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of our large Bibles this text reads thus: "The grace of God which bringeth salvation to all men hath appeared."
12. He taught that there is a moral power in goodness, which renders it sufficient to overcome and subdue all evil. Rom. 12: 21, "Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good." This shows us that evil is limited and bounded by goodness; and that it can be subdued and overcome. Who can doubt that God, who is infinitely good, will overcome it and bring it to a final end?
13. Paul expressly declares that God is the Saviour of all men ; and states the fact of his trusting in him as such, as the reason why he suffered reproach. 1 Tim. 4: 10, "For therefore we both labor and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, especially of those that believe." By believing that God is the Saviour of all men, the believer enjoys a special salvation which the unbeliever knows not of. But God could not be said to be the special Saviour of the believer, unless he is the Saviour of all mankind. For, if God is the Saviour of none but believers, there would be nothing special about their salvation; that is, nothing by which it would be distinguished from the salvation of anybody else, as nobody else would be saved.
14. He teaches the destruction of all enemies to God and man; even the last enemy, death. 1 Cor. 15: 26, "The last enemy shall be destroyed, death." 2 Tim. 1: 10, "Who hath abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light." Death is here declared to be the last enemy. If death is the last enemy, certainly there can be no enemy after death. And if the last enemy, death, is eventually destroyed, then man will have no enemy. And if the time ever arrives when man will have no enemy, what will prevent his being holy and happy?
15. He not only teaches the destruction of death, but he also teaches the destruction of that which has the power of death; and the final deliverance of those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. Heb. 2: 14, 15, "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage." What has the power of death? James 1: 15,
"Sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death." Sin, then, accord-
16. He also taught the destruction of the grave or hell; and that mankind will gain a complete victory over the powers of death and the grave, and that death shall be robbed of its sting and the grave of its power. 1 Cor. 15: 55, "O death, where is thy sting? 0 grave (hades), where is thy victory?" These are questions which involve their own answers, and the language implies that both death and hades are to be destroyed.
17. He taught the final ingathering, or reheading, of all men in Christ. Eph. 1: 9, 10, "Having made known unto us the mys tery of his will, according to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed in himself: that in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven and which are on earth, even in him."
18. He taught that at last every knee would be brought to bow at the name of Jesus, and every tongue to confess him Lord. Phil. 2: 9-11, "Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him (Christ), and given him a name which is above every name; that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth: and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father."
OBJECTION. Although all will at last bow the knee to Christ, and confess him Lord, yet on the part of some it will be a forced submission; and, therefore, the text does not prove universal salvation."
ANSWER. All this is mere assertion. Nothing is said in the text about one class of men bowing the knee in any different manner from any other class. And, for aught the text says to the contrary, it will not only be done by all, but by all alike, in the same manner, in the same spirit, and with the same sincerity. Indeed, nothing but a willing subjection of mankind to Christ, and an honest and sincere confession of him as Lord, would be to the glory of God, which Paul says the bowing and confession spoken of in the text shall be. Besides, in 1 Cor. 12: 3, we are told that "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord but by the Holy Ghost;" and in Rom. 10: 10, "With the mouth confession is made unto salvation." If all
men, therefore, finally confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, of course all will be saved. If the reader will consult Col. 1: 19, 20, he will see that all mankind are not only to bow the knee to Christ, and to confess him Lord, but they are to be reconciled to God. This proves that their subjection, so far from being forced, will be voluntary; and that the confession spoken of will be from the heart.
19. He taught the final reconciliation of all intelligences to God. 2 Cor. 5: 19, "God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself." Col. 1: 19, 20, "For it pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell: and having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven." Professor Stuart says, "Things in heaven, earth, and under the earth, is a common periphrasis of the Hebrew and New Testament writers for the universe." All intelligent creatures, then, in the universe are finally to become reconciled to God. Then, of course, there will be nothing in the way of their salvation.
20. Paul draws the parallel lines between the extent of natural and moral death on the one hand, and of immortal and spiritual life on the other; and shows that all who had or would experience the former, should eventually experience the latter. 1 Cor. 15: 22, "As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive." Dr. Belsham says on this text, "The apostle's language is so clear and full with respect to the final happiness of those who are thus raised, and that their resurrection to life will be ultimately a blessing, that the generality of Christians have supposed that he is here treating of the resurrection of the virtuous only. But that is not the fact. He evidently speaks of the restoration of the whole human All who die by Adam shall be raised by Christ; otherwise the apostle's assertion would be untrue. The case then would have been this: as in Adam all die, so in Christ shall a select number, a small proportion, be made alive. But this is not the apostle's doctrine. His expressions are equally universal in each clause. ALL die in Adam. The same ALL, without any exception, without any restriction, shall by Christ be restored to life, and ultimately to holiness and everlasting happiness."
OBJECTION. "The resurrection spoken of here is a resurrection of the body merely. It is, therefore, only a physical change, and
does not imply that those who will be thus raised will be saved."
ANSWER. How do men die in Adam? Adam here signifies earthy man. Every man is an earthy man. Well, as in the earthy man all die, even so in Christ (the heavenly man) shall all be made alive. Now, how do men die in the earthy man? They die both physically and morally. Rom. 5: 12, "By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." Natural death is the result of a mortal constitution, which every man has. Moral death is the result of sin, which every man commits. Well, as in the earthy man all die physically and morally, even so in Christ shall all be made alive physically and morally. Besides, the apostle shows that all who are raised from the state of death will be raised from "corruption to incorruption," from "dishonor to glory." This certainly shows that the change to be effected by the resurrection is something more than a mere physical change. Nor does the apostle give the least hint or intimation, in the whole chapter, that any who are raised will be miserable thereafter; but, on the contrary, he speaks of it as a change to be effected upon all mankind, and upon all alike.
21. He teaches that all who have borne or shall bear the image of the earthy man, shall also bear the image of the heavenly man. 1 Cor. 15: 49, “And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly."
22. He teaches the resurrection of all the dead from corruption to incorruption, from weakness to power, from natural to spiritual, from dishonor to glory; and the change of both the living and the dead from mortal to immortality. 1 Cor. 15: 42-44, "So also is the resurrection of the dead; it is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body." 1 Cor. 15: 51-54, “Behold, I show you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump (for the trumpet shall sound); and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written [see Isa. 25: 6-8], Death is swallowed up in victory." It is often asserted that there is no change after death; but, if there
any truth in the declaration of the apostle in these texts, the most important change which will ever be experienced by man will take place after death. Man, therefore, in the resurrection world, will be different being from what he is here. All reasoning, then, upon the subject of what man will be there from what he is here, is entirely out of the question.
23. He taught that out of God, as the great author, origin, source, and fountain, all things have proceeded; and that into him, as the great centre to which they are tending, shall all things return. Rom. 11: 36, "For of him (God), and through him, and to him, are all things to whom be glory forever. Amen.". And who cannot respond, Amen?
24. Finally, he teaches the subjection of all intelligent beings to Christ; and, finally, their and Christ's subjection to God; that God may become the all and in all of his creatures. 1 Cor. 15: 24-28, "Then cometh the end, when he (Christ) shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority and power. For he must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith, all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted which did put all things under him. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that did put all things under him, that God may be all in all." This testimony very plainly asserts the following facts. 1. All things, that is, all beings, are to be brought into subjection to Christ. This work is now going on. It is a progressive work, but will eventually be consummated. In Heb. 2: 8, 9, Paul says, (God) hast put all things in subjection under his (Christ's) feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him. But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the ngels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man,” 2. There is but one exception to this universal subjection, and that exception is God. 3. Christ is to put down all rule, and all authority and power. Of course, when this is accomplished, the devil will have no rule, nor authority, nor power. 4. Christ and all mankind are finally to become subject to the power, the authority and the