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believed to be in the pay and service of the pope," was gained to prefer and to promote this foreign policy.1

138

of this man's arrival; and that a bond to introduce popery in all
Christendom had been signed by the queen Mary. The original to be
sent back by Mr. Stephen Wilson.' Cecil's abst. p. 167: Keith's app.
This man was Villaimont, or, as he is more usually called, Clernau.
137 Melv. Mem. 136; 147.
138 Keith, 326.

CHAP.
XX.

CHAP. XXI.

MARY'S DIFFERENCES WITH HER HUSBAND—
THE MURDER OF RIZZIO.

BOOK MARY began her second marriage, with those

II.

ceremonial and kind attentions to the husband of her choice, which elevated him in the public eye, and did credit to her own feelings of propriety and regard; while Elizabeth, not pleased with the defying indifference to her opinion, offended by the secret dealings with which the transaction had been managed, and uncertain of the consequences towards herself that were meant to be attached to it, evinced her displeasure with somewhat less than her usual judgment and self-command, by putting his mother in England into a state of personal superintendence and constraint.3 But the course of time soon displayed to every one, that as there is a pas

After the queen had married my lord Darnley, she did him great honor herself; and willed every one that would deserve her favor to do the like, and to wait upon him; so that he was well accompanied ; and such as made suit to him and by him, for a while, came best sped of their errands.' Melv. 137. Her proclamation on 18 July was, 'that he should be holden and obeyed and reverenced AS KING; and that all laws and proclamations should be made in the names of Henry and Mary.' Knox, 415.

2 Melville confesses that, when in London, 'I had a secret charge to deal with his mother, my lady Lennox, to purchase leave for him to pass into Scotland.' p. 120.

Melv. 137. There seems much truth in the remark of Knox, In her heart, queen Elizabeth was not angry at this marriage; because a foreign prince would have made her more redoubted, and both Henry and Mary were in the same degree of consanguinity to her, children of her father's sister.' Hist. p. 407.

XXI.

sion from the eye which is no emotion of the heart, CHAP. and which, deriving no support from the judgment, declines as the temporary excitement of the inclination is allayed, so Mary's sensibility for Darnley perceptibly diminished as her temper and wishes were crossed by his will and humour; and as his imperfections and desire of authority awakened her criticising judgment, and stimulated her upbraiding resentment. Accustomed to royal attentions from her cradle; loving superiority, from the character of her mind as well as from fostering habit; and feeling unceasingly that all his greatness was the creation of her individual choice; she had married him on the assumption that she should always have been the queen as well as the wife; and could not brook to be reduced to see her power and influence subordinate to his counteraction or control. Her preference had not been founded on his qualities for regal greatness. It had been a girlish fancy in a womanly heart, for a tall, handsome and humoursome boy, who, exalted to a throne before he was nineteen, was intercepted in the natural and healthful growth of those moral and intellectual improvements of which he was not unsusceptible; and which in other positions of society we gradually attain, as we learn from daily experience that our personal wishes and tempers must be continually adapted, in some degree, to the feelings and con

* See Elizabeth's remark to Melville, You like better yonder long lad,' pointing towards lord Darnley, who, as nearest prince of the blood, bore the sword of honor that day before her. My answer was, that no woman of spirit would make choice of such a man, that was liker a woman than a man; for he was very lusty, beardless, and lady-faced.' Melv. 120.

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II.

BOOK venience of our surrounding fellow creatures. sudden elevation, and its seducing power, disabled him from acquiring that patient courtesy, that selfregulation, that discriminating address, and that dignified ease, to which hereditary royalty is gradually educated, and by which it obtains an individual respect and a conceded influence, which make authority popular, effective, and secure. Hence Darnley neither retained the affections of his wife, nor acquired the attachment of his nobility. Tho her fondness outlasted the first moon which witnessed their nuptials, it did not survive the departing year. Contests for power, as well as the collisions of caprice, were perceived to be dividing them. He thought, or had those about him who led him to think, that she kept him too inferior in state and in the business of the kingdom; and that she was confiding too much of the national affairs to her French secretary Rizzio, instead of consulting with himself. He saw that the matrimonial crown was withheld from him, and that no certainty of his succession to it had been enacted in case of his outliving her. He attributed these omissions to an unkind and wilful purpose; and yet allowed himself to deviate into habits which offended her taste, and diminished their domestic comforts. In the ensuing February he is represented as making others ill by undue drinking, and as yielding to

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Keith, 327. In the months of November and December, the queen began to declare herself to be maintainer of the papists; yet the earls of Huntley and Bothwell went not to mass, albeit in great favor with the queen. The king passed his time in hunting and hawking, and such other pleasures as were agreeable to his appetite.' Knox, 426.

XXI.

habits of inebriety himself," from which even her CHAP. tears could not reclaim him. Their jarrings became public: and she was observed already, tho only the seventh month from their union, to dislike him, and to be weary of him." Her displeasure extended even to such as sought his favor; and he became as adverse to those who followed her in preference to himself." Altercations arose about her wishing to place her signature to the public documents before his." The government which he was allowed or enabled to execute, was much blamed, and he was deemed wilful and haughty." These were only defects, not crimes, which time would have modified, and which Mary's elder judg

6 Sir William Drury, on 16 Feb. 1566, writing to Cecil from Berwick, after mentioning the arrival there of a Frenchman from Scotland, adds,' he is sick, my lord Darnley having made him drink of aqua composita. All people say that Darnley is too much addicted to drinking.' Keith, 329.

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7 "Tis certainly repeated that there was some jar betwixt the queen and him, at an entertainment in a merchant's house in Edinburgh; she only dissuading him from drinking too much himself, and enticing others; in both which he proceeded, and gave her such words that she left the place with tears; which they that are known to their proceedings say is not strange to be seen.' ib.

8 6

Darnley demands the crown matrimonial with such impatience, that the queen repents she has done so much for him.' Rand. lett. 24 Jan. 1566; Keith, app. 166. The remark of Knox, that,' seeing it was not concluded in parliament that he should have the crown matrimonial, he would have arms but only as duke of Rothsay,' (p. 428) may account for his uneasiness on this point; as the want of the royal arms seemed a suspending abstraction of the regal dignity.

Drury so wrote. Darnley is in great disliking with the queen. She is weary of him, and, as some judge, will be more so ere long.' Keith, 329. From Knox we learn, the queen bade to give him only his due, whereby it was perceived that her love waxed cold towards him. His arms were left blank. She put her own name before his in all writs; and thereafter caused to leave out his name wholly.' Knox, p. 428.

10 Ib. Of these, Drury especially names David [Rizzio.] ib. 11 Ib.

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12 Ib. He adds, and some say vicious, whereof too many were witnesses the other day at Inchkeith.' ib.

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