servedly revealed to us, some accompanying weak- CHAP. nesses will always appear amid their impressive superiority, as long as human nature in its present form and bearing subsists.

No particular result followed the visit of this conciliating agent. Lord Darnley became more visibly the man of her secret choice; but Murray and Maitland went in November 1564 to Berwick, to confer more diplomatically with the earl of Bedford, on her important marriage; and in the next month, celebration of the mass was made a forfeiture of goods, lands and life, except in the queen's chapel; and Rizzio, who became afterwards of such a calamitous notoriety, was now for the first time brought forward to public notice, by his elevation from a valet and occasional bass singer in the queen's chamber, to the confidential office of her French secretary; a promotion which within a few years led to so much crime, misery, disgrace, and agitation.

As the year 1565 began, Mary exhibited an inclination to chuse lord Leicester;" but when she made her journey into Fife, where Darnley, arriving from




94 He was the son of the earl of Lennox, and of the royal blood. On 3 Nov. Randolph wrote, many suppose it is concluded in her heart.' ib. 259. He added, that one Wild had brought intelligence, that all the papists in England are of her [Mary's] side.' ib. 260. The duke of Norfolk was also then mentioned as a husband for her. ib. 260.

95 Bedford's lett. 23 Nov. in Keith, p. 263-6.

96 Raulet, her secretary, for the French, is clean out of favor; and RIZZIO, an Italian, supplieth that place.' Rand. lett. 3 Dec. 1564; Keith, 268. In March of the next year, the envoy thus noticed him again: 'An Italian Piedmontese, a singer, that came hither with M. Moret, is her secretary for the French.' ib. 270. Melville says, that he was not very skilful in inditing of French letters, which she did not write over again with her own hand. Both queens then wrote to each other in French with their own hands.' Melv. p. 109.


97 So Randolph wrote on 5 Feb. Cecil's Diary.

Meard. 758.


BOOK London, suddenly presented himself to her at Wemys Castle about the middle of February," he pleased her as much as he dissatisfied the earls Merton and Glencairn:" and in March, Maitland went from her to England, to procure Elizabeth's consent to her marrying him.100 Bothwell was then so little in Mary's favor, that she disliked his coming home from France, and threatened to have him proclaimed a rebel.101 But the political state of Scotland began now to be perturbed. The knowlege of Darnley's attachment to the papal religion, had alarmed and divided the nobles. Those who were of that persuasion, joined the queen, and applauded her choice. The others, dreading persecution and disaster, looked to the English government as their only efficient protector. The probable results of Darnley's exaltation, were now discussed by all who anticipated evil from it.103 The great danger to England was felt to


98 He reached Edinburgh on 13 Feb. and was with the queen on the 16th. Cecil's Diary, p. 758; Stowe dates his departure from London on 3 Feb.: Her majesty took well with him, and said, that he was the lustiest and best proportioned tall man that she had seen; for he was of a high stature, long and small, even, and brent up; well instructed from his youth in all honest and comely exercises.' Melv. Mem. p. 134.

The lord Darnley is

99 Randolph lett. 10 Feb.; Keith, 269. much favored of queen.' Cecil, p. 758.

100 Keith, p. 270. On 4 March 1565, Randolph apprised Cecil, that the cardinal of Lorraine was 6 practising to match her with the duke of Orleans or the French king.' 'The queen much distasteth her uncle's meddling.' ib. 269.


101 Rand. 15 March, who added, He is charged to have spoken dishonorably of the queen, and to have threatened to kill Murray and Ledington.' Keith, p. 270.

102 Rand. 20 March. He gives an instance of the indifference of the Romanists in her household to the Scriptures. 'One of the queen's chapel, a singing man, said, that he believed a tale of Robin Hood as well as any word written in the Old Testament or the New.' ib. in Keith, p. 271.

103 The duke who had been regent feared the overthrow of his house. Murray doubted that he would be an enemy to the true religion. Cecil's abstract in Keith's app. 160. Argyle was averse to


arise from the practices and resolutions which were CHAP. known to be afloat, to re-establish the Romish religion by violence, in both Scotland and England, to which Mary had acceded, and in which Darnley was expected to concur. The state council of England met several times in anxious deliberations on this subject,10 and on their decision, sir Nicholas Throckmorton was sent to Edinburgh to prevent if possible the nuptials. The Scottish nobility had a similar dread from it, of active hostilities against their reformation, and of personal evils to themselves: nor did the king's occasional language lessen their apprehensions.105 At times he vacillated into an appear

it. The queen conceiveth a great displeasure against this nobleman, for his opposition. Rand. lett. Keith, p. 273.

104 Their resolution, dated 1 May 1565, is printed from MS. Calig. B. 10, in Keith, p. 274. Cecil in his abstract notes, on 23 April, A consultation at Westminster upon Lethington's message of the marriage-misliked by all.' And on 1 May, A general determination by the whole council at Westminster, to disallow of the marriage to Darnley.' Keith's app. 159. On 4 June was another solemn deliberation of the English privy council, upon the perils that might ensue, and the remedies. The dangers were, that a great number in England, not of the worst subjects, might be alienated from Elizabeth, to favor all practices that should tend to the advancement of the queen of Scots; that the marriage was chiefly promoted by those who furthered it, as the only means left to restore the religion of Rome; therefore, both in this realm and in Scotland, the papists would most fortify this marriage, and devise all means within their realm to disturb the English government,' and to achieve their purposes by force, rather than fail.' ib. p. 207. Hereby the Romish religion would be erected and increased daily in this realm.' They then reviewed the proofs that these perils were really impending, and the remedies; of which one was to prevent the marriage. See this State Paper in Rob. app. 203-214. So that Elizabeth's objection to this marriage was not light female opposition. The queen had confessed to Murray, that money had been sent to her from the pope. E. Bedf. letter, Aug. 1556. Rob. app. 231.


10s On 31 July, Randolph wrote to Leicester-This is now their fear; the overthrow of religion; the breach of amity with the queen's majesty, and the destruction of as many of the nobility as she hath a misliking of; or that he liketh to pitch a quarrel unto. I speak least of that which I think is most earnestly intended by this queen and her husband. By him it was lately said, that he careth more for the papists in England, than he did for the Protestants in Scotland.' Rob. app. 215.


ance of toleration or indifference:106 but his unsettled
resolution and irritable passions excited dislike, while
they perpetuated disquietude among those who were
too willing to seek and nourish animosities against
At first refused admittance, sir Nicholas
was at last taken to an audience, when he found
Mary's affections so resolutely fixed on the handsome
Englishman by the end of May, that violence only
could prevent the union.108 Rizzio favoring him,
became doubly estimable in his queen's regard. His
influence now governed both. She is described in
June as devoted to her young choice.109 Some of
the chief nobles abandoned Murray's counsels, and
united more firmly with her." She then made her
young favorite a knight, and created him an earl;""

106 He would now seem to be indifferent to both religions; she to use her mass; and he to come sometimes to the preaching. They were married with all the solemnities of the popish time, saving that he heard not the mass.' Letter, ib.

107 His words to all men, against whom he conceiveth any displeasure, how unjust soever it be, are so proud and spiteful, that he rather seemeth a monarch of the world, than he that, not long since, we have seen and known as the lord Daruley. He looketh now for reverence of many that have little will to give it him, and some there are that do give it that think him little worthy of it.' ib. An instance of this hasty violence was remarked, in striking at lord Ruthven with his dagger, because he brought him word that his ducal creation had been deferred to a future day. Cecil's abstract. Keith, p. 160.

108 So he stated to the queen in his despatch of 21 May; Keith, 276; and to Cecil by letter of the same date. ib. 280.

100 She doats upon her husband' was Randolph's strong expression. Keith, 283. His further statement to Leicester on 31 July, was, No man pleaseth her, that contenteth not him. She hath given over to him her whole will, to be ruled and guided as himself liketh best.' Rob. app. 216.


110 These were, Athol, Caithness, Errol, Montrose, Fleming, Cassilis, Mongomery, Hume, Ruthven, and Lindsay. Keith, 283.

His oath as a knight, on 15 May 1565, deserves our notice, as a relic of what this order of society was, and had been instituted to be:

I shall defend the Christian faith according to my power:

I shall be loyal and true to my princess, my sovereign lady, queen of Scotland, and her successors:


and tho apprised of Elizabeth's disapproval, per- CHAP. severed in her determination, kept herself private, and distinguished him by peculiar intimacy, which did not lessen his unpopular arrogance.'


The opposition of the dissatisfied nobles only produced a state of danger to themselves and to those who sided with the court, which soon drove both to mortal hatred and to arms. Murray and Argyle projected to intercept and separate the queen and her lover; but her celerity evaded their vigilance, and frustrated their attempt.' 114 The pope sent her money to assist her cause, because it was his own. The resisting lords supplicated a similar aid from


'I shall honor and do reverence to all wise orders of nobility, and to the office of arms:

I shall fortify and maintain justice without fee or favor:

I shall use and exercise myself in the office of chivalry, and help all them that are of the same order, if they have need:

'I shall defend the realm of Scotland from all aliens and strangers: 'I shall never fly from my princess, master or fellow, with dishonor, in time of need:

I shall defend all orphans, widows, and maidens of good fame: 'I shall do diligence whenever I hear is any murderers, robbers, or masterfull thieves that oppress the people, to bring them to the laws according to my power:

I shall inquire and do diligence to seek all articles contained in the books of chivalry, and keep them all according to my power:

'I shall fortify, maintain, and defend the noble order of knighthood, which I am ready to receive; and horse, arms, and knightly habiliments, after my power.' Keith, 281, from MS. Calig. B. 10, in the British Museum.


112 She is now in suspicion of all men; her court is kept very secret. She dineth seldom abroad as she was accustomed, but either in her own chamber or with the lord Darnley, whose lodging joineth unto her's, and a privy passage between them. She is now offended with the most part that serve her. Her Maries clear out of credit, and tarry now even at home, wheresoever she rideth.' Rand. 2 July, p. 288.

113 No persuasion can alter that which custom has made old in him. He is counted proud, disdainful, and suspicious; which kind of men their soil, of any other, can worse bear.' ib. 287.

114 Randolph relates these events in his dispatch of 4th July, p. 291, 2. Two hours before this lord [Murray] came to that town, the queen was past.' ib. 291.

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