BOOK England.115 Elizabeth in July declared that she would countenance the nobility, so long as they intended nothing but to maintain the Protestant religion, to uphold their sovereign's estate, and to nourish amity between the two kingdoms; desiring also, that they would limit themselves to their own defence:116 but they chose to go beyond self protection, and to attack. Mary then appealed to the nation, and summoned her subjects to array themselves for her." The combining lords assembled their hostile forces.118 Reconciliation became impossible. Lord Darnley and his father were ordered to England, but disregarded the mandate, and the favored

115 Rand. 4 July, p. 294, 5. They obtained 30007. Melv. 136. The pope sent 8000 crowns to be delivered to the queen, but the ship wherein the gold was, broke upon the coast of England, within the earl of Northumberland's bounds (ib. 137,) who seized it.' ib. Rizzio was reported to have had a pension from the pope. ib. 136.


116 In her own directions to Randolph on 10 July 1565, she ordered him to express to Mary her regret, that she should have dealt in her marriage without our knowledge and consent;' and her own unwillingness to intermeddle in her affairs without her own contentation:' to advise her not to let her state council and nobility nourish any suspicion of each other. If she shall attempt any innovation, whereby her nobility should perceive trouble growing to the state and peril to themselves, she is evil counselled. Let the nobility know what advice we have willed you to give their sovereign. And for their part, as long as they intend nothing but the maintaining of religion, and to uphold their sovereign's estate, and to nourish the amity between the two realms, we shall allow them, and in all just and honorable causes they shall find us to regard their state and continuance. And as it seemeth by your writing, the nobility are determined to keep great forces for their defence, we are of opinion that the queen thereby takes most suspicion of their intentions.' On this point she advised them to do no more than their security made necessary. Keith, p. 296; from a MS. copy, Calig. B. 10. No counsel could be wiser or fairer than this, to both parties.

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117 Randolph mentions her letters on 13th July. On 16th July her proclamation declared that she did not mean to molest religion, and called upon them to assemble in fifteen days. Keith, 299. Her next summons was on 22d July. p. 305.

118 They collected at Stirling, from whence on 18th July, the duke, Murray, and Argyle, addressed their letters to Elizabeth. Printed in Keith, p. 300.

lover set Elizabeth at defiance.' Both parties had
proceeded so far in their mutual animosity, that
neither could be safe but by the downfal of the
other. Mary perceived the superiority of her par-
tisans, and moved onwards to the conflict. The
lords felt their inability to resist her power, and re-
ceded from the contest.120 Murray applied to Bed-
ford, at Berwick, for assistance; 121 and Mary, after
publishing a proclamation that Henry was to be now
deemed king of Scotland, married him on 29 July
1565, in her twenty-third year, and in the nine-
teenth year of her husband's life.122 She young, but
with a varied largeness of experience, which few
women at that age have known: he
have known: he younger, with
scarcely any experience at all, either with the per-
sonal world within him, or of that ampler and social
one without, with which he would now have every
day very tryingly to feel and act.

That any of her nobility should take up arms to prevent her exercising a free choice in her nuptial


119 Rand. lett. 21 July 1565, p. 303. Darnley's insulting or exulting answer was, 'I now acknowledge no other duty or obedience but to the QUEEN HERE, whom I serve and honor; and seeing that the other, your mistress, is so envious of my good fortune, she may have need of me, as you shall know within a few days. Wherefore, to return I intend not. I find myself very well where I am, and so purpose to keep me; and this shall be for your answer,' ib. 304.

120 lb. 304.

121 Keith, 306. Murray's letter to Bedford, 22d July. Cecil, in his abstract, states, that from a letter out of Scotland to Elizabeth, Mary had privately married Darnley three weeks before their public wedding, thus; To queen Elizabeth. The queen of Scots was married to lord Darnley at Holyrood House, privately, the 9th of this month.' Keith, app. 161.


Randolph reported on 31 July, that he was proclaimed king 'the night before the marriage. This day all the lords that were in town were present at the proclaiming of him again; where no man said so much as AMEN, saving his father, who cried out aloud, God save his queen.' He describes the marriage. Lett. Rob. app. 216.



engagement, was an oppressing and treasonable conduct, which led eventually to hasten the mischief that followed. Their resistance occasioned the queen's council to determine to recal Bothwell, because he was Murray's enemy, and his assistance was wanted to give force to her party. He came quickly to the summons; for, on the 10th October 1565, we find his name for the first time at the sittings in the Scottish cabinet,123 and again in the

suing month. Murray's opposition had brought him into power and confidence, before Mary's partiality had distinguished him: and his own talents and artful conduct soon gave him weight and influence, to his own ultimate ruin, and to the degradation and infelicity of his royal and too partial mistress.

A popular feeling supported the queen in the freedom of her matrimonial choice.124 The lords solicited aid from Elizabeth, who refused to assist any offensive measures against their sovereign."2


123 Keith's app. 115, and Hist. p.317. We have Bedford's character of Bothwell, on 8 Feb. 1566, in a few strong words, which his actions verified by that day twelvemonth. He told Cecil that he despaired of justice on the borders while Bothwell is warden, who neither fears God, nor loves justice.' Keith, app. 167.

124 The royal proclamations, on 4 August 1562, issued for the county arrays to meet at Edinburgh on the 9th, and elsewhere on the 11th, 12th and 14th, were so eagerly obeyed, that on the 9th, such a large body being found to be unnecessary, they were discharged on condition of keeping ready for a further notice. Keith, p. 310.

125 The degree of support which Elizabeth gave to the opposing lords, her principle in extending it, and her limitation of their resistance, are clearly stated by her with great judgment and probity in her answer of 12 Sept. 1565, to her minister, on their application for 500 arquebussiers. We have no intention for many respects to maintain any other prince's subjects to take arms against their sovereign; nor would we willingly do any thing to give occasion to make wars between us and that prince; which has caused us to forbear hitherto to give you any power to let them be aided with any men; but now, considering that


Countermarching to Edinburgh as she left it, with CHAP. the hope of the support of a popular insurrection, they were disappointed; and the royal army of five thousand men advanced on their inferior forces in the metropolis; the van led by Lennox, the centre by Morton, and the rear by the king,126 in whose division the queen appeared, with a weapon ready charged, and with whom Bothwell was also acting.128 The populace left the rebelling to their fate, who, retreating to Dumfries and being still chased onwards, sought their safety within the English borders.129 The king and queen then issued from St. Andrew's a declaration to their people, arraigning the exorbitant ambition of the nobility who had defied them.130


they are pursued, notwithstanding their humble submission and offer to be tried by law and justice, and have retired to Dumfries, a place near our west marches, to defend themselves, we are content to let them have 300 soldiers, as of your own adventure. You shall expressly advertise them, that you send them that aid only for their defence; and not therewith to make war on their queen; or do any thing that may offend her person.' Lett. in Robertson, append. v. 3. p. 220. To avoid pledging herself or the English government to their cause, she expressly added: Except to preserve them from ruin, we do not yield to give them aid of money or men, and yet, we would not that either of these were known to be our act, but rather to be covered with your own desire and attempt.' ib. 221.


126 Keith, 315.

127 The despatches to Cecil of 4 September were,' She wears a pistol charged when in the field. None but her husband have gilded armor; several of the lords are appointed to assassinate Darnley; queen Mary hates queen Elizabeth.' Cecil's abst. Keith, 164.

128 Acts of council in Keith, app. 115. He first appears in the public record as in the king's division at Castle hill, on 10 October. Cecil, in his abstract, has noted his letter to say, '8 October. Huntley and Bothwell are the new counsellors.' Keith, app. 165.

129 Keith, 316.

130 It is dated 3 Sept. 1565, from St. Andrew's. It charges them with their unreasonable desire to govern; for now, by letters sent from themselves to us, they make plain profession that the establishing of religion will not content them; but we must, on force, be governed by such counsel as shall please them to appoint to us.' Keith, app. p. 114.





The fugitive lords called upon Elizabeth for suc131 but they had disregarded her limiting advice, and pressed into personal rebellion to coerce their queen in her domestic arrangements, injuring thereby, from private interests, the great religious cause which they had united to support. Elizabeth deemed their example mischievous, and would not put England in arms against Scotland to support their illegal and intemperate violence, tho she allowed them to remain within the protection of her dominions. The duke Hamilton made his peace with Mary and her husband, on condition of residing in France; 132 and a summons of treason was issued against the other nobles who had attempted the insurrection. 133

The wisest act of the English ambassador, in the commencement of 1566, was his letter of sound advice to Mary, stating what she might do that would most favour her succession to the English throne, and recommending her to forgive the offending lords.134 The queen inclined to adopt his counsel, and Rizzio favored it; 15 but a new French envoy was sent to prevent this reconciliation, and to obtain the queen's concurrence in the confederacy to suppress the Reformation every where in Europe -a sanguinary compact, which she is stated to have joined. The variable secretary, who was


131 They sent the abbot of Kilwinning to her. Keith, 319. Her reason was forcible: Your treason may serve for example to my own subjects to rebel against me.' p. 319. She took the distinction, that she had not excited them to arms against their queen.

132 He obtained his pardon with great difficulty. Knox, p. 426.
133 Keith has printed it, dated 1 December 1565. p. 320.

134 See his letter in Mel. Mem. 141-6, and in Keith, 322-4.
135 Keith, 325.

136 Melville; Keith, 326. Randolph, on 6 Feb. 1566, wrote to Cecil

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