and at the fame time dictators to the national afembly. Inftances from a writer of credit, that falsehoods and forgeries were the great and conftant refources of the cabals in Paris. Parifians noted for credulity, and at the fame time for the extreme fufpicioufness of their nature. Similar inftances of credulity in the provinces. The exceffive liberty and unbounded licentioufness of the prefs, a powerful inftrument of the revolution. The literati of Paris estimated at 20,000, and thefe dictated to the rest of the nation. Unaccountable and indefenfible fupineness of the minifters, with respect to the prefs. Strange and fatal blindness of the two first orders of the state. Famine, as a caufe of general difcontent, another powerful inftrument of the revolution. Real or imputed conduct of the duke of Orleans. National affembly feriously alarmed at the conflagrations and massacres which were jpreading defolation and ruin through many parts of the kingdom, the nobility being hunted down like wild beasts in feveral of the provinces. This impreffion of terror, produces the extraordinary events of the 4th of August. The viscount Noailles, and the duke d'Aiguillon, make speeches in the affembly, in which they propofe fubftantial redress and relief to the peasantry, by relinquishing and abolishing those parts of the feudal rights and duties, which lay the heaviest on, or were the most complained of by, that order of men. A fudden fit of enthufiafm Spreads at once through the two first orders, and the only conteft after feemed to be, who should facrifice the most, and who should be the first to offer; while the commons feemed loft in aftonishment and applaufe. It was in an inftant decreed, that all impofts fhould be equally and equitably laid on; that all the feudal services should be redeemable at an equitable price; and that perfonal fervitude fhould be abolished for ever, without any purchase. These are followed by a facrifice of the exclufive rights of the chace, of fishing, of warren, and of dove-cotes. The parish priests make an offering of all their parochial perquifites, and the beneficiaries bind themselves never to hold a plurality. Various other refolutions paffed on the fame night, each of which was from that moment confidered as an irrevocable decree, and afterwards made the foundation of a formal law. Affembly decree a medal to be ftruck, to commemorate the acts of this glorious night. They likewife confer on the king the title of Reftorer of the Liberties of France. Solemn Te Deum celebrated, at which the king and the national assembly affift. Aftonishment and difmay of the clergy, after the great facrifices which they had volunsarily made, upon a motion for the fequeftration of their tithes. Debates renewed with great viclence on the following day. Caufe of the clergy eloquently and ably defended by the Abbe Sieyes. In general they ftand firmly in fupport of their rights. Debate, after much tumult, adjourned late at night. Means ufed during the remainder of the night, and the morning, to bring over the heads of the clergy to a confent. Archbishop of Paris, in the name of his brethren, furrenders all the tithes of the church inie the hands of the nation. His short speech an that occafion. The old provincial names, diftinctions, peculiar rights, and privileges, determined to be abolished, and the whole nation confolidated into one compact body, and under ene equal form of government. Deputies of privileged towns and diftricts


make a 'furrender of their charters and municipal documents. Provinces which poffeffed a right of taxing themselves, renounced that right and their ftates together; and the parliaments were annihilated as well as the provincial fates. All fees and taxes to the court of Rime for ever abolished Some obfervations on the precipitancy, with which fixteen laws of the utmoft moment were hurried through in one night; as well as on the bad effect of paffing laws by acclamation. Nobility and clergy in the provinces highly difcontented with the conduct of their delegates on the 4th of Auguft, in making fuch vaft facrifices without their confent. Several members of the affembly like wife repent their own conceffions, and become equally diffatisfied. Landed proprietaries at length take up arms in their own defence, and reprefs the barbarous ravages of the peasantry. King appoints a new miniftry, with the approbation of the affembly. Difireffed ftate of the public, through the failure of the taxes. Loans attempted and fail. Scheme of patriotic contributions adopted. [I


King and queen fend their gold and filver plate to the mint. Patriotic donations incapable of relieving the neceffities of the ftate. Extraordinary tax decreed, under the name of a patriotic contribution, by which each man was . to contribute one fourth of his annual revenue to the exigencies of the ftate. Loud complaints and violent animofities excited by this partial tax. Embarraments and difficulties which the national assembly experienced in framing the new declaration of rights. Great debates upon the propriety or inexpedience of adopting the measure. Declaration at length passed and promulgated. Saying of Mirabeau upon the fubject. Afjembly divided into a number of fections or committees, to each of which is affigned fome specified part of the new conftitution, on which it is to make a report. Grand question arifes, What share of authority it was fitting the king should pofJefs in the new legislature? This operates like a touchfton in trying every man's principles, and compelling him to an open avowal of them. dfembly arranged, face to face, in two great hoftile divifions, apparently equal in ftrength and numbers. Violent contests enfue, and are so long continued, that the people without, and at length the whole nation, become parties in them. State of the parties within and without, who thus divided the affembly and the nation. King's veto, or negative, with respect to the paffing of laws, one of the fubjects most violently and generally agitated. Populace of Paris interfere openly in the queftion of the veto 3 while the crowds in the galleries of the affembly become jo daringly audacious, as by bootings and revilings to endeavour to drown the voices, and by infults and menaces to deter from giving their votes all thofe members who Supported the rights of the crown. Long lifts of members who were marked for profcription, and destined to be victims to the vengeance of the people, published in Paris, and diftributed through every part of the kingdom. Popular fermentation in Paris rifen nearly to its highest pitch. The notorious N 4



St. Huruge, attempts to have the king, the dauphin, and the national affembly, brought to Paris; but by the spirited exertions of La Fayette, Bailly, and the Hotel de Ville, the leaders are committed to prison, and the fedition quelled. Heavy complaints made to the affembly by feveral of its members of thofe treasonable attempts against the freedom of the king, as well as of that body itself; and likewife of the lifts of profcription which were publifhed, and of the incendiary letters by which they were continually menaced with deftruction; but Mirabeau with his faction turn the whole complaint into ridicule. Numberless charges of fuppofed plots and confpiracies now made against the royalifts; which effectually anfwer one purpose, in exciting a general alarm and ferment through the nation. The Parifians, in particular, become again dangerously outrageous, and every thing bears the fame afpect as in the preceding months of June and July. In this ftate of affairs, the king, ever wishing to preferve or reftore tranquillity, fends Neckar with a propofal to the afembly, declaring that he would be contented with a fufpenfive veto, whofe operation fhould not last longer than one or two legiflatures. This propofal received with fatisfaction; and it was decreed, that the royal fufpenfion fhould continue during two legislatures. Great debates on the question, whether the national affembly should be compofed of one or two chambers. Question at length carried for a fingle chamber by a prodigious majority. Members obliged to procure certificates how they had given their votes, to preferue their houfes and families from deftruction. Affembly decree, that the legislative body shall be renewed every two years by elections. Receive a letter from the king, containing his objections to certain parts of fome of the new laws, which occafions much discontent in the affembly. King obliged to give his fanction fimply, and without comment, to the laws in question. Things tending faft to an extraordinary crifis both in Paris and Verfailles. Affembly, however, confirm the hereditary fucceffion of the crown; and declare the king's perfon facred and inviolable. Arrival of the regiment of Flanders at Verfailles, the cause or pretence of the ensuing mischiefs. Entertainment given by the officers of the king's life guards to thofe of the new corps, productive of much licentioufnefs and folly. This banquet occafions a violent ferment both at Paris and Verfailles. Numerous army of women, after plundering the torn house, and supplying themfelves with arms and artillery, march from Paris to Verfailles. Are followed by unnumbered bands of ruffians. And not long after by La Fayette, at the head of a confiderable army of the national guards. Events of the 5th and 6th of October. King and royal family led captive to Paris. Tumult in Paris, and the murder of a baker, foon after the arrival of the national affembly, occafion the greatest alarm and apprehenfion in that body. Severe decree paffed, by which the magiftrates are empowered to proclaim martial law, and to proceed to the last extremities in repreffing the future outrages of the mob. La Fayette procures the Duke of Orleans' departure to England.



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Effects of the tranfactions in France upon the minds of the people of Great-
Britain. General difpofition in their favour at the commencement of the
revolution. Various political speculations thereon. The evils which followed
forefeen by more accurate obfervers, and particularly foretold in the celebrated
work of Mr. Burke. The interest which the French leaders had in in-
volving the furrounding ftates in the fame diftractions. Their attempts, and
the effects of them, particularly in Great-Britain and Ireland. Meeting of

parliament. Speech from the throne. Addrefs voted in both houfes without

debate. Act of indemnity relative to the order of council for flopping the

exportation of corn. Military estimates animadverted upon by Sir Grey

Cooper, Mr. Marfham, and Mr. Fox; and defended by Mr. Grenville and

Mr. Pitt. Some expreffions of Mr. Fox, opplauding the French revolution,

and the conduct of the French army on that occafion, cenfured by Col. Phipps.

The fame fubject taken up by Mr. Burke. His speech upon the spirit and

confequences of that event, and his regret at differing in opinion from Mr.

Fox. His opinion concerning the conduct of the French army, and con-

cerning the comparison between the French revolution, and the revolution of

1688. His speech received with general applaufe. Mr. Fox, in reply, la-

ments the difference of opinion between them. His encomium upon Mr.

Burke. Explains his own fentiments respecting the French revolution. Pro-

felles bis political principles. His opinion of the revolution of 1688. His

apology for the excefes of the French patriots. Mr. Sheridan's fpeech upon

the fame occafion. Declares his entire difference of opinion from Mr. Burke.

Defends the French revolution. Apologizes for its excefjes. Charges Mr.

Burke with being an advocate for defpotifm. Compliments the marquis de

la Fayette, and other French patriots. His opinion of the revolution of 1688.

Mr. Pitt, and other members, rife to express their obligations and gratitude

to Mr. Burke for the fentiments he had expreffed during the debate.


reftraints on the prerogative of the crown.
Animadverts on the attempts of

the diffenters to influence members of parliament. Thinks it would be dan

gerous to trust them with power. And that tefts, the severity of which could

be occafionally mitigated, were necessary to enable government to ward off

danger in cafes of neceffity. Mr. Burke concurs with Mr. Fox in his prin-

ciples of toleration; but thinks the diffenters, at the present moment, not in-

titled to indulgence. Charges them with factious and dangerous practices,

and reads various papers in fupport of his charge. Suggests the propriety of

a new teft, and of a committee to enquire into their recent conduct. Mr.

Fox's motion rejected by a majority of 294 to 105. Motion by Mr. Flood

for a reform in parliament. States the inadequacy of the prefent mode of

reprefentation. Proposes one hundred additional members to be chofen by re-

fident housekeepers. His arguments to prove the neceffity of a reform. An-

fwers objections. The motion oppofed by Mr. Wyndham. He afferts, that

the houfe of commons, as at prefent conftituted, is adequate for all beneficial

purposes. Anfwers the objections relative to the American war. Deprecates

innovations founded upon theories. Objects to the time as dangerous. Mr.

Pitt objects to the motion as ill-timed. Sir James Johnstone's objections.

Mr. Fox fupports the motion, and anfwers the objection of its being ill-

timed. Mr. Burke in reply. Other speakers on both fides the question.

The motion agreed to be withdrawn.

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Motion by Mr. Montagu for increafing the falary of the Speaker of the house
of commons. He ftates his prefent emoluments, argues upon their insuffi-
ciency, and propofes that they should be advanced to £5,000 per annum.
Motion oppofed by Mr. Huffey, as tending to increase the influence of the
crown. Supported by Mr. Marfham and other gentlemen. Amendment pro-
pofed in the committee that the falary fhould be £.6000 per annum,
and carried by a large majority. India budget opened by Mr. Dundas.
Comparative statement of the revenues and charges in India. Flourishing
ftate of the company's affairs in general. Doubts expreffed by Mr. Huffey.
Speech of Mr. Francis upon the affairs of India. Proofs of the com-
pany's diftrefs. Obfervations on the duty on falt. Remarks on the letter of
Lord Cornwallis. Mr. Devaynes in reply to Mr. Francis. Mr. Dundas
afferts the falfhood of Mr. Francis's statement. Refolutions paffed by the
committee. Sir J. R. Miller's account of the proceedings of the committee on
weights and measures, to be inferted entire in the article of useful projects.
Petitions prefented for the repeal of the tobacco excife act. Motion upon
that fubject by Mr. Sheridan, afferts that the act had endangered the

foreign trade, encouraged fmuggling, and laid the manufacturer under infuper-

able hardships. Mr. Pitt in reply. Sir Grey Cooper, Mr. Wyndham, and

Mr. Fox, for the motion. Rejected by a majority of 191 to 147. Bill

paffed to explain and amend the tobacco act. Claufe to grant trial by juries

rejected. Budget for the year 1790. Flourishing state of the finances and


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