BOOK of Guise, at Orleans," and the illness of her other uncles." The great talents and popular qualities of the murdered prince, were strongly felt and liberally pourtrayed by the English ambassador.76 She returned to Edinburgh, to hold her parliament at the end of May, where her graceful elocution was admired," and to be crowned. An act of oblivion,

74 On 18 Feb. as the duke was returning to his lodging, Peltrot, a gentleman disguised like a German trooper, rode up to him and shot him in the shoulder, to revenge, as he said, the tyranny which the duke had committed against the Christians, and was like to exercise if he might have any longer life.' Throck. lett. Forbes, 2, p. 343. Thus committing himself the atrocious crime of taking into his own hands that punishment, which, if established laws do not reach, the Deity alone has the right to inflict, and reserves to himself to do so. The duke died six days afterwards.


75 The duc D'Aumale is in great danger of his hurt which he received in the battle; marquis D'Albeuf is sore sick of a continual fever; the grand prior is dead.' Lett. Throck. 2 March, p. 346. Thus out of the five brothers of the Guises, the cardinal was at this time the only efficient person of the family.

76 Sir Thomas Smith on 26 Feb. wrote from Blois to Elizabeth,'The death of this nobleman will make some great turn. The papists have lost their greatest stay, hope and comfort. Many noblemen and gentlemen followed the camp and that faction, rather for the love of him than for any other zeal or affection. He was indeed the best captain in all France; some will say in all Christendom, for he had all the properties which belongeth to or are wished in a general; a ready wit and well advised; a body to endure pains; a courage to forsake no dangerous adventures; use and experience to conduct any army; much courtesy in entertaining of all men; great eloquence to utter all his mind. He was very liberal both of money and honor to young gentlemen, captains and soldiers; whereby he got so much love and admiration, that I think now he is gone, many gentlemen will forsake the camp. They begin to drop away already. He was so earnest and so fully persuaded of his religion, that he thought nothing evil done for that sect. Therefore the papists thought nothing evil bestowed upon him; all their money and treasure of the church; part of their lands; even the honor of the crown of France they could have found in their hearts to have given him.' Lett. 2 Forb.340, 1.

77 So Knox acknowledges with very coarse-minded spleen. Such striking pride of women as was seen at that parliament, was never seen before in Scotland. Three sundry days the queen rode to the Tolbooth. The first day she made a painted oration. There might have been heard amongst her flatterers' Vox Dianæ! The voice of a goddess! God save that sweet face! Was there ever orator spake so properly and so sweetly?' p. 357. Knox after this quarrelled with Murray, so that familiarly after that time they spake not together more than a year and a half.' ib.



and a confirmation of the forfeitures of Huntley and CHAP. Sutherland were the chief statutes of her senate .78 and an excursion to the western regions of Scotland occupied her summer.79 But before she went, her vexation at a sermon of Knox, about her proposed marriages, made her order him to her private cabinet, to give him a passionate lecture. Her eloquence had never availed with him; yet she resolved that he should hear, and, if possible, feel, tho she could not govern his sturdy temper by it. The truth was, that John took a surly pleasure in being scolded by her in private, which was indeed a great distinction; and in scolding on his own part, in return, publicly at her from his pulpit in general declamation. It was the old papal churchman towering above the crown in presbyterian garments.0

78 1 Chalm. 163. Knox conjuring the queen to forsake her idolatrous religion, the chancellor, lord Merton, desired him to hold bis peace and go away.' Spottisw. 188. 79 Chalm. 166-9.



60 He describes the interview in his own strong way. The queen, in a vehement fume, began to cry out, that never prince was used as she was. I have borne with you in all your rigorous manner of speaking, both against myself and against my uncles. I have sought your favours by all possible means. I offered unto you presence and audience whensoever it pleased you to admonish me; and yet I cannot be quit of you. I vow to God I will be once revenged.' And with these words, scarce could Marnock, one of her pages, get handkerchiefs to hold her eyes dry; for the tears and the howling, besides womanly weeping, stayed her speech. To his answer, she replied, What have you to do with my marriage? What are you within the commonwealth?" He asserted himself to be a profitable and useful member in the same.' He thus proceeds: At these words howling was heard, and tears might have been seen in greater abundance than the matter required. John Erskine (the only other person present) a man of meek and gentle spirit, did what he could to mitigate her anger. The said John [Knox] stood still without any alteration of countenance for a long time, while the queen gave place to her inordinate passions; and in the end he said, 'Madam! I never delighted in the weeping of any of God's creatures. Yea, I can scarcely well abide the tears of my own boys, when my own hands correct them. Much less can I rejoice in your majesty's weeping; but seeing I have offered unto you no just occasion to be offended, but have spoken the truth as my vocation craves of me, I must sus

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BOOK 11.


In May 1563, Le Croc arrived in Scotland as the ambassador from the French court, and urged Mary to marry the emperor's youngest son; but no foreign match was popular in Edinburgh;82 and Elizabeth recommended her to chuse one to whom she could feel attached, and whom her nobility and commons would allow and ordered Randolph to assure her, that if she would content Elizabeth and the English nation in her marriage, they would proceed to the inquisition of her right to the succession.83


In 1564, her marriage with Leicester was suggested and greatly pressed by the English court; but Mary decidedly objected to him, because he was a subject; and also to the duke of Orleans, proposed by the French court;85 but as this prince was not a Protestant, Elizabeth was afraid of the consequences if he became king of Scotland. It was essential to the security of both the English and Scottish reformation, and of their supporters, that

tain your majesty's tears, rather than I dare hurt my conscience or betray the commonwealth by silence.' Herewith was the queen more offended, and commanded the said John to pass forth of the cabinet, and to abide further of her pleasure in the chamber.' p. 359-61. The imperturbable John did so; but it was only to lecture the court ladies there on death and foul worms; fair flesh, silly souls, and their gold, garnishing and precious stones, till the laird of Dun came in and told him he might go home. ib. 361.

St Randolph's letter in Keith, 239. Melville details the opposing advice of Elizabeth, on this proposal of the archduke Charles. p. 105-7. Brantome mentions that before this, the king of Navarre had an idea of divorcing his wife and marrying her, but that she steadily refused to take another woman's husband from her. She justly thought that to be a moral crime. 62 Ib. 241.

83 Elizabeth's instructions to Randolph, dated 20 Aug. 1563. Keith, p. 243.

84 Rand. lett. 30 March 1564. Keith, 252. His letter of the 7 November following, and that of lord Bedford's, sixteen days afterwards, contains the further reasoning in Scotland against the proposal of Leicester. ib. 260-5.

65 The duke of Orleans. Rand. lett. 12 Nov. 1564. Keith, p. 260.

the husband of Mary should, if possible, be of that CHAP. persuasion.



In September 1564, Mary determined to send sir James Melville to England, to confer with Elizabeth on her letters, marriage and succession.87 In his audience with the English queen, she declared her own resolution to live single, and recommended strongly the earl of Leicester for Mary's husband, as the person who would preclude all fear and mistrust in her mind of being dispossessed of her throne, and with whom she could appoint the Scottish princess her successor.88 She spoke very kindly of Mary, and seemed to take much interest in her;89 nor was she less pleased with the envoy, whose travels and acquaintance with foreign manners, made his conversation interesting to her." It was an effusion of

86 He came to her in Scotland, in May 1564, with letters to her in his favor, from the emperor, the elector palatine, and her uncles. He told her the emperor was against her marriage with his brother the archduke Charles. Melv. Mem. 110. She settled on him iminediately a pension of 1000 marks, and offered him also some lands, which he declined, as property which she might want. ib. 111.

87 Melville has inserted her instructions, dated 28 Sept. 1564, in his book, p. 112-5.

88 She said, she esteemed him as her brother and best friend, whom she should have married herself if she had ever been minded to take a husband; but, being determined to end her life in virginity, she wished that the queen her sister should marry him as meetest of all others. With him she might find in her heart to declare the queen second person, rather than with any other; for, being matched with him, it would best remove out of her mind all fear and suspicion to be offended by usurpation before her death; being assured that he would never give his consent, nor suffer such thing to be enterprized during his time.' Melv. 119.

69She appeared to be so affectionate to the queen, that she had a great desire to see her. She delighted oft to look upon her picture, and took me into her bed-chamber, and opened a little lettrour, wherein were divers little pictures.' One of these was Leicester's, who was then in the room speaking with Cecil. Then she took out the queen's picture, and kissed it, and I kissed her hand for the great love I saw she bore to the queen.' She appointed me to be with her the next morning by eight o'clock, at which time she used to walk in her garden.' ib.


90 In declaring the customs of Dutchland, Poland, and Italy, the


BOOK female nature in Elizabeth, to desire his opinion, whether she or his own sovereign was fairest ;" and a discovery of some infirmity, neither uncommon nor unpardonable, to be thought to excel the applauded Mary in musical skill;" and also-oh humbling vanity even in lofty minds! the intelligent queen of England desired likewise to be deemed the superior dancer.93 But if the most private and confidential feelings and habits of the greater spirits that shine in the world's eye and business, be unre

clothing of the women was not forgot. The queen said, she had of divers sorts, which every day she changed. One day the English; one the French; and one the Italian, and so of others; asking me which of them set her best. I said, the Italian; which pleased her well; for she delighted to show her golden colored hair, wearing a kell and a bonnet as they do in Italy. Her hair was more red than yellow; curled apparently of nature.' ib. 123.

91 I said, she was the fairest queen in England, and ours in Scotland. She was whiter; but our queen was very lusome. She inquired, which of them was of highest stature. I said ours. Then she said, that queen was over high; and that herself was neither over high, nor over low. She asked what kind of exercises she used; I said, when I was dispatched, the queen was but now come back from the highland hunting; and when she had leisure, she read good books, the histories of divers countries; and would sometimes play upon lute and virginal. She inquired if she played well; I said, reasonably for a queen.' ib. 124.

92 After dinner, my lord Hundsden drew me up to a quiet gallery, where I might hear the queen play upon the virginal. I put by the tapestry that hung before the door and seeing her back towards it, I entered within the chamber, and heard her play excellently well; but she left off as soon as she turned her about and saw me. Then she sat down upon a cushion, and I upon my knee beside her; but she gave me a cushion with her own hand to lay under my knee, which I refused, but she compelled me; and called lady Stafford out of the next chamber, because she was alone there. Then she asked, whether the queen or she played best; in that I give her the praise. She said, my French was good, and inquired if I could speak Italian, which she spoke reasonably well. Then she spoke to me in Dutch, but it was not good.' Melv. 125.

93 I was earnest to be dispatched, but I was stayed two days longer, that I might see her dance as I was informed. Which being done, she inquired of me whether she or the queen danced best. I said the queen [Mary,] danced not so high and disposedly as she did. Then she wished she might see the queen. I offered to convey her secretly to Scotland by post, clothed like a page disguised. She said alas! if she might do it, and seemed to like well such kind of language.' ib. 125.

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