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when all sorrow, and crying, and pain, shall be done away forever. Rev. 21: 4, "And there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are done away."
We come now to the testimony of the apostle Paul, and we will arrange his testimony under distinct heads.
1. Paul taught that the salvation of the Gospel is God's free gift to man, and that no man can merit it by any act or volition of his whatsoever. Eph. 2: 8, 9, "For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast." 2 Tim. 1: 9, "Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began."
2. He teaches that the free gift of life is as extensive as the judgment to condemnation. Rom. 5: 18, "Therefore, as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life." This gift is eternal life. Rom. 6: 23, "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord."
OBJECTION. "This free gift is offered to all, but this does not prove that all will accept of it and be saved." ANSWER. — There is a great difference between offering to give a thing, and actually giving it. Nothing is said in the text about offering to give eternal life; but on the contrary, it is said, “The free gift came upon all men unto justification of life." This free gift is to result in justification of life to all to whom it came. But how can this be, unless it is eventually accepted by all?
3. Paul draws the parallel lines between the extent of sin and disobedience on the one hand, and the extent of righteousness and obedience on the other; and affirms that just as far as the one had extended, even just as far should the other. Rom. 5: 19, "For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners; so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous." Parkhurst says on this text, "The word many in this verse, signifies the many; that is, the mass, the multitude; the whole bulk of mankind." Macknight says, "For as the word many in the first part of
the verse, does not mean some part of mankind only, but all man. kind, from first to last, who without exception are constituted sinners; so the many, in the latter part of the verse, who are said to be constituted righteous through the obedience of Christ, must mean all mankind, from the beginning to the end of the world, without exception." No man is a sinner until he sins personally; so no man will be counted righteous until he personally practises righteousness. Hence if, as Paul avers, righteousness will extend as far as sin has extended, then all who ever have or ever will practise sin, must eventually practise righteousness. And when all men practise righteousness, what will prevent their being saved?
4. Paul draws the parallel lines between the extent of sin on the one hand, and of grace on the other; and affirms that grace shall extend as far as sin, and even abound over it; so that at last all shall end in righteousness and eternal life. Rom. 5: 20, 21, "Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound; that as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord." The same number who have experienced death, as the consequence of their own personal sins, are to experience eternal life, as the consequence of their own personal righteousness; which righteousness is produced through the instrumentality of Jesus Christ. And grace is to abound over sin, in that the eternal life which is the consequence of righteousness far exceeds the death which is the consequence of sin.
5. He teaches that the whole creation was made subject to vanity, and that the same creation shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, and be made to participate in the liberty of the children of God. Rom. 8: 20, 21, "For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope; because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God." The same word which is here rendered creature is in verse 22 rendered creation. Dr. Macknight and' other good critics say that the word here rendered creature and creation signifies "every human creature; ALL MANKIND.” Rev. Thomas White translates the passage thus: "For THE CREATION was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who
subjected it; in hope that THE CREATION ITSELF also shall be deliv
6. He taught the final salvation of the whole mass of both Jews and Gentiles. Rom. 11: 25-32, "For I would not, brethren (Gentiles), that ye should be ignorant of this mystery (lest ye should be wise in your own conceits), that blindness in part [not total blind ness] is happened to Israel, until [here is a limitation of it] the ful ness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved; as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: for this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins. As concerning the gospel, they (the Jews) are enemies for your (the Gentiles) sakes; but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes. For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance [that is, God never repents of his gifts or calling]. For as ye (the Gentiles) in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their (the Jews) unbelief; even so have these (the Jews) also now not believed, that through your mercy they may also obtain mercy. For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all" This last verse teaches that the mercy of God towards the Jews will extend as far as their unbelief has extended. We know not how any man of ordinary understanding can read the 11th chapter of Romans and not see that the evident design of the apostle was to teach the eventual salvation of both Jews and Gentiles.
7. He taught that Christ is Lord both of the dead and living; and that, whether living or dead, we are the Lord's. Rom. 14: “For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to him7-9, self. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore or die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and the living." The dead and living comprise all mankind, consequently Christ is Lord of all.
8. He teaches that Christ gave himself a ransom for all; that he died for all; that he tasted death for every man; that he came to save sinners; that he died for us when we were sinners, and that he died for the ungodly. 1 Tim. 2: 6, "Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time." Heb. 2: 9, "We see
Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man." 1 Tim. 1: 15, "This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief." 2 Cor. 5: 14, "For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead." Rom. 5: 8, "But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." Rom. 5: 6, "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly."
9. Paul not only taught that God loves his creatures, even when dead in trespasses and sins, Eph. 2: 4, 5, but that there is no power in heaven above, nor on the earth beneath, nor in the universe of Jehovah, which can separate us from his love. Rom. 8: 38, 39, "For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to COME, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord."
OBJECTION.-"Paul was speaking of God's love to Christians, and not of his love to all mankind."
ANSWER. He was speaking not only of God's love to Christians, but of his love to mankind in general, as is evident from Eph. 2: 4, 5, "But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins." If God loves mankind even when dead in sins, will he ever cease to love them? If he is unchangeable, surely not.
If, then, there is any truth in the declaration of the apostle, which we have quoted from Rom. 8: 38, 39, nothing can separate God's creatures from his love. Life cannot do it. If we should live through ceaseless ages, we cannot outlive the love of God. Death cannot. No; death cannot place us beyond the reach of God's love. Angels cannot. No; angels, whether fallen or otherwise, cannot do it. Principalities and powers cannot. No; there is no power in the universe that can do it. Things present or to come cannot do it. No; there is no circumstance of time, place or condition, now nor never will be, that can do it. Height nor depth cannot do it. No; we may speed our way upward with the velocity of lightning, and continue to ascend through the regions of space,
till millions of ages have rolled around, but we could never reach
them from his love.
10. Paul taught the limitation, remedial design, efficacious nature, and benevolent object of all the divine chastisements. Heb. 12: 5-11, "My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him for whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons, for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not? But if ye be without chas tisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. Furthermore, we have had fathers of our flesh who corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection to the Father of spirits, and live? For they verily for a few days chastened us after their own pleasure; but he for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. Now, no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruits of righteousness unto them that are exercised thereby."
11. He teaches that the grace of God brings salvation to all men. Titus 2: 11, "For the grace of God which bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men." Adam Clarke says on this text, "It cannot be said, except in a very refined and spiritual sense, that this Gospel had then appeared to all men; but it may be well said that it bringeth salvation to all men; this is its design, and it was to taste death for every man that its Author came into the world." He adds, "As the light and heat of the sun are denied to no nation nor individual, so the grace of the Lord Jesus; this also shines out upon all; and God designs that all mankind shall be as equally benefited by it in reference to their souls, as they are in respect to their bodies by the sun that shines in the firmament of heaven." In the margin