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who never had in their youth any communication with Philosophy; but were either servants, tradesmen, cobblers, smiths, fullers, preparers of wool for the women, or engaged in some handicraft or other of this kind, and consequently from their childhood scarce ever so much as heard of her name."

The grounds of the inputation here thrown upon Christians may be gathered from Philo. They live principally in villages, and avoid the towns, being sensible that as disease is generated in the body by corruption, so an indelible impression is produced in the soul by the contagion of society. Some of these men cultivate the ground, others pursue the arts of peace, and such employments as are beneficial to themselves without injury to their neighbours.....

... Among them no one can be found who manufactures clubs, arrows, swords, corselets, shields, or any other weapons useful in war, nor even such instruments as are easily perverted to evil purposes in times of

peace.”

Their eloquent apologist adds: “They seek neither to hoard silver and gold, nor to inherit ample estates, in order to gratify prodigality and avarice; but are content with the mere necessaries of life. They are the only people who, though destitute of money and possessions, and that more froin choice than the untowardness of fortune, felicitate themselves as rich, deeming riches to consist, not in amplitude of possession, but, as is really the case, in frugality and contentment.” This feature, which redounds so much to their honour, and so equivocally illustrates the heavenly influence of their faith, is recognised by Aristides. But instead of allowing their superior excellence in this respect, he makes it an additional ground of accusation against them. “They have arrived,” says he, “at a sort of wisdom which consists in a pretence of neglecting money, whilst they do not refuse to receive what is worth money. They have invented a new sort of generosity, not if they give largely, but if they take little for their own use." Though their enemies branded them as slaves, the followers of Jesus scorned slavery, and gloried in the noblest of all freedom, a freedom from vice and ignorance. “They condemn the owners of slaves as tyrants," writes Philo, “ who violate the principles of justice and equality, and impiously transgress the dictates of nature, which like a common parent has begotten all men alike, and made them brethren, not in name only, but in sincerity and truth.” Notwithstanding this, Lucian holds them forth as a slavish set of men, and calls his very book against them, under the title of fugitives, or slaves *. Aristides also says, “ they call impudence freedom, and to oppose others is reckoned a laudable boldness."

Jupiter, on receiving this account from Philosophy, exclaims with indignation, “Oh, ye gods ! what misery has Philosophy suffered from these wretches ! But let us consider what is to be done, and how we shall treat them: my lightning would destroy them at a stroke; that is too quick a death." Apollo then observes, “Father, I will assist you; for I detest these impostors, these haters of the Muses, whom for their sakes I abhor; they are not worthy of your thunder. Let us therefore, if it seem good to you, send down Mercury to inquire into their crimes and deterinine their punishment:

Δραπεται γαρ εκεινοι απαντες. και 27.

as he is himself well learned, he will be able to distinguish the false from the true philosophy; will praise the one according to its merit, and punish the other as it deserves." Jupiter rejoins,

Apollo, you advise well; but do you, Hercules, accompany him; and taking Philosophy along with you, make the best of your way to earth; consider the extirpation of these shameless filthy monsters as your thirteenth labour." | 23. On coming into the earth, they met with a man searching after his wife, who had run away with these philosophers. Mercury, on finding her out, proposes to restore her to her husband, who refuses to receive her, saying that she was with child, and would bring forth an old book entitled Tricranus *, or the three-headed monster: this means the New Testament, which Luciari holds forth as teaching the doctrine of three gods in one. This is evident from the dialogue called Philopatris, where Critias asks, “Whom would you have me swear by? Triephon answers, By the supreme God, the Son of the Father, the Spirit proceeding from the Father, one from three, and three from one." Mercury, on finding some of them out, thus passes sentence upon them: My decree then is, that this woman, for fear she should bring forth any strange many-headed monster, shall go back to her husband in Greece; that these two little slaves shall be restored to their masters, and practise their old trades; that Lecythio shall wash dirty linen; and the perfumer here, being first well whipped with nettles, shall mend his ragged garments; then having his hair all taken off, and his body well pitched and tarred, he shall be carried to mount Hæmus, and hung up by the heels naked in the snow."

* Tpirapavos B.62.07. See Philopatris, $ 11. vol. iii. p. 596. This treatise is supposed not to have been written by Lucian. The ground of this doubt is, that the author slows a greater acquaintance with the affairs of the Christians than Lucian is thought to have had. But his life of Christ, under the name of Perrgrinus, proves this notion a vain assumption.

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CHAPTER XII.

CELSUS AND PLUTARCH, UNABLE TO DISPROVE THE

MIRACLES OF CHRIST, ASSERT THINGS WHICH
THEY KNEW TO BE FALSE, IN ORDER TO UNDER-
MINE THEM.

The learned

rned among the heathen seem, in general, to have regarded the wonders pretended to have been done by the devotees of magic, as mere appearances unfounded in reality and truth. But their inability to deny the reality of the miracles done by our Saviour, induced them to affect a belief in the magical arts. They therefore classed our Lord with the magicians who had learnt their impostures in Egypt, and who exhibited the wonderful effects of them for small gain in public places, attempting by this means to evade his claims as the Son of God. As this is an assertion the truth of which many of my readers may not be prepared to admit, I shall here produce one striking passage in corroboration of it. Celsus, addressing Jesus in the character of a Jew, thus allows the reality of his works : “Let us grant that these things were wrought by thee.” “ After making this concession, however, he proceeds," says Origen, " to class them with such wonders as were produced by the arts of magic: though,” adds he, “this very Celsus, who here seems to allow the truth of the magical arts, wrote several books to prove their falsehood:” an assertion which, though advanced with some hesitation, is confirmed by

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