by the records of the pipe office, where the sheriff's accounts are enrolled. Alan de Valoignes also, probably his son, who is described as of Tremworth, was sheriff from the 30th year of Henry II. to the end of his reign,* his residence, according to the custom of his ancestors, being sometimes at Tremworth, and sometimes at Repton and Swerdling.

a deed of his, dated in the sixteenth year of Richard II., and was lieutenant to John, Lord Grey of Codnor, at Harflete in Normandy, during the wars of Henry V., from his abode, at which place, with his father, and for important services there, Gilbert the youngest son came to be called after that town. He was at first styled Septvans alias Chequer, then Chequer alias Harflete, and at last Waretuis de Valoigns was with Richard I. at the siege of Harflete only. Gilbert's share of the estates descended, Acre, and one of the same name was living at Repton in through Thomas his son, and John his grandson, who both the 45th year of Henry III., as appears by a deed, so dated, wrote themselves Septvans alias At Chequer; and Chris- in which he styles himself of that place. Robert de topher Harflete his great-grandson, to Raymonde Harflett, Valoigns, also, is described as a "Baron" in the 13th son of the last named, who repurchased a moiety of the year of the latter prince, and William de Valoignes, of original estates, which John de Septvans partitioned among Swerdling and Repton, filled the office of sheriff from the his three sons, and which had gone out of the family some 3rd to the 6th year of Edward I., when he died; his son, little time previously, by a daughter, into the name of Sir William de Valoignes, taking part in the war against the Alday. He left a son Thomas At Chequer (so styled in his Scotch, and obtaining the honour of knighthood from the will), otherwise Thomas Harflett, who died in 1559, pos- king at the siege of Carlaverock. As an instance of the sessed of Moland, which he devised to his son Christopher, singular customs of the times, it may be mentioned that this who wrote himself Septvans alias Harflete. Christopher doughty soldier held of Edward, in capité, a moiety of died in 1575, and his wife Mercy possessed Moland till her the manor of Maplescomp by the service of finding a halfdeath in 1602, when it went to their eldest son Sir Francis penny for the king's offering whenever he might come to Harflete, knight, who married twice. By his first wife he hear mass at that place ("Blount's Tenure," p. 29). had two sons, Michael and Christopher, and two daughters. Another William de Valoigns married Loretta, only child Michael Harflete, the eldest, dying without issue in 1619, of Otham, and in her right became possessed of the manor left Moland to his brother Christopher Harflete, who was of Otham, and paid aid for it in the 20th year of Henry III., afterwards knighted, and at first resided at his ancient seat, on the occasion of the marriage of Isabella, sister to that but ultimately removed to St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, monarch. This William de Valoigns died in the roth where he died in 1662 leaving, by his wife Aphra, a son year of Edward I., and left two sons, Walter and Robert, Thomas Harflete, of Moland, Esq., who left an only daughter to whom his wife, who survived him, at her death beand heir married to John St. Leger, Esq., and they alienated queathed the manor, which they held in capité in the reign the estate to Singleton. There are several monuments and of Edward II. But the moiety vested in Robert appears to gravestones of the Septvans alias Harfleet in Ash Church, have been soon alienated, for when Isabel, widow of Walter and it is stated that inscriptions in brass to the memory of de Valoigns, paid aid for her portion at the making the this family were originally affixed to three altar tombs in Black Prince a knight, in 20th year of Edward III., it had the churchyard, and also to those on either side of the north got into another name. The above Robert is possibly the door. They bore for their arms the renowned bearings of person of that name in the list of barons who were sumtheir ancestors the Septvans-Azure, three corn fans, or; moned against the Welsh in the 10th year of Edward I. as confirmed to Christopher Septvans alias Harflete in 1574; (Rym. Fœd., ii. 189). Waretuis de Valoyns (as the name which coat he quartered with those of Twitham, Sand-then began to be spelt)" of Tremworth," and who lived wich, Ellis, Brooke, Winbourne, and Wolfe, as it was mostly there, was sheriff the latter part of the 31st and in formerly painted in the several windows of this church, and the 32nd year of Edward I., and he also represented the shire Harris says that these arms of the Septvans, together with in Parliament in the 28th (twice) and 29th years of the same those of the Henleys, Stoughtons, &c., who married into prince, and again in the 2nd year of Edward II. Robert de this family of Septvans alias Harfleet, were still remaining Valoyns died in the 19th year of the latter king, and his son in the windows of the parlour of the house at Molands Henry de Valoyns "of Repton," was knight of the shire in when he wrote. the 13th year of Edward III., and held the office of sheriff in the following year, in which year, also, one of his two sons, Waretuis de Valoyns, had a charter of free warren for Arms-Or, three pales nebule gules; as formerly painted in the his lands at Tremworth, Hougham, and several other places windows of Canterbury cathedral. Their coat, however, afterwards in Kent. We find a Waretuis de Valoyns mentioned in the came to be blazoned-Or, three pales wavy gules; which eventually" Fœdera" as appointed admiral of the king's fleet, from the degenerated into paly of six, wavy, or and gules, and was so represented Thames mouth westward, in the 1st year of Edward III.; in many of the churches of the county. possibly it is the same person. Stephen de Valoyns, the This ancient and eminent family had three several seats in other son, settled himself at Gore Court in Otham, and was Kent as early as the time of Stephen, namely, Swerdling one of the conservators of the peace in the 29th and 31st in Petham (about three-and-a-half miles S.W. of Can-years of Edward III. and in the 1st year of Richard II., terbury), Repton in Ashford, and Tremworth in Crundale and he also sat out for the shire in parliament in the 42nd (about two miles N.E. of Wye), at each of which, alter-year of the former king. Waretuis, however, the eldest son, nately, resided Ruallon de Valoignes, sheriff in the latter who had added Hougham to the paternal estates by marpart of that reign. He bore for his arms-Or, three pales riage, left two daughters only, one married to Thomas de nebule gules, and had the county in ferm from the king; most, if not all the counties, being then let to ferm at the rent of 260l. ad pensam, and 767. and 20d. de numero,† and he was still sheriff in the 1st year of Henry II., as is shown


He is called Septvans alias Chequer in a deed anno 8 Henry IV.; and in the last will of Joane his wife, anno 11 Henry VI., he is called Gilbert Harflete only, though she describes herself as Joane Septvans widow.-HASTED.

"Madox's Excheq." p. 224. Ad pensam signified by weight, and the payer making good the deficiency, if any. De numero was payment by tale, and there was a third method, ad scalum, which was an addition of 6d. for every pound or twenty shillings of silver, to turn the scale, that the king might not lose his weight.-Ibid. p. 187.

*Hasted says (iii. 737) that Alan de Valoigns was sheriff from the 31st year to the end of Henry III., and refers to a former volume (i. 290) in support of this, where, however, the presence of that person among the sheriffs of the reign of Henry II. hardly justifies this flagrant misstatement, which he evidently had second-hand, from Philipot, who, in his notice of Swerdling (p. 274) makes a precisely similar blunder. Hasted then supplements his preliminary error by stating immediately afterwards that the same person was also ap pointed admiral of the king's fleet, from the mouth of the Thames westward, in the 1st year of Edward I., and gives Rymer's Fœdera. vol. 4 p. 284. as his authority. The reference in question, nevertheless, is equally unfortunate, since it relates to the 1st year of Edward III, and the person elevated to the post is a Waretuis de Valoigns. To do Philipot justice, however, he does not appear to be responsible for this last misrepresentation.

Aldon, and the other to Sir Francis Fogge, between whom his estates were divided, and passed away out of this emi

nent name.

In the south window of the cross aisle of Ashford Church was once the figure of one of this family habited in his surcoat-of-arms, with his spurs on, kneeling at an altar, and opposite to him, in the same attitude, his two wives in their surcoats of arms likewise, on the first those of Haute, and on the second Fogge, and behind her four children kneeling.


Arms-Argent, on a fess, between three annulets, sable, three mullets of the first pierced, as carved on the roof of the cloisters in Canterbury cathedral.

Their son, Sir William Fogge, knight, was twice married, first to the daughter and heiress of Sir William Septvans, knight, who entitled himto the greater portion of the Septvans estates, and secondly to the daughter of Sir Nicholas Wadham, knight, of Sandwich. By his first wife he left a son Sir John Fogge, of Repton, knight, a man of great ability and in high favour with his sovereign King Edward IV., being comptroller and treasurer of his household and a privy councellor. He was several times sheriff for the county, and also represented it in parliament; but in the third year of Richard III. his attachment to his late master brought on an act of attainder and the forfeiture of his estates, although the king extended his royal protection to his person, the act being eventually reversed by his successor, Henry VII., but this famous man did not long survive the restitution of his rights and privileges, for he died in the sixth year of that This family, which ultimately absorbed into itself the large reign (1490). He, with many other great personages kneelestates of both Valoigns and Septvans, sprang from Otho ing, and having the quarterings of Valoigns and Fogge on Fogge, who came into Kent out of Lancashire in the early his surcoat, was formerly represented in the window of part of the reign of Edward I. His son, John Fogge, had Ashford Church, which he rebuilt, and where also he lies issue Sir Francis Fogge, knight, who lived in the reigns of buried in a handsome tomb. An old chronicle relates that Edward II. and III., and married the daughter and co-heir when King Edward IV. went on to Sandwich, having come of Waretuis de Valoyns, who brought him, together with other to Canterbury, in 1469, and executed Nicholas Faunte, the property, Repton in Ashford, which henceforth became their mayor, and many more, for abetting the bastard Falconbridge, family seat. The mansion of Fogge's Court, in Great Monge- he left behind him, in Kent, this Sir John Fogge and ham (about three-and-a-half miles S.E. of Sandwich), which several others to sit in judgment on the residue of the rebels, in Hasted's time had sunk into utter insignificance, being most of whom were heavily fined. Like his father, he then but a mere cottage, was the only one of their many married twice; first Alicia de Haute, and secondly Alicia, possessions in the eastern part of this county which adopted daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Crioll or Kiriell, knight their name. Sir Francis and his wife were buried in Cheriton of the garter, who was killed at the Battle of St. Albans, church, and on his tomb there his figure lies cross-legged, fighting in the cause of the House of York, who brought him habited in armour, and with the arms of Fogge impaling the large estates of that ancient family. Sir Thomas Fogge, those of Valoigns (Paly of six, wavy, or and gules) on his his son, by his second wife, was a celebrated man in the reign surcoat. Sir Thomas Fogge, knight, his son, having been of Henry VII. and VIII., being Serjeant Porter of Calais. taken prisoner in one of the campaigns of Edward III., Fogge's court, which formed part of his share of the inheripetitioned Parliament, in the 50th year of that king, for the tance, went out of the family at his death, by his daughter and amount of his ransom, in which year also he was knight of co-heiress Alice, to William Scott. By his first wife, Sir John the shire for Kent, and again represented the county in the Fogge had a son of the same name, Sir John Fogge, knight, national assembly in the 2nd and 4th years of Richard II. who married three times, and, dying in 1501, left a son also, He was buried at Glastonbury, and left a son, Sir Thomas Sir John Fogge, knight, who, following his father's example, Fogge, knight, a man of considerable importance undertook unto himself three spouses, and died in 1533, leaving by Richard II. and Henry IV., and the husband of Johanna, daughter and heiress of Sir Stephen de Valence. In the 9th year of Richard II. he, with many others of rank, accompanied John of Gaunt, King of Castile, on his journey to Spain, and in the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 11th years of the same king, he sat for the county in parliament. He died in 1407, his wife in 1425, and both lie buried in the nave of Canterbury Cathedral, where there was formerly the figure of a knight, with their arms, and the following lines to their memory :

"Thomas Fogge, jacit hic, jacit hic sua spousa Johanna, Sint celo cives per te Deus hos et Osanna; Regni Protector Francos Britones superavit Nobilium rector sicuti Leo Castra predavit Et quoq; militiam sic pro patria peramavit Ad summam patriam deus hunc ab agone vocavit." His shield-of-arms, carved in wood and painted, hung, originally, on the pillar adjoining his grave, and the same arms of Fogge are painted in several of the windows, and carved on the roof of the cloisters of Canterbury Cathedral, and are likewise sculptured in stone on either side of the porch of Ashford Church. According to the obituary, he gave £20 in aid of the then new chapter house of the cathe. dral, and by his will (Consistory Court, Canterbury), left 10 marcs sterling towards the work of the cathedral, his wife also bequeathing 20d. to each monk in the convent. She was of the blood royal of England, her father, the Earl of Pembroke, being half-brother on the mother's side to Henry


His surcoat was -Paly of six, wavy, or and gules; but the shield on his arm bore-Or, three pales wavy, gules.

the first of them an only son Edward. Edward Fogge, dying without issue, the entailed estates went to his father's younger brother, George Fogge. This George Fogge sold the ancestral seat of Repton in the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth. He was twice married, and left by his first wife, Richard Fogge of Dane court, in Tilmanstone (about four miles S. of Sandwich), and Eizechias, the former of whom became the ancestor of the Fogges of Dane court, the latter those of Tilmanstone and Canterbury. From that time this eminent family began to decline, parting one by one with its numerous possessions, and gradually losing all the prestige of its former greatness. Richard Fogge, the eldest son, died in 1598, seised of Dane court and South court (in Tilmanstone), both of which he had purchased of Thomas Cox, but South court was soon after alienated by his descendants into the name of Peyton. He was a justice of the peace, and his son, Thomas Fogge of Dane court, left Richard Fogge, who died in 1680. Edward, eldest son of the last mentioned left no issue; neither did his brother Christopher, captain of a man-of-war, who died in 1708, aged 58, and is buried in Rochester Cathedral. Thereupon Dane court fell to the youngest son, John Fogge, and after him came to his eldest son, Richard Fogge, a mariner, who sold it about the year 1724, and died afterwards on board the Fleet at Gibraltar, in 1740. This last male representative of the direct line of the great family of the Fogges left by a sister of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Sandwich, an only daughter, the wife of a poor shepherd, who, when Hasted wrote, lived in a wretched hovel at Eastry. The Dane court branch bore the nine arms, as their ancestors of Repton.

SWEDISH ANTIQUITIES. Translated and abridged from Forssell's "Année en Suede."


HELSINGLAND has been called the Holland of the North, and it deserves its appellation. Without neglecting agriculture or the rearing of cattle, the peasant of Helsingland employs much of his time in the cultivation of flax, and the manufacture of linen; the whirr of the spinning-wheel and of the loom may be heard all day long in the cottages. It is said that during the Finland war of 1788, a soldier from Helsingland being quartered in a house where there was a spinning-wheel, was observed to seat himself, resting his sabre upon his knees, at the wheel, and to spin his yarn. Called to action by beat of drum, he fought with all the gallantry for which his regiment was celebrated.

clearer, we may classify these subaltern divinities under three heads, the genii of the mountains, genii of the earth, and genii of the waters. The mountains are the magnificent castles where Berg-kungen (the King of the Hills) and his queen dwell in solemn silence. Notwithstanding their reported taciturnity, however, it sometimes happens that lone travellers are startled by the sound of bursts of laughter from them. Sometimes in the night, especially on Christmas eve, the king throws open the vaulted portals of his halls, which are illumined by the light of innumerable torches, and supported upon pillars of gold. Bright maidens offer, amid their dances, horns filled with mead and glowing with countless varied hues; but woe to the unwary traveller if he enter, for inevitably the mountain will close upon him, and he will disappear for ever. Popular songs, as well as traditions, handed down from father to son, tell us of such disappearances.

Elfvor (the elves) dwelt within the earth. They are of two kinds-the benevolent and the malicious. The most beautiful of the elfin tribes, called Ljuflingar, or "the sweet," make their abode within mounds or hillocks, where also dwell Elfkonungen (the king of the elves), who is only a few inches high, and Elfmodern (the mother of the elves), as well as their court musician, Harpeman (the harper). During the nights of summer the elves hold dances in the meadows, leaving next morning traces of their presence in fairy rings. It is dangerous to disturb these balls, or, as the expression is, to meet "Elfsstim.' The result is sure to be a malady, called by the peasantry "Elfbläst." The elfin folk, however, are not unfriendly to man, frequently courting his society, and occasionally even espousing human brides. Dvergar, "the dwarfs," choose the inside of huge stones for their places of abode. They are skilful in the mechanical arts and in magic. Oftentimes in the evening their daughters attract the passers-by by the melodious music of their harps. The sprites, or goblins, whom the Swedes call tomts or trolls, are almost identical with the lares of the and though they are extremely diminutive, it is dangerous to ancient Romans. They are the tutelary genii of houses, irritate them. They are very capricious: the successful erection of a house, for instance, depending entirely on their will and pleasure. If their consent is granted, one hears all

Helsingland was peopled later than the ancient Swithiod. Swedish families established themselves on the sea coast, the interior of the country being occupied by the Norwegians. The local laws (Helsingelagen), as well as the Runic inscriptions here discovered, indicate a less high degree of antiquity than similar remains of the past warrant us in inferring for the inhabitants of other parts of Sweden. The Scandinavian aborigines, Lapps and Finns, shared the fate of all who inhabited the northern shore of the mouth of the river Dal. They were driven back into the mountainous districts bordering the river Köl, and their descendants still remain there. To this the province of Medelpad is an exception, that part of the country having in the old heathen times had frequent communication with Drontheim, and preserving to this hour many traces of a high antiquity. Though Christianity has chased away so many stitious beliefs, many are still to be found among the peasantry of Helsingland, especially in the three parishes of Färilla, Ljusdahl, and Jerfsö. Here and there the elemental spirits are still supposed to exercise their former power Undine sports among the reeds, the woodwife leads wayfarers in the forest into devious and dangerous paths, the elves dance in the meadows, and the mischievous household sprite plays pranks in the various rooms of the dwelling, without ever being seen. We will devote a few columns tonight long the sounds of knocking and hammering in the the subject of these mythological remains which have retained their place among the fancies, if not among the beliefs, of the people of Norrland and some other provinces of


old super

Popular tradition still retains some names of the divinities of the ancient mythology of the ancient Asars, and although they are no longer regarded as living existences, Thor, the most ancient and most revered of the divinities of the North, still traverses the heavens during a storm in his chariot of lightning, Frejas' distaff still sparkles among the stars, in the constellation Orion, while the inhabitants of Scania give the name "Odin's Chase" to certain peculiar sounds in the air, like a tremendous humming and buzzing, which are sup posed to be produced by the birds of passage, and are only heard during the months of November and December. The memory of Balder is also retained in the name of a flower (Anthemis Catula*), which the inhabitants of Scania denominate "Balder's Brow." Many other proofs might be brought forward of the extent to which the mythology of the Asars was at one time spread over the North; but the larger number of beliefs still existing among the peasantry of Sweden belong to another class of superstitions. The mythological images of the Asars have disappeared before the light of Christianity, and it is within and above the earth that the inferior divinities, unknown to that mythology, and probably belonging to a system even older, continue to live in popular belief. To render the subject

A large and strong-smelling species of camomile.-TRANSLATOR.

new building; should, however, the contrary be the case, they throw continual obstacles in the way of the work, causing beams to fall out, and, in fact, thwarting it in every way. They bring riches into the house, and reward domestic virtues. An ancient popular song has preserved for us the names of the live in the trees; they are evidently a race addicted to pomp tomts, Ide, "activity," and Fride, "peace." The Vetterne and ceremony, for they go in long processions through the forests in the midst of the värdträden, "trees to be cared for,"+ carrying blue torches. It is considered great good fortune to find one of these torches, which are useful in a variety of ways. When a tree is cut down the poor wood. spirits are left without habitation, and their lamentatious may be heard in the crackling of the logs upon the fire. Skogsfrun, "the lady or woman of the wood," wanders alone and unwedded among the groves, and allures unwary youths by her beauty; Skogsrat, another phantom of the forest, leads the traveller astray by all sorts of frolics, and causes the hunter to lose trace of his game.

The water also possesses its tutelary beings. The Neckan

Stim, voice.-TRANSLATOR.

Trees, by means of which the future may be predicted, and which are, therefore, forbidden to be injured.

Ra, fairy, is the same word as ra, a roe or deer. May it not have been believed formerly that the supernatural species of ra possibly somewhat akin to the faun of the ancients, owned some kindship to the gentle animals of the forest, whence their anxiety to save the deer from the hunter ?-TRANSLATOR.

is said to be "the god of the singing water," i.e., the gentle murmur of the waves. It is from him that youths and maidens learn music, having always to make him some offering in return for his lessons. Young enthusiasts have been known to be so enchanted with the melancholy music of his harp as to throw themselves into his arms and disappear for ever. He himself is fond of hearing music, and often rises to the surface of the waves for the purpose of listening to it. A legend relates that, on one occasion, the Neckan, having, by his harmonious melodies, attracted and spirited away a young maiden, her lover stationed himself upon the shore, took his instrument and played with an inspiration so happy that the water-sprite, as a recompense, restored to him his beloved again. The Strömkarl, another deity of the waters, only plays in the vicinity of cataracts; his song is so full of energy and force as to cause all songs possessing these characteristics to be denominated Strömkarlaslag. Hafsmannen, and Hafsfrun ("the man and woman of the sea"), are a marine god and goddess who inhabit a magnificent palace at the bottom of the sea, where feed flocks of sheep as white as snow, and where grow trees, whose branches grow downwards. Hafsmannen is in the habit of carrying off young maidens as they walk upon the seashore. Sailors have occasionally seen his wife seated upon some little isle, and engaged either in washing her linen or in combing her long and beautiful hair, whilst balancing herself upon the



A new direction was given to these old beliefs in the intimate connection between man and nature, by the Church of the Middle Ages, which taught the peasantry to look upon sprite and demigod as demons. The heroes of the mytho; logy of the Asars gave way in time to the saints, the festival and the flower of the Balder being dedicated to St. John, and Odin and Thor being dethroned. It was long, however, before the worship of the latter was completely eradi. cated. Long after the introduction of Christianity the peasantry of the North endeavoured to persuade the missionaries to recognize Thor and Christ as equally divine. The church of Thorsang, one of the most ancient in Dalecarlia, still has an image of that deity upon the wall of the church, an image which the peasantry regard as a prognos

ticator of the weather.


J. Y.

WINWICK (Vol. iv. 222, 254).-In Hutchinson's "History of Northumberland," 1776, is the following:

"Oswald possessed an excellent knowledge of the art of war, which he had made his study as a science; he had gathered together a select band, and in a fortified situation waited the approach of Cedwell, who fell in the conflict and his army was totally routed. This took place at Heavenfield, according to Bede. In commemoration of this event the convent of Stexham ouilt a church there, in honour of St. Cuthbert, and King Oswald. The place is called St. Oswald's to this day, and the church is still in existence. The Northumbrians, thus relieved from a savage enemy, raised Oswald to the throne, in 634, with joyful acclamations; a jealousy which reigned between the provinces of Dena and Bernicia, he conciliated, and made them equally happy under his wise government. When peace was restored he employed himself in reforming the manners of his subjects, and most especially he laboured in their conversion to Christianity.

The glory of his arms was not more eminent than the fame of his wisdom, his lenity and benevolence were

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proverbial, the neighbouring nations regarded him with reverence, and his people obeyed him with love. "These excellencies, together with the fate of Cedwell, irritated the wicked heart of Penda, the Mercian, and he levied an army to make war upon Northumberland. Oswald being informed of these military preparations, with alacrity collected his troops and met his adversary at Maserfield, in Shropshire, on the 5th day of August, 642, where, after a long and sanguinary conflict, victory declared for Penda, Oswald being among the slain. The inhuman conqueror caused the limbs of the deceased king, after being horribly mangled, to be suspended on a pole like a common traitor or infamous malefactor, which caused the name of Maserfield to be changed to that of Oswald's Tree." Where is this place? E. THOMPSON.

THOMAS RYMER (Vol. iv. 256).-Thomas Rymer, F.S.A., was born at Appleton-upon-Wiske (a village near Northallerton) in 1638. His father was trepanned into the Yorkshire plot in 1663, and executed. He was of Sydney College, Cambridge-afterwards of Gray's Inn. In 1692 he was made Historiographer Royal to William III. The first warrant empowering him to search the public records for his Foedera was signed by Mary II., August 26th, 1693—it was renewed by William III., April 12, 1694, and again by Queen Anne, May 3, 1707, when Robert Sanderson, Esq., was joined to him in the undertaking. He was forced to part with all his printed books to obtain a subsistence. His the British Museum, and are a lasting monument of his inmanuscripts, consisting of fifty volumes in folio, are now in dustry and abilities. He died in 1713, and lies buried in the church of St. Clement Danes. He must not be confounded with Thomas the Rhymer, a Scotch necromancer, who flourished centuries before.


LONG MEG OF WESTMINSTER (Vol. iv. 249).—Near Penrith is one of the finest druidical remains in England-vulgarly called Long Meg and her daughters. It consists of sixty-seven enormous unhewn stones, forming a circle 350 feet in diameter. Long Meg stands about thirty paces without the circle, and has four faces, with their angles directed to the four cardinal points of the compass. It is 18 feet high, and computed to weigh 16 tons. It is said by the country people that the stones cannot be counted twice alike, and that they are a company of witches transformed into stones on the prayer of some saint.

Quare-Whence the appellation? Is there any supposition that the Cumbrian Long Meg can be identified with Long Meg of Westminster ?

E. THOMPSON. COACHES IN ENGLAND (Vol. iv. 167, 182, 253, 278).— Taylor, the water poet, writes :—

"When Queen Elizabeth came to the crowne,
A coach in England then was scarcely knowne.
Then 'twas as rare to see a one as to spye
A tradesman that had never told a lye.'

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ROMAN SEWERS.-In speaking of Roman baths and sewers, Mr. Grover, in his paper read at the last annual meeting of the British Archæological Association, observed that as to our sewers they will not carry off a storm flood, and the Metropolitan Board of Works would have been staggered by the Roman cloaca maxima, through which a

waggon of hay could be driven. Nor were these works confined to the capital, for Dr. Bruce crept for 100 yards along the Roman sewer on the site of the ancient city by the wall in Northumberland; and there are similar remains at Lincoln, while the public latrina at Wroxeter was remarkable. Mr. Grover then noticed the recent revival of encaustic tiles, and stated that our oilcloth patterns have been copied from Roman pavements. He recommends, however, tesselated floors, combining durability and cleanliness, dispensing with dusty carpets, and being also fire-proof. The ancient floors were supported on beds of concrete, resting on tiles, which stood on a small forest of short pillars. The fire was outside, the heat passing under the floor, and the hot air escaping through the walls by small flue pipes. The Roman roads, with their posting houses at regular distances, inns, and mansiones-whence our word mansion, places where diplomata or passports were examined. were next noticed, and then the public playgrounds, where games were The great basilica at Netherby was sometimes used as a riding school, and there were evidences of the existence of public gardens. A Roman officer, the triumvir valetudinarius, looked after sanitary matters, sewers, water, and latrina, while Vitruvius mentions the care shown in selecting healthy sites for cities. Alpian, in the third century, A.D., says the censors had for 1000 years kept registers of population, entering age, sex, and cause of death; colleges of physicians existed, including veterinaries and midwives, the army was provided with surgeons, and Pliny mentions an unhappy man who died of a multitude of doctors. Both medical and legal practitioners have at all times received the abuse and the homage of mankind. Roman doctors resorted to electricity-the shock of a torpedo-for

carried on.

headaches and nervous affections. Mr. Grover concluded

by mentioning other instances in which the ancients anticipated or were on the threshold of modern discoveries.


AN English Reprint Society is being formed for the reproduction in limited editions of rare and costly works in English historical literature, chiefly of the Tudor and Stuart periods. The original numbers are to make 200. Scotch Protestant element is strongly represented on the provincial council, which embraces the names of the Revs. Dr. Wylie, Dr. Badenock, and Dr. Charles Rogers, George Limkshank, Esq., Thomas Soymouth, Esq., F.R.S., and George Harris, Esq. This circumstance is due, probably, to the fact that a considerable portion of English literature between the dates of 1509 and 1698 is of a decidedly controversial tone, though few of the works are popularly


SONNET BY PROFESSOR PORSON.-Except the insertion, in "Lodge's Portraits of Eminent Persons," about forty years since, I have never noticed the publication of the following remarkable lines by the late Professor Porson of Cambridge:

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Mysterious Nothing! How shall I define,
Thy shapeless, baseless, placeless emptiness?
Nor form nor colour, sound, nor size are thine;
Nor words, nor figures can thy void express.
But though we cannot Thee to aught compare,
To Thee a thousand things may likened be;
And though thou art with nobody, no where,
Yet half mankind devote themselves to thee!
How many books thy history contain,

How many heads thy mighty plans pursue,
What labouring hands thy portion only gain,
What busy men thy doings only do.

To Thee the great, the proud, the giddy bend, And, like my Sonnet, all in Nothing end."


LATIN PUNS ON ENGLISH NAMES.-The following extract from the register of the parish of Clapton, Northants, supplies a good specimen of a Latin pun upon English names. Both the Christian names, and both the surnames, appear in the Latin; but the sense of the couplet suffers in the effort to secure this :

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Poems of Later Years. By Henry Sewell Stokes, Author of "The Vale of Lauherne," "Memories," ""A Life's Epilogue," &c. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1873.

FROM Mr. Stokes's productive pen we have again to welcome a volume of poems, and one which we believe will do still more than former publications to popularize the name of the author. The previously issued, and in certain passages they reveal the nature and sent verses are far more spontaneous in character than those preimaginative expression of a true poet. The shorter pieces in these "Poems of Later Years" give evidence of practised judgment. They are as remarkable for freshness of thought and feeling as for ease of diction. Some of the truths of experience, which, like gems, are set in the light framework of these graceful and sympathetic verses, will find echoes in many hearts. The most important poen in the collection, both as regards subject and style of treatment, breadth and profundity of feeling, is "Thrasea." This deeply interesting history of the life of a man of unflinching virtue during the reign of the tyrant Nero proclaims Mr. Stokes's earnest sympathy with the noblest and truest attributes of human nature. The initial its artistic quaintness. From various passages, we imagine that the piece, entitled "The Chantry Owl," will charm many readers by Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals has a warm sup porter in Mr. Stokes. In conclusion, we must not omit to thank the the hope that we may renew his acquaintance ere long in fresh lays author for the valuable notes at the end of the volume, and to express and lyrics.


My Old Mote and Me. Song. Poetry by Miss Saxby, music by Miss M. Lindsay (Mrs. J. Worthington Bliss). R. Cocks and Co. THE words of this song might be appropriately spoken by any venerable couple of the age of John Anderson and his poetical spouse; the musical treatment of these verses is adapted for the use of young school-girls. We must protest against incongruities of this description. Why will composers choose words which they either will not or cannot treat characteristically? And, further still-Where was Lindley Murray when Miss Saxby selected her title? A Relic. For the Pianoforte. By Mozart. Joseph Williams and Co. A SHORT preface attached to this piece claims for it the authorship of paper by the great composer. According to the prefatory notice Mozart, although, we are told, it was never actually committed to alluded to, the piece, or more probably the air, has been caught simply by the aid of memory by one person from another. The leading melody is certainly very charming. The change from the key of B flat major into the subdominant is less felicitous and less Mozartean than the opening motif. For the sake of its own merits, its reputed associations, and the general absence of difficulties, the Relic will probably become a favourite.

Rustling Woods (Waldesrauschen). Idyll for the Pianoforte, by F. Braungardt. Augener and Co, A POETICAL Composition of dreamy character, yet affording excellent practice. It is not exactly easy, but the difficulties which it presents are only those which may be overcome by patience. It is in the key of G flat, modulating into the dominant at the close of the first eight bars. The octave passage on the fourth page, followed by the chan of modulations in the succeeding bars, is effective. We observe that "Op. 6" is inscribed on the first page. In such case, this effort, which displays considerable refinement of taste and imagination, may be regarded as a very promising one.




Correspondents who reply to queries would oblige by referring to the volume and page where such queries are to be found. To omil this gives us unnecessary trouble. A few of our correspondents are slow to comprehend that it is desirable to give not only the reference to the query itself, but that such reference should also include all previous replies. Thus a reply given to a query propounded at page Vol. iii., to which a previous reply had been given at page 20, and another at page 32, requires to be set down (Vol. ii. 4, 20, 32). We shall be glad to receive contributions from competent and capable persons accomplished in literature or skilled in archæology, and generally from any intelligent reader who may be in possession of facts, historical or otherwise, likely to be of general interest. Communications for the Editor should be addressed to the Pub lishing Office, 81A, Fleet Street, London, E.C. ✓

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