333, 430).-Another version of the ferry-boat
problem is that of the three missionaries and
the three cannibals. It was a favourite after-
dinner problem in India some twenty-five
years ago; three matches broken in half were

The Library.

A Relation of Voyage to Guiana. By
Robert Harcourt." Edited by Sir C. Alex-
ander Harris. (Quaritch for the Hakluyt
Society. £1 5s.).

ARCOURT'S" Relation" is one of the minor

generally used to represent the six persons H classics of travel. It is not a great book; it

involved in the adventure, the halves with
the heads, of course, representing the

AUTHORS WANTED (cliv. 425):

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A. H.

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1. The
headmaster who exhorted his boys in
a school sermon to let their wit be like the
coruscations of the summer lighting, lambent
yet innocuous, was Edward Meyrick Goulburn,
who succeeded Tait at Rugby in 1849 and re-
signed in 1857. He was Dean of Norwich from
1866 to 1889 and died in 1897, aged 79. The
story of his giving the above admonition is
told either in one of G. W. E. Russell's books
or in one by Lionel A. Tollemache. I am very
familiar with it but have failed to find it just
now. But in Tollemache's delightful Old and
Odd Memories' (1908), p. 52, is the following:-
"That very amusing book of Bishop
Walsham How's Lighter Moments,' contains
another story. Dr. Goulburn, dilating in
a sermon on the intermixture of good and evil
in the world, sententiously exclaimed: Re-
member that there was a Ham in the Ark
and then improved matters by adding:
mean a human Ham.' Had the good Dean a
tendency to be something of a pulpit-Malaprop?
A friend of mine assures me that he heard a
sermon of Goulburn's in which he eloquentiy
declared that even the most sumptuous ban-
quet would at last become wearisome, and
then added: 'Heaven is a feast from which
there is no rising up.' It is reported that,
when he was preaching to the boys at Rugby,
he threw out a suggestion which must have
been true in a double sense: What is your
conversation, my brethren, from day to day?
Is it not chaff, chaff, chaff?''


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I have a study chair of Dean Goulburn's
with sloping arms and a reading board. The
seat and back are cane, and the framework,
I am told, is of birchwood. Is the choice of
this professional material to be interpreted as
a coruscation of lambent yet innocuous wit?

Much Hadham,

1. The passage cited by R. E. T., as I re-
member it from the late fifties of last century,
ran as follows: "Let the scintillations of your
wit be as the coruscation of the summer light-
ing lambent but innocuous."

The preacher was the Rev. Edward M.
Goulburn, D.D., Fellow of Merton College,
Oxford, Head Master of Rugby, after Arnold
and before Temple. He was four times select
preacher before the University, and in 1850
Bampton Lecturer. I have heard him preach
several times. He died, I think, Dean of Nor-


does not deal with great events. But it has
a quality of its own by reason of its author's
manliness, truthfulness and powers of observa-
tion and description. Harcourt's voyage took
place in 1608 and his account of it was pub-
fished in 1613. It was included by Purchas in
his collections and has also been printed in
the unwieldy Harleian Miscellany.' This
handsome edition by the Hakluyt Society with
the scholarly introduction by Sir C. Alex-
ander Harris is very welcome.



The Editor has great experience in the
bourhood. His knowledge of boundaries, old
materials for the history of Guiana and neigh-
place-names, geography and maps is
any improvement in his admirable work. In
rivalled; and it would be difficult to suggest
particular he shows (an independent discovery,
though as he acknowledges made
others) that a document printed by Purchas
as found among Hakluyt's papers is really
part of the literature of Harcourt's voyage.
It is, as interval evidence shows, a report to
Harcourt, by his cousin, Unton Fisher, of an
independent journey of discovery into the
interior of Guiana made at Harcourt's in-
stance. Sir C. Alexander Harris shows also that
a map in the British Museum (reproduced
here with other maps) made by Gabriel
Tatton, was undoubtedly, as the Baron do Rio
Branco surmised at the time of the Boundary
Commission, prepared to illustrate Harcourt's


and their immediate successors
So many of the great Elizabethan sailors
hailed from
the south-western counties, that it is a pleasure
lands like Harcourt. He came of the ancient
to come across an adventurer from the Mid-
and the late Lord Harcourt took a legitimate
family of Stanton Harcourt in Oxfordshire,
pride in being descended from him. The Har-
father sold some of his estates to pay for this
court papers tell a romantic story of how his
expedition, and there is a handsome portrait
of Harcourt at Nuneham, which is reproduced
here as a frontispiece. Michael Harcourt his
brother, Thomas Harcourt his cousin, and
Edward and Unton Fisher also cousins, sailed
with him. Among his children was Vere
Harcourt, about whom there has recently been
some correspondence in these columns. Alto-
gether a family to interest the genealogist as
well as the historian, and, if we may grumble
a little at Sir C. Alexander Harris, we think
that perhaps he might have given us a fuller
biographical notice of his hero than he has

But after all, it is Harcourt's exploit and
Harcourt's book that are the thing, and as we
have said this edition could scarcely be
bettered. If it sends readers back to a good

straight-forward tale, with admirable sober
descriptions of the country and its resources,
not a few good stories and little of the
marvellous it will have achieved its purpose.
Sir Joseph Banks and Iceland. By Halidór
Hermannson. (Cornell University Library.
Oxford University Press. $3).

IR Joseph Banks's visit to Iceland is one of
Sthe most pleasant and interesting episodes
of the eighteenth century history of science,
although the notes he wrote on the trip are
lost, and, in general, the results of the expedi-
tion remain somewhat scant and fragmentary.
This monograph reproduces twenty-four of the
drawings-by Clevely and Miller-which form
one of the best of its fruits. Another, as every-
one knows, is the collection of printed books
and MSS. which Banks presented to the British
Museum. Further, there was the lava which
was brought home as ballast, and, being handed
over to Kew Botanical Gardens, was used there
with great success for the growing of Crypto-
grams, the spongy nature of the lava, so reten-
tive of water, being just what is requisite for
the foundation of a happy moss-garden.

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Banks, rich and young and kindly, and come
with no intention of besting them-very
different from the Danish merchants and offi-
cials who were the principal characters from
the outside world whom it was given them to
entertain-captivated the Icelanders
pletely. He had their welfare genuinely at heart,
maintained a constant intercourse with them,
and was active about the plan for the annexa-
tion of Iceland by England, which grew out of
the complications between Denmark and Eng-
land at the beginning of the nineteenth cen-
tury, and would evidently then have been wel-
comed by Iceland. Among the letters and
papers of Banks's relating to Icelandic politics
the most permanently interesting is the long
account of the island, given here in full, which
he drew up for the information of the Govern-
ment in 1801; but hardly less so are the story
of his persistent intervention on behalf of Ice-
landic merchants in the Prize Court, and that
of all the pains he took over the business of
the quasi-revolution in 1809 and the machina-
tions of Jörgenson, matters which M. Hermann-
sson goes into pretty fully and with abundance
of documents. This is the Eighteenth Volume
of the Islandica brought out annually under

the will of the late Willard Fiske.

Church and State: Political Aspects of Six-
teenth Century Puritanism. By A. F. Scott
Pearson. (Cambridge University Press.
7s. 6d. net).


R. Scott Pearson has undertaken a somewhat
difficult task in this new study of
Elizabethan Puritanism. Political thought
among the sixteenth century Puritans was a
harsh and complicated affair. They were
breaking away from old principles, but had
not worked out anything demonstrably better
to put in their place. Their politics depended
closely on their religion, and their religion



being as yet largely speculative deeply felt by
the few and the advanced, but not yet very
far tested and established by the ordinary
man's acceptance stood more plainly in
academic than in any practical relation to
public affairs. If they had produced a man of
large genius, their remains, caught up into his
interesting and more profitable than
history, might have been something
anument, but, as it is, much of their work lies
under the special melancholy ban of the still-
born. They may well, in some ways, remind
us of Darwin and his theory of the origination
of species by natural selection. That theory,
like the political ideas, of the early Puritans,
had no very long period of effective life, but
it served as a framework on which the con-
ception of evolution was brought home to every
man's bosom. Even so did the Puritans'
crude, narrow and rather mechanical ideas
about Church and State, act as vehicle for a
certain spirit and certain principles destined to
survive them and work fundamental changes.
There is not here, however, the inspiriting
sight of a great creative idea; that sort of
power is still latent, and it is Dr. Pearson's
skill in making us see the history and con-
ditions of this new contact between religion
and politics-unfruitful, no wise captivating
to the imagination yet claiming recognition as
a new departure-that we find so worthy to
be commended. Cartwright is, of course, the
central figure. The Two Kingdom Theory,'
Sovereignty and Obedience are the main
Elizabeth and her
heads of the exposition.
advisers perceived the subversive tendency of
only where they sought to reduce the Church
Cartwright's speculations and convictions, not
but also
of England to Presbyterianism,
within their purely political scope. Perhaps
the most widely useful part of this book will
prove the additional light it throws on Eliza-
beth's sagacity as a statesman. The conclud-
ing chapters, on the Puritans' view of Aristotle
and on Aristotle in relation to the Scottish
Church, should not be missed.

JACK SHEPPARD.-I am collecting materials for
a monograph on the famous Jack Sheppard,
and shall be grateful to anyone who is willing
to dispose of contemporary pamphlets. Any
references from letters or memoirs of the
period will also be welcome. Horace
Bleackley, 19, Cornwall Terrace, Regent's
Park, N.W.

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WHEN sending a letter to be forwarded to
another contributor, correspondents are re-
quested to put in the top left-hand corner of
the envelope the number of the page of
N. & Q.' to which the letter refers.

Printed and Published by The Bucks Free Press, Ltd., at their Offices, 20, High Street,
High Wycombe, in the County of Bucks.

Seventy-Ninth Year.

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QUERIES:-Fleurs-de-lis in the Arms of Thomas Guy-The Traiteur, 26-Twacks-Ernst von Levden-Baron Friedel, artist-Confederate States' Flags-Folk names of flowers-Janitor of the Tower of Windsor Castle-Ironside of H.E.I.C.S. Bengal: Journals-Reserved rents in 1800, 27William, Prior and Bishop-Philip Davey-Lancaster authors-Dickson Family of Heslington, Yorks-Cheyne and Keynes Families-" Autres temps, autres mœurs Soldiers' songs Author wanted, 28. REPLIES:-Trinity Sunday, 29-" Grimalkin a letter of Madame de Sévigné-George I in London, 30-Sir Walter Raleigh and BrixtonCater Family-Invernahyles, 31-King's ships built in Southampton neighbourhood-The workhouse in Bishopsgate Street-Eleven and eleven -Alport Family, 32-Earrings: double and treble ear-piercing-The "Duchess of Douglas "-Lady Almeria Carpenter, 33 Walter Needham, M.D.; F.R.S.-Churchgarth-Folk-customs: "guising and "Kirn_suppers "-The Horse in folk-songs and tales-Rogers of Lotta: Humphrey Rogers -Pitt: origin of name Professor John Price, 34 "Strawbenger": a straw hat-Silver salversAuthors wanted, 35.

THE LIBRARY:- Officers of the Bengal Army, 1738-1834 Glimpses of the History of Painswick with a Bibliography of its Literature.'

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FIRST SERIES (1849-1855), 12 Volumes and General Index, bound cloth, (2 volumes and General Index in Publisher's cloth), second hand, clean and sound, £3 38.

SECOND SERIES (1856-1861), 12 volumes, uniformly bound in cloth, second hand, clean and sound, £2 2s.

THIRD SERIES (1862-1867), 12 volumes, uniformly bound in cloth, second hand, clean and sound, £2 28.

THIRD SERIES (1862-1867), bound half leather, marbled boards, in new condition. £10 108.

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NOTES AND QUERIES is published every Friday, at 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks (Telephone: Wycombe 306). Subscriptions (£2 28. a year, U.S.A. $10.50, including postage, two half-yearly indexes and two cloth binding cases, or £1 15s. 4d. a year, U.S.A. $9, without binding cases) should be sent to the Manager. The London Office is at 14, Burleigh Street, W.C.2 (Telephone: Chancery 8766), where the current issue is on sale. Orders for back numbers, indexes and bound volumes should be sent either to London or to Wycombe; letters for the Editor to the London Office.


IN generations to come students of the agricultural economics of the early twentieth century may read with interest an account, supplied by Dr. Arthur G. Ruston to the Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture for July of this year, of a West Riding Farm. The point of the story is that, during a period of deep agricultural depression, the holder of this farm, when all direct and overhead charges had been met, made surplus which ranged from 3.1 per cent. to 23 per cent. on his capital during the six years 1921 to 1927. This success, due first and foremost to ingenuity, skill, adaptability and a genuine feeling for animals, was attained largely by the collection of a good herd of Welsh cattle, but still more conspicuously by the pigs and the clever and unusual lines on which their management is run. For the year 1925-6 the pigs made a profit of £406, using land which had previously been regarded as useless. That represented a net profit of 48 per cent. on the capital invested, while the dairy made a profit of 19 per cent. The farm is a mixed one of 150 acres, situated on the coal measure soils of the West Riding, and is thus not an average farm in regard to position. Nevertheless, this account of it, with its figures and other details (not to forget the illustrations) should be noted as a useful contribution towards the understanding of the farming of the day.

Mr. Bond, in his July on the Farm,' notes that growth this year has been backward owing to the cold, dry weather of May. Also, indoor fodder having run short, stock had to be turned out to grass rather too early for the good of the grass, by which the effect of the weather was aggravated. Mr. Bond remarks, as everybody has done, the preva

lence of buttercups and daisies in the pastures. The prospects of the cornfields are said to be not unsatisfactory, or even better than that, in the Eastern Midlands, particuIn July comes up larly in regard to barley.


the question of the hoeing of the sugar beet crop, and it is still disputed, whether deep or shallow hoeing is the better. Experiment has chiefly favoured the latter, as it points also in favour of frequent hoeing. On the question of mowing of pastures, Mr. Bond has some counsels which, apart from their substance, interested us by the technical use in them of the poetical word "sward." condition of the sward of meadows and of pasture fields differs, he tells us. The sward of pasture-fields gets matted, but meadows show little tendency that way; and to keep pastures clean in the sward close grazing is useful. Another word we noticed is the description of pond waterings for pasture fields as mere waterings.

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THE June number of the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research prints, as respectively eleventh and twelfth of their series of Select Documents, (1) part of a tripartite indenture made in 1299 between the Wardrobe, the Frescobaldi and "Pascasius Valentini called the Adalit,' a Knight of Aragon, and (2) an unpublished poem on Bishop Stephen Gardiner. The latter is a most carefully written MS. from the title of which the author's name has been expunged


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possibly in the reign of Mary Tudor, the poem being a violently Protestant production. It is, however, possible to make out the name as William Palmer," and M. Pierre Janelle, who contributes the article, has brought together a certain number of references to Palmer from contemporary sources and is inclined to think the man who wrote the poem was a Palmer of Gloucester, one of 50 gentlemen called pensioners, who figured in the reception of Anne of Cleves. The importance of the poem is principally biographical, in which regard M. Janelle rates it highly, claiming that it presents a psychological study of Gardiner's aims and motives which deserves great attention. article is to be continued. The library of the Institute has recently been presented with a collection of material relating to the history of English roads formed by the late C. F. Hardy. Mr. Hardy believed that the calculations of the early map-makers and postal authorities were based upon a ten-furlong mile, a view for which he found evidence, among other places, in the postal regulations in the Domestic State Papers.


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