that Lucian appears to have understood the narrative in the same light.

“ And very early in the morning, the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre, at the rising of the sun....and saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment.... And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.” See Mark xvi. On this is founded the following fiction :

Going some time after into the assembly, I met a grey-haired old man, whom by his beard and grave appearance one would have taken for a creditable witness, who, notwithstanding, after relating every thing that had happened to Proteus, told us how he had seen him after he was burned, in a white garment, crowned with olive, walking about; and that he had left him very cheerful and merry in the portico. After all, he brought in my vulture also, and swore he saw it fly out of the pile, though I had myself placed him there on purpose to ridicule such mad and foolish fellows as himself.

“ You may easily guess the consequence of all this. What a heap of bees will be settling in that place! What a congregation of grasshoppers, what a flight of crows will be there, as many as at the tomb of Hesiod; with a thousand miracles of the same kind! I doubt not but there will be statues of him at Elis, and in every part of Greece: for they say he has already written letters to all the principal cities, and certain covenants, exhortations, and laws, which he sent them by ambassadors chosen from amongst his followers, and whom he has dignified with the title of messengers from the dead, or runners to the shades below.” § 40, 41.

Such is the view which this writer has thought fit to give of the death and character of Jesus Christ. The end which he had in writing a book so false and infamous, and the strong additional evidence it affords in behalf of the Gospel, will be considered in the sequel. I shall only add in this place, that Lucian was fully acquainted with the evangelical records; and this renders very probable a tradition handed down from antiquity, that he once had been a professor of Christianity.

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To the treatise about Peregrinus Lucian has subjoined a dialogue between Jupiter, Apollo, and Philosophy. While the two former converse about his resolution to die, they see a person flying towards them: “Who is this,” says Jupiter,“ coming in such a hurry, crying most bitterly, as if she had received some injury?-It is Philosophy, she calls upon me in a piteous tone. My dear daughter, what is the matter? why hast thou left mankind, and for what comest thou hither? Have the ignorant and foolish taken counsel against you, as they did formerly, when on the accusation of Anytus they slew the divine Socrates ? Is that the cause of your flight ?" Philosophy answers, “ No. The multitude have long held me in the highest esteem and veneration; I have been almost adored by them, though they did not fully understand me: but there are some—what shall I call them? who take my name upon them, wear the mask of friendship, and pretend to be my intimate acquaintance; these are the men who have used me most cruelly. They in habit, look, gesture, and appearance, much resemble me: these enlist themselves under my banners, take my name, and call themselves


friends and followers; but their lives are infamous, full of ignorance, impudence, and vice; these are the greatest disgrace to me; by these I have been injured, and from these, O father, I have flown*."

Presently after this, Philosophy gives a more full and definite description of them. “ There is a low set of men, servile, mean, and mercenary, who never had, in their youth, any converse or communion with me, but were either servants, tradesmen, cobblers, smiths, fullers, preparers of wool for the women, or engaged in some handicraft or other of this kind, and consequently from their childhood scarce even so much as heard of my name: but finding, when they were advanced in life, that my followers met with universal esteem and admiration; that men put confidence in them, obeyed their dictates, and dreaded their censure; all this, they thought, was very desirable, and seemed to establish a little empire: but to fit themselves for this way of life was a difficult task, or rather, indeed, totally impracticable. In the mean time, little was got by the arts they professed; and they had much ado, with all their Jabour, to support themselves.

Servitude was a heavy burden, and to many of them grew intolerable. Compelled by these difficulties, they resolved to cast (what the sailors call) their sacred anchor, and moor their

my harbour: and to this end, they called in Ignorance and Impudence for their allies, with Calumny and Abuse, that are ever ready to assist them. Well stored with these, (pretty provision, you will say, for Philosophy,) they trick themselves out, and assume my habit and appearance; like Æsop's ass, who, putting on the lion's skin, brayed

şhip in

* Fugitivi, Luciani Opera, vol. iii. p. 365. ♡ 3, 4.

as fiercely as he could, and expected to be taken for a real lion: and some there were whom they easily imposed on. Our manners, in regard to external appearances, you well know, are easily imitated; it is no great hardship to put on an old cloak, to carry a bag at one's side, and a club in one's hand, to make a noise, or rather to bark at and abuse every body. They would not live now upon plain pulse and coarse food, as they did before on herbs and salads; but flesh of all kinds, and the finest wine: they collected a tribute wherever they went, or, as they called it, sheared their sheep, every body giving them something, either out of respect, or for fear they should be abused by them: they thought, no doubt, they had an equal right to all advantages with the true philosophers; nor is it every one who can discern the difference, where externals are alike. If you inquire too strictly into their character, they have recourse invariably to abuse and violence : if you find fault with their lives, they refer you to their doctrine; and if you dislike their doctrine, they desire you to consider their lives.

“ The whole city abounds with impostors of this kind, especially amongst the followers of Diogenes, Crates, and Antisthenes, all those who fight under Cynic banners: these never imitate that vigilance, that domestic care and attention, that memory, that love of their master, which dogs are so remarkable for: but their barking, their greediness, their gluttony, their fawning, flattery, and love of a good table; these are canine qualities, in which they are great proficients.

“ You inay easily foresee what will be the consequence of this: men will quit their shops, and

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