in this same year Bermuda Hundred. Charles City Hundred, Curls, Rocksdale Hundred and Shirley Hundred were located. Pocahontas, who was also called Matoax by the Indians, married John Rolfe in 1614 and was a short time thereafter baptized as Rebecca; and in this year a salt-works was located on Smith's Island.**
The Colony, however, did not prosper under the military rules established by Gates and Dale; and in England, for lack of subscriptions, the desperate expedient of a lottery was resorted to, but emigrants could not be had on any terms. The Colony was saved by the excitement created over the culture of tobacco introduced by John Rolfe. Gates and Dale tried to suppress it, but when Yeardley became deputy-governor a more liberal spirit prevailed and colonists flocked to the Colony in large numbers to plant tobacco. However, it should be stated that the Chickahominies refused to keep with Yeardley their agreement with Dale, and called him "only Sir Thomas Dale's Man", after which there was bloodshed in which twelve Indians were killed and as many more captured, and eleven colonists drowned, at the very time that "Lady Rebecca," as Pocahontas was now called, was being much féted in England; but in March, 1617, while on board ship at Gravesend waiting to sail for Virginia, she fell ill of small-pox and "it pleased God, at Gravesend, to take Pocahontas to his Mercy, in about the two and twentieth year of her Age".‡ At that time, there were, it is stated, four hundred persons|| at James Towne, and in the same year there were located four more outlying plantations, §-Argall's Gift. (Martin's) Brandon and Smith's (afterwards Southampton) Hundred and Weyanoke.††
Barton's "Virginia Colonial Decisions", i, p. 78.
** Tyler's "Cradle of the Republic" (1906), opp. p. 201.
Ibid., p. 146.
Yonge's "Site of Old 'James Towne'", p. 43. Powhatan, ever solicitous of the fighting strength of England, sent his son-in-law, Tomocomo, so Stith says (p. 144), "to take the Number of the People in England, and to bring him a full and exact Account of their Strength and Condition. And, accordingly, being arrived at Plimouth, he got a long Stick, intending to cut a Notch, for every one, he saw. But he was soon tired with such an endless Work, and threw away his Stick; and being asked by the King, after his Return, how many People there were? it is said, that he replied: Count the Stars of the Sky, the Leaves of the Trees, and the Sand upon the Sea Shore; for such is the Number of the People in England' ".
§ "He [Sir Edwin Sandys] therefore observed, that the Commodities of Virginia had three several sorts of Owners: First, the Company; secondly, particular Hundreds and Plantations, belonging to private adventurers in England, as Southampton Hundred, Martin's Hundred, and the like; and thirdly, Planters inhabiting and residing in Virginia, whose Part he conceived to be far the largest and most considerable."
tt Tyler's "Cradle of the Republic", pp. 232, 209, 217, respectively.
Yeardley, upon becoming acting-governor in 1616, had encouraged the raising of tobacco; with the result that, when Argall arrived as governor, he found some of the necessary works neglected, and every available space in Jamestown,-the margin of the streets and the market-place,-occupied by the plant. Argall appears to have restrained the people and to have required a due proportion of corn to be planted, but he was himself accused of money-lust, and he engaged surreptitiously in the tobacco trade to a very considerable extent. Many charges of what are nowadays called “graft" were brought against him, but he was saved from final prosecutions by the Earl of Warwick.*
Brown's "First Republic", p. 254 (see also p. 313) says, under date prior to June 17, 1617,-"It seems certain, however, that he (Argall) located the then bounds of the four great 'Incorporations and Parishes of James Citty, Charles Citty, the citty of Henricus and Kiccowtan'" "(which hereafter [in reply to the 6th petition of their General Assembly of August, 1619] shall be called Elizabeth City, by the name of his Majesties most vertuous and renowned Daughter)",† while the four outlying plantations already mentioned were located.
In many respects the year 1618 was an unfortunate one for the Colony, in that. Lord Delawarr, Powhatan and Sir Walter Raleigh died, and there was much quarreling amongst the members of the London Company. We find, however, that there were at that time "about six hundred Persons, Men, Women, and Children in Virginia", and that to the plantations previously established, several new ones were added,-Flower de Hundred, Martin's Hundred and Maycock's Hundred.¶
A new era began with the resignation, on April 28, 1619, of Sir Thomas Smith, who had held the post of treasurer of the Colony for twelve years. The results of his long administration were stated to be that, after "fourscore thousand Pounds Expense and twelve Years Labour, the Colony consisted of about six hundred Persons, Men, Women and Children. And they had about three hundred Head of Cattle, and an infinite Number of Hogs, wild and tame".§
Sir Edwin Sandys and the Earl of Southampton now assumed control of affairs. In the spring of 1619 Sir George Yeardley arrived as governor, bringing various grants and Orders of Government, amongst which were instructions to issue writs for a General Assembly, "with two Burgesses from each Plantation [of the then eleven] freely to be elected by the inhabitants thereof",**-"a Privilege", says Stith (p. 182), "granted immediately upon the Disgust taken, by the worthier Part of the Company,
Stith's "History of Virginia", pp. 149-157.
† Brown's "First Republic", p. 377.
Stith's "History of Virginia", p. 281.
Tyler's "Cradle of the Republic", pp. 211, 236, 212, respectively.
"But all the Company's Lands and Plantations were utterly ruined and depopulated by Captain Argall, there being only three Tenants left thereon, and six Men of what he called his Guard. And notwithstanding Sir Thomas Smith's boast that he had left six thousand Pounds, for the new Treasurer to proceed upon, it was found, upon Examination, that the Company was above that Sum in Debt" (Stith, pp. 159-160).
** Brown's "First Republic", p. 312.