Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752
OUP Oxford, 12 okt. 2006 - 1124 pagina's
Jonathan Israel presents the first major reassessment of the Western Enlightenment for a generation. Continuing the story he began in the best-selling Radical Enlightenment , and now focusing his attention on the first half of the eighteenth century, he returns to the original sources to offer a groundbreaking new perspective on the nature and development of the most important currents in modern thought. Israel traces many of the core principles of Western modernity to their roots in the social, political, and philosophical ferment of this period: the primacy of reason, democracy, racial equality, feminism, religious toleration, sexual emancipation, and freedom of expression. He emphasizes the dual character of the Enlightenment, and the bitter struggle between on the one hand a generally dominant, anti-democratic mainstream, supporting the monarchy, aristocracy, and ecclesiastical authority, and on the other a largely repressed democratic, republican, and 'materialist' radical fringe. He also contends that the supposedly separate French, British, German, Dutch, and Italian enlightenments interacted to such a degree that their study in isolation gives a hopelessly distorted picture. A work of dazzling and highly accessible scholarship, Enlightenment Contested will be the definitive reference point for historians, philosophers, and anyone engaged with this fascinating period of human development.
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ancient Arminian atheistic authority basic Bayle Bayle’s believed Boulainvilliers Buddeus Cartesian Catholic chieﬂy Chinese Christian church claims clandestine Clerc conception Counter-Enlightenment criticism cultural d’Alembert d’Argens deﬁned Deism Deist democratic Descartes Diderot difﬁculties divine doctrine Doria Dutch Dutch Republic Early Enlightenment ecclesiastical eighteenth century Encyclopťdie English equality especially faith ﬁgure ﬁnd ﬁrmly ﬁrst Fontenelle France freedom French German Glorious Revolution God’s Greek Gundling hence Hobbes Holland Huguenot human Hume ideas inﬂuence intellectual Jansenist Jesuit justiﬁed l’esprit laws Leibniz less liberty Locke Locke’s Malebranche Man’s Marsais materialist Meslier moderate mainstream modern monarchy Montesquieu moral natural Newton Newtonian notion ofﬁcial ofthe philosophical political principle Radical Enlightenment Radicati rational reason reﬂected Reformed rejected religion religious republic republican Revolution scientiﬁc signiﬁcant social society Socinian speciﬁcally Spinoza Spinozist Stoic Stoicism theological thinkers Thomasius thought tion Toland toleration tradition true universal Vico Voltaire Voltaire’s wholly Xenophanes