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Young says in his 'Autobiography, first published at the beginning of 1898, that

great plea of a horse militia produced immediately three volunteer corps of cavalry, which multiplied rapidly through the kingdom." His health " was the first toast given for being the origin of those corps which, when assembled, had this opportunity of publicly, declaring their opinion”. ('Autobiography,' p. 204). At a dinner given by the Duke of Bedford at Woburn, Young was told "by a gentleman of great property, captain of a troop of Yeomanry, that whenever his troop met he always drank my (Young's] health after the King's, for being the undisputed origin of all the Yeomanry corps in the kingdom” (p. 206). It is significant that in Young's own personal copy of his 'Annals' the passages relating to his suggestions as to the Yeomanry are marked, apparently in his own hand.

In his own county of Suffolk Young enrolled himself as a private in the ranks of a corps raised at his recommendation in the vicinity of Bury St. Edmunds, and commanded by Lord Broome, afterwards Marquis of Cornwallis (p. 205). In vol. xxvii. of the ‘Annals of Agriculture' (1796), p. 537, Young, prints a statement of the expense of equipping (with jacket, waistcoat, surtout, breeches, boots, gloves, cravat, &c.) a trooper

, a in the Suffolk corps of Yeomanry Cavalry -which, under the title of the Loyal Suffolk Hussars, now (1900) has as its Honorary Colonel H.R.H. the Duke of York—and he even prints a song, obviously written by himself, commencing “Hear ye not the din from afar ?" and winding up with these unexceptionable if rather tritely expressed sentiments :

Then, gallant Yeomen, sing with me.

May we fall or conquer free:
Firni our union, just our cause,
'Tis our country, King, and laws.

ERNEST CLARKE. 13a, Hanover Square, W.

Strange delays, still unexpected,
One by one appear, detected,
And the more we do, the greater

Seems the task that lies undone.
Still, as year to year succeedeth,
Each in turn more swiftly speedeth ;
Fifty years soon fly behind us,

And are dwindled to a span ;
Still the final day draws nearer,
And the truth grows ever clearer
That a life is all too little

To complete the cherished plan.
What remains ? Shall we, defeated,
From the project incompleted
Draw aloof, and seek for solace

In an indolent repose ?
Rather be the toil redoubled,
Though the light grow dim and troubled,
As the swiftly-falling twilight

Hastens onward to its close.
No! let never the suggestion
Of thy weakness raise a question
Of the duty that impels thee

Still to follow on the trace;
Every stroke of true endeavour
Often wins, and wins for ever
Just a golden grain of knowledge

Such as lifts the human race. Truth is one! To grasp it wholly Lies in One, its Author, solely; And the mind of man can master

But a fragment of the plan;
Every scheme, howe'er extensive,
Though it seem all-comprehensive,
Is a portion of a portion

Fitting life's allotted span.
Death is near; and then what matter
Though a coming hand shall shatter
All the fair but fragilo fabric

Thou laboriously didst raise?
If a single brick abideth
That thine honest toil provideth,

success hath proved sufficient,
Thou shalt win the Master's praise.

WALTER W. SKEAT. [The poem has already appeared in print.)

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(See gth S. iv. 550.) In the flush of youth's beginning, When renown seems worth the winning By a score of schemes accomplished

Ere the eve of life draws nigh, Then the mind surveys with pleasure All the length of life and leisure For researches carried forward

To completion ere we die. But the march of time, incessant, Proves our hopes but evanescent, And the plans of finished labours

Dwindle down to two or one;

SPECIAL LITERATURE WRITTEN FOR SOLDIERS. -Since our soldiers form a great topic of conversation just now,

brief allusion to some books written for then when on active service may not be out of place. From the nature of the case, they are few in number. A soldier's first duty is to fight, and he is not supposed to have any leisure to read, except the scanty correspondence he may be fortunate to receive from friends at home. However, in our great Civil War there were some curious little manuals and treatises written for him, now very scarce and interesting historically. Their dates lie between 1640 and 1649—that is, between the election of the Long Parliament and the king's execution. The Parliament had not long been in power when it began to


be clearly seen by those who looked into the seems to be the same word as the Dutch boer near future that on the army would eventu- and English boor; but it is to be noted that ally hang the destinies of both opposing a dairy of cows is spoken of here as a booing, parties, that the common soldiers had to be apparently onomatopæic, and our word booer reckoned with as important elements in the may signify one who takes over the booing. contest, and that their politics and religion

HERBERT MAXWELL. should therefore be carefully coached and

ROGERS'S 'GINEVRA.'tutored, and, above all, any religious scruples especially cleared and directed. This will

Within that chest she had concealed herself, appear from the following curious literature,

Fluttering with joy, the happiest of the happy;

When a spring-lock that lay in ambush there of which but few copies have escaped to our Fastened her down for ever! days:

If the following, taken from the Daily Tele1. A Spirituall Snapsacke for the Parliament graph for 26 June, 1897, is the bona fide Souldiers, containing Cordiall Encouragements unto the Successfull Prosecution of this Present Cause. account of an actual occurrence, and not an Lond., 1643, 4to.

exaggeration, or invention suggested by the 2. The Christian Souldier; or, Preparation for story, we have what seems to be a striking Battaile. Lond., 1642, 4to.

parallel or illustration : 3. The Christian Souldiers Magazine of Spirituall Weapons. Lond., 1644, 8vo.

Henderson, Kentucky, Friday.—Two sisters, 4. The Rebells Catechism. Composed in an easy five years respectively, while playing hide-and seek

nanied Laura and Jennie Melton, aged seven and and familiar way. 1643, 4to. 5. The Souldiers Language; or,

a Discourse with three other children at their father's house, between Two Souldiers, shewing how the Warres hid inside a big trunk in the cellar. Two others go on. 1644, 4to.

hid in a bed upstairs. The fifth child found the 6. The Zealous Souldier.

latter two, but could not find the others. The 7. The Mercenary Souldier. Both broadsheets, parents were away visiting a neighbour, and did not c. 1646.

come back for three hours, but, on learning the 8. The Souldier's Pocket Bible. Lond., 1643, two children were missing, at once began to search 12mo. And a second edition, Lond., 1644.

for them. After an investigation lasting an hour, 9. The Souldier's Catechism, composed for the the father remembered the trunk, and on opening Parliaments Army, in two parts, wherein are

it discovered the two girls lying dead in each other's chiefly taught: (1) The Justification, (2) The Quali- arms. The lid of the trunk fastened with a spring fication, of our Soldiers, written for the encourage lock, and when the children were once in the box, ment and instruction of all that have taken up arms

they were unable to open it, and were slowly in the cause of God and His Peojile, especially the suffocated.-Dalziel." Common Soldier. Lond., 1644, 12mo.

The incident, if truly such, lends itself to The last two are associated with the name poetry on the lines of 'Lucy Gray'; but any of Cromwell, as having been issued accord-writer so utilizing it would, of course, be ing to the wish and instruction of his rising thought to be simply imitating Rogers. and influential party. Both are extremely


Bath. scarce, only two copies each being known of theoriginals. The ‘Pocket Bible'is well known, having been frequently reprinted, and is

“QUAGGA” AND “ZEBRA.”—The names of mainly a collection of Scripture texts suit- these two nearly allied animals have never able for soldiers with appropriate headings. been satisfactorily traced to their sources. But the Soldier's Catechism' is by far the Taking Prof. Skeat's Dictionary and the most remarkable and interesting book ever Century' as the two best authorities, I find issued for a soldier's breast-pocket, and, as is in the former, "Quagga, said to be Hottentot”; acknowledged, was a powerful instrument in in the latter, Quagga, apparently South determining the king's execution. It would African." The word is South African. It is be interesting to know who drew it up, and not Hottentot, but Xosa-Kaffir. As early as bow it is we know so little about it." No 1812, Lichtenstein, in his Travels,' gives it as bibliographers, no historians, even mention it. such in a vocabulary of Xosa words; and in the

NE QUID NIMIS. ' Dictionary of the Kaffir Language,' by the

Rev.W.J.Davis (London, 1872), I find it again. “BOER.”—It may be of interest to note Davis spells it iqwara, but his r represents that the word boer, pronounced as

a “deep guttural sound," hence the European syllable booer, is in common use in this part forms quagga and quacha (pronounced of Scotland (Galloway), although it is not to kwokka). As to zebra, the nearest approach be found in Jamieson's Dictionary. It is to an etymology of it is due to Littré, who used to denote the person, usually a peasant, calls it mot éthiopien.” Prof. Skeat quotes to whom a farmer lets his dairy cows for the this only to express doubt of its accuracy, season. Perhaps I should have said that this though he has nothing with which to replace

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it. The 'Century' vaguely guesses the word of the parishes liable,' but from the pockets of to be African. Yet there are plenty of stray onlookers. The ceremony lasts about a quarter dictionaries which would have decided its of an hour, and then, by invitation of his grace,

everybody goes to breakfast at the nearest inn, origin. I turn to the Dictionary of the where the duko's health is drunk in hot rum and Amharic Language,' by the Rev. C. W. Isen- milk." berg (London, 1841, p. 157), and I find that

GEORGE MARSHALL. zebra is Ethiopian, Amharic being, I need Sefton Park, Liverpool. hardly say, the court and official language of [See 1st S. 8. 448; oth S. ii. 386 ; 7th S. xii. 442, Abyssinia.' Isenberg prints it in Ethiopic 493 ; geh. s. i. 197, 238. See also under “Wroth characters, which cannot be reproduced here. Money.') The transliteration is zèběra. The short e's,

EDGAR A. POE'S 'HOP-FROG.' - The original corresponding to the Hebrew sheva, are of this gruesome story may be found in practically silent in pronunciation, and the Barckley's 'Felicitie of Man, 1631, pp. 63-4, stress should be upon the last syllable.

and may, no doubt, be traced further back : JAMES PLATT, Jun.

The French King Charles the Sixth, his mind A PASTILLE - BURNER. — We have a china being distempered, committed the governement ornament, that has been in existence upwards of his Realme to others, and gave himselfe to of sixty years, in the form of a cottage, four nized in his Court, where the King was disposed to

pastimes : there chanced a marriage to bee solemby five by three inches, and that, in spite make himselfe and others merrie, ho put off all his of its preposterous floral embellishment, in- apparell, and disguised his face like a Liou, annointdicates a purpose in its construction. The ing. his body with pitch, and fastned faxe so base is recessed, and pierced, as it were artificially to it, that he represented a monster, through the floor, in four places. At the rough, and covered with haire. When he was

thus attired, and five others as wise as himselfe, sides and back of this base there are three they came into the chan ber among the Lords and inlets, measuring three-quarters of an inch Ladies, dauncing and singing in a strange

tune, all each, apparently for air. The doorway at the Court beholding them. The Duke of Orleance, the back is ample and unobstructed by a door. whether that heo might better see, or for some There are six window-spaces at the front, and held it so neare the King, that a spark falling

other toy, snatched a torch out of a mans hand, also open ;

and the flues of the two chimneys upon him set them all on a flaming fire ; two of the connect with the interior. This is doubtless five companions were miserably burnt in the place, one of the old pastille-burners, the pastilles crying, and howling most pitifully without any being placed in the chimneys, and obtaining daies after ; the fifth running speedily into a place

remedie; other two dyed in great tormont two by means of these various contrivances suffi- where was water and wine, to wash himselfe, was cient air for their free combustion.

saved; the King having more helpe than the rest, ARTHUR MAYALL. before the flanie had compassed his body round HENRY CAVENDISII. The notice in the and gowne about him, and quenched the fire.”

about, was saved by a Lady that cast her traine 'Encycl. Brit.' of this celebrated chemist

RICHARD H. THORNTON. states that he was educated at Newcombe's

Portland, Oregon. school at Hackney. This seems to have been a notable seminary in the middle of last cen- WOUND “WINDED."—It is rather to tury. It would be interesting to glean some be regretted that in the 'H.E.D.' under facts about its exact site, &c., and respecting Horn, Scott's line ('Lady of the Lake,' any scholars who were contemporaries of I. xvii.) Cavendish, and made their mark in science, But scarce again his horn he wound letters, or arms.

M. L. BRESLAR. should be quoted without comment. It would “WROTH SILVER.”—The following, from the instance of a false past tense.

have been more in place under "wind," as an

C. C. B. Liverpool Echo for 13 November, 1899, may be of interest:



AS DUKE OF “At sunrise on Saturday morning the ancient CORNWALL. (See 7th S. xii. 362.)-I would custom of collecting : wroth silver' on the Duke supplement this note-which illustrated the of Buccleuch's Warwickshiro estate was observed fact that for nearly the first month of his at Knightlow Hill, a short distance from Rugby: life the present

heir-apparent bore only the The duke has rights over the common lands in a number of parishes, and he therefore claims to take title of Duke of Cornwall, to which he had dues from those parishes. One group is called upon the right by birth, and that it was not until to pay ld. each, another lot ltd., and so on to 28. 3d. 4 December, 1841, he was created Prince of A large number of people go out at sunrise and Wales and Earl of Chester-by a reference follow the Bucoleuch agent into a field where stands the cross at which tribute is paid. As a rule the to the phrase used by Henry VI. in 1455 'in money is forthcoming, not from the official coffers reference to his unfortunate son Edward,

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and to be found in the Rolls of Parliament jacket, and so an appropriate Kinnui (vernacular (vol. v. p. 293), “His best belovyd first form) of Jacob.” begotten sonne, tyme of his birth is Duke of Readers of Jewish history are familiar with Cornewayle.” It is separately entered that such curious forms as Rambam, Rashbam, the King, “ by his Letters Patentes under his and Rashi, which respectively stand for grete Seall, hath creat Edward his moost Rabbi Maimun ben Maimun (Maimonides), entierly belovyd firstbegottyn sonne and Rabbi Samuel ben Meir, and Rabbi Solomon heir apparaunt, Prince of Wales, and Erle ben Isaac. Borrow, in his celebrated eulogy of the Counte Palatyne of Chestre(ibid., on prizefighting (Lavengro,' ch. xxvi.), says, p. 290). The birth had taken place on "The Jews may have Rambams in plenty, 13 October, 1453 ; the creation here noted but never a Fielding nor a Shakespeare." on 15 March, 1454. ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

The ordinary Hebrew names Berachyah,

Isaiah, Eleazar, are converted into Benedict A PASQUIL. — From

From a rare and curious Deulesalt, and Deusaie (or Deus adjuvet), and pamphlet in Latin and Italian of the fifteenth

so forth; and the common form Hyams is century which I have before me, it appears vulgarized Hebrew for Chaim (life), also that pasquils or pasquinades were not always found in the forms Vives, Vivard, Vivelot, synonymous with lampoons or libels, but &c. The same may be said of other cominon might be applied to any written or printed Jewish names, as Myers, Bear, Ursel, and so news and report of exciting interest. They forth. Some Jews cast off their Hebrew were probably at first stuck upon pillars (cp: patronymics altogether, and, if I remember

") Rome, and afterwards in other large cities of rightly, the well-known clothier Mosos, who Italy, where the public could read them, retired from business and occupied a West

had extensive premises in Aldgate, when he Now'the pasquinade, which is not mentioned End mansion, called himself Beddington, in Brunet's Manuel' (where nine earlier

and under that name left a large fortune. pieces of a similar character, printed 1512- I suppose " Barney Barnato 1526 in Rome, are described), and may Kinnui. But it seems that the Jews not

was puro deserve a brief record, bears the title 'Carmina apposita ad Pasquillum in personam

only confuse their names while alert in Victorie [sic] MDXXXIII.' It is a pamphlet of Azrael, change them when dying, for Mr.

business, but as a last resource, to cheat 12mo. size, without place and date, but most Jacobs tells us that “it is a Jewish custom

, probably printed at Rome in 1533, the year to change a man's name when in articulo after the eventful victory to which its title mortis, in the hope that the Angel of Death refers, comprising twenty-four pages. The

will not recognize him under the altered title-page is adorned with the large woodcut

name.Surely a very strange superstition. figure of a woman, and the text with four

JAMES HOOPER. woodcut medals representing the goddess

Norwich. Victoria. The Latin text is followed by four pages of Italian Pasquini,' and the whole

WAITS “GAITAS."-Talking a few work concludes with a curious Latin song of days ago in Berlin to Don Pedro de Muxica, six lines in hexameters, each word of which Professor of Castilian in the Oriental Seminbegins with the letter p. Considering, its subject, this pasquil is evidently not satirical, absence of etymologies which he criticizes so

ary there, about the false etymologies and but really an historical poem or hymn, which justly in the Dictionary of the Royal


* purposed to glorify the famous victory gained Academy at Madrid, I suggested that gaita, by the Emperor Charles V.'s captain Sebas- the name of a kind

of bagpipes used in some tian Schertlin over the Turks near Vienna parts of Spain, might be of Keltic origin, on 19 September, A.D. 1532, when the Papal see from a word meaning wind, as it is eminently was held by the Roman Pontiff Clemens VII.,

a wind instrument. Gustav Korting, in his who reigned 1523-34.


'Lateinisch-Romanisches Wörterbuch'(PaderOxford.

born, 1891), explains the word as little as the KINNUI: JEWISH EKE-NAMES. - In Mr. Castilian Academy. The choice of an etymon Joseph Jacobs’s ‘Jews of Angevin England' seems to confine itself to the tribe to which (1893, p. 370), in a dissertation on old Anglo- English gay, Basque jai, Manx gaih (A DicJewish names, it is stated that

tionary of the Manks Language,' by A. “ English is indeed conspicuous by its absence in Cregeen, Douglas, 1835), belong, or to the the list, except for Alfia, among the ladies, and wind-words represented by Manx geay, gheay. Jurnet (Jornet), among the men, if the latter bo, as Prof. Muxica, however, is inclined to connect has been suggested, derived from jornet, a jerkin or it with English waits. In discussing this


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word Prof. W. W. Skeat makes no allusion favourite haunt - a potter's workshop, under the to the Iberian instrument. But Spanish form of some earthen vessel. Thus the epitaph gaiteros wear gaiters, and are waiters upon Catharine Gray to abate their grict, since after a

above mentioned advises the weeping friends of those who like gay music upon festive occa- run of years, sions, no less than those ale-knights who

In some tall pitcher, or broad wind up their notes before English homes She in her shop may be, at Yuletide.

PALAMEDES. In a note Sir William refers to the “158 PARTRIDGE, THE ALMANAC-MAKER. - In the but also referring to 9, 66, 68, 79, 89, 103, 138,

Rebáayát,” mentioning particularly No. 111, accounts of John Partridge, the almanac- and 146. These precise references will serve maker, and George Parker, the astrologer, to show that Sir William Ouseley had an given in the 'Dictionary of National Bio-intimate acquaintance with the verses of graphy.' (vol. xliii. pp. 428 and 234), their Omar. .

WILLIAM E. A. AXON. pamphlet warfare of 1697-9 is noted ; but

Moss Side, Manchester. there is no reference to a legal action of 1700 which ensued upon it. Record of the com- “BYRE."--To enable them to appreciate the mencement of this is to be found in the Post humour of_the subjoined cutting from the Boyof 7 May, 1700, in the following paragraph: Aberdeen Evening Express some readers may “This Week commences a Tryal at Guild-Hall

, need to be informed, as the Poet Laureate between Partridge, the Almanack - maker, and evidently does, that in Scotland the "byre" Parker, the Astrologer; the first is Plaintiff': He is the cow-house :brings an Action of a 10001. against the other, for

“Alfred Austin, the Poet Laureate, has made Printing in his Ephemeris this Year, That He's a

several contributions to the literature of the war, Rebel in his Principles ; An Enemy to Monarchy: "To Arms!' being his latest effort to represent the Ungrateful to his Friend ; A Scoundrel in his Con position of the nation. In Scotland, however, Mr. versation : A Malignant in his Writings ; A Lyer Austin's verses will provoke smiles rather than in his Almanack; And a fool of an Astrologer. admiration, for he has credited Scotland with a Tho' they are great Men in the way of Predictions, small share of Britain's glory. He tells us that they can't tell how the Cause will go. Wo hear the polite Gipsies, alias Judicial Fortune-tellers, lay

From English hamlet, Irish hill, great Wagers on both sides.”

Welsh hearths, and Scottish byres,

They throng to show that they are still But there is no mention of the result of the

Sons worthy of their sires. trial in such immediately succeeding issues The poetic licence is great, but it does not cover as I have been able to search.

slander. Sons of sires that pass from Scottish byres ALFRED F. ROBBINS. are, Mr. Austin may be informed, found oftener in

English cattle showyards than on foreign battle. OMAR KHAYYAM.—A place must be found fields, although in both cases the sons usually return for Sir William Ouseley in the list of the covered with honours." students of Omar Khayyam who preceded

R. M. SPENCE. Edward FitzGerald. In some 'Observations Sr. MICHAEL'S CHURCH, BASSISHAW.-As on some Extraordinary Anecdotes concern- some one is certain sooner or later to ining Alexander; and on the Eastern Origin of quire for the date of the demolition of this Several Fictions popular in Different Lan- ancient church, the following cutting from a guages of Europe, which was read before the local paper of Saturday, 9 Dec., 1899, might Royal Society of Literature, 15 Nov., 1826, usefully be transferred to the pages of and is printed in the Transactions (vol. i. N. & Q.:part ii. pp. 5-23), Ouseley very judiciously

“St. Michael's Church, Bassishaw, near the says:

Guildhall, was put up for auction on Tuesday, the “It is not, however, my opinion that every coin sale being conducted in the building itself. It is cidence of this kind must be pronounced an imita- about to be demolished under the Union of Bonetion of sonie Eastern prototype; the resemblance fices Act, after a history that dates back to 1140. between parallel passages (of which different lan. Four churches have stood upon the site, the present guages furnish a inultiplicity) must be, in several one, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, being the instances, regarded as merely accidental, notwith- successor of the one destroyed by the Great Fire. standing a conformity both in sentiments and The building has no claim to architectural beauty. expressions.

There were few persons present at the unique

auction He enforces this caution by the following gained was 1801. for all the lead covering to the

on Tuesday, and the highest prico example :

steeple, flats, and gutters. The weather vane was "I cannot for a moment suspect that the well. bought for 2. 158., and eight ornamental coloured known epitaph on a celebrated vendor of earthen. glass lead lights brought 21. 58. Other articles were ware at Chester was borrowed from a Persian sold at a ridiculously low figure. Two lots, comtetrastich, composed in the twelfth century by prising the whole of the brick and stone work of the Omar Khayám, who calls for wine that he may church and tower, failed to find a purchaser. The banish caro, expecting to be once more in his whole amount of bids accepted just exceeded 2007."

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