always invited to partake with us; and our Meeting-houses are open and free to all denominations when not occupied by us.

-In 1835 there were Gain of the Denomination in nine years. in the United States and British Provinces, so far as could be ascer tained, 661 Societies, 246 Meeting-houses, and 311 Preachers. From that time to the present we have gained 437 Societies, 638 Meeting-houses, and 308 Preachers.

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Probable Number of Universalists in America. of those who openly avow their belief in Universalism in this country, and of those who manifest a preference for that religious persuasion, cannot be less than 800,000, and is probably much greater. In addition to these, it is known that Universalism is believed by some of the Unitarians of this country, both of the clergy and laity; that a belief in this doctrine prevails to a considerable extent among the Hicksite Quakers, and that it is generally embraced by the Shakers, and by the Tunkers or German Baptists. Besides, there are undoubtedly many believers in Universalism to be found in all the different denominations in the country. Prof. Stuart, of Andover College, in a late work against Universalism, says that many members of Orthodox churches in the New England States seriously doubt the doctrine of endless punishment, and that some, both of the clergy and laity, entertain a secret belief in universal salvation. Rev. Wilbur Fisk, of the Methodist church, in a sermon against Universalism preached before the New England Conference in 1823, says, "The eternity of future rewards and punishments is a subject which, at the present, excites among us considerable attention. In conse quence of the plausible objections that are made to the doctrine of endless misery, the minds of many serious, candid people have become unsettled." He also speaks of some "whose feelings have become neutralized by the arguments of the contending parties, and who are looking on with dangerous indifference." The celebrated Dr. Beecher calls Universalism, "the giant heresy of the day." Universalism in Europe. In England, Ireland and Scotland, there are some congregations of Universalists, as also some preachThe Unitarians of these countries ers who belong to that sect. openly avow their belief in, and boldly preach the doctrine of, universal salvation. In Germany it is well known that this doctrine prevails almost universally. Dwight, in his "Travels in the North of Germany, in 1825 and 1826," says of the Germans, that “


have done more to enlarge the knowledge of sacred criticism, than
all the nations of Europe. In this respect, they
In this respect, they are a century in
advance of England and of every other nation." P. 334. On page
421 he says, that in Germany "the doctrine of the Eternity of
Future Punishment is almost UNIVERSALLY REJECTED. I have seen
but ONE person in Germany who believed it, and but one other whose
mind was wavering on this subject."

Facts in relation to the History of Universalism.—From the time of the death of the apostle John, which happened about A. D. 100, to the year 150, the history of opinions entertained by Christians respecting the final destiny of the human race, is involved in much obscurity. But little is known except that the doctrine of the final happiness of all men was held by the different sects of Gnostics, viz., the Basilidians, the Carpocratians, and the Valentinians. And although these sects were regarded as heretics by the orthodox fathers, and although these fathers "warmly and bitterly attacked their respective systems in general," yet, "it does not appear that they ever selected the particular tenet of the salvation of all souls as obnoxious."

In the year 140, or 150, a belief in Universalism was distinctly avowed in a work, which was the production of some Christian or Christians, called the "Sibylline Oracles."

Of the orthodox fathers, who lived between 150 and 210, some believed in Universalism, while others held to the doctrine of endless misery. "This diversity of opinion, however, occasioned no divisions, no controversies nor contentions among them; and both sentiments existed together in the church without reproach."

From the year 230 to 553, Universalism was believed and advocated by a number of the most learned, pious and distinguished fathers that the church ever produced.

Tertullian, a presbyter of Carthage, in Africa, was the first Christian writer who asserted and maintained the doctrine that the misery of the wicked will be of equal duration with the happiness of the righteous. This doctrine he defended in a work published by him in the 204. year

Universalism was never condemned by any Christian writer, either orthodox or heretic, till the year 394.

"In the year 394 a quarrel broke out between the followers of the celebrated Origen and their opponents, in which some of the lat ter attacked, for the first time, the particular tenet of the ultimate

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salvation of the Devil, but did not at first object to the final salvation of all men.


'In 399, some of the councils that were convened against the Origenists, condemned expressly the doctrine of the salvation of the Devil and his angels, though they passed by the belief of the salvation of all mankind without a censure."

Universalism was not officially condemned by the church until the Fifth General Council, which was held at Constantinople in the year 553. See "Ancient History of Universalism," and "Plain Guide to Universalism."

Notwithstanding this authoritative condemnation of Universalism, the doctrine still continued to be held and maintained in the church until the establishment of Popery.

From the time of the condemnation of Universalism by the Fifth General Council, the church gradually sunk into ignorance, superstition, and moral darkness, until at last spiritual despotism and tyranny reigned triumphant.

From the time of the breaking out of the Protestant Reformation to the present time, Universalism has been believed and advocated by some of the most distinguished divines, theologians and philosophers, of all the different prominent sects in Christendom.

The Manicheans, a very powerful and influential sect, which flourished from the year 265 even to the time of the Reformation, held the doctrine of Universalism.

During the reign of Popery, Universalism was held by the Albanenses, the Albigenses, the Waldenses, the Paulicians, and the Lollards. It is thought that these sects all descended from the Manicheans. Neither of them ever submitted to or acknowledged the authority of the Pope.

Universalists, as a distinct denomination, were known in England as early as 1770.

The first Universalist preacher in the United States was Dr. George De Benneville. He came to this country in 1741.

The first Universalist society in the United States was formed between the years 1771 and 1780.

The first Universalist paper was published in England in 1793. The first Universalist paper in the United States was published at Boston, Mass., in 1802. The first weekly paper was commenced

5 in 1819.

The General Convention of Universalists of the United States was formed in 1785.

List of distinguished Individuals who were Universalists.Previous to the Reformation, Universalism was believed and advocated by the following individuals; many of them the most eminent of the Christian Fathers: Basilides, Carpocrates, Valentine, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, Ambrosius, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Titus, bishop of Bostra, Basil the Great, bishop of Cesarea, Gregory, bishop of Nyssa, Didymus, Jerome, Gregory, bishop of Nazienzus, Evagrius Ponticus, Diodorus, bishop of Tarsus, Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, John, bishop of Jerusalem, Victorinus, Noanus, Leontius, Domitian, Theodorus Ascidas, Clement, Rainold, Walter Lollard.

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It may be proper to remark that most of the above individuals were believers in future punishment, and that they freely applied the terms everlasting and eternal to punishment, not, however, t express its endless, but its indefinite duration.

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Since the era of the Reformation, Universalism has been held by the following eminent persons, who have lived at different periods of time and in different countries.

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In England, it has been advocated by Gerard Winstanly, William
Everard, Rev. William Earbury, Rev. Richard Coppin, Samuel
Richardson, Rev. Jeremy White, Dr. Henry More, Archbishop
Tillotson, Dr. Thomas Burnet, William Whiston, Sir Isaac Newton,
Rev. Dr. Samuel Clarke, Dr. George Cheyne, Chevalier Ramsay,
Mrs. Jane Leadley, Rev. Richard Clarke, Rev. William Law, Wil-
liam Duncombe, Rev. Samuel Say, Soame Jenyns, Henry Brooke,
Dr. Andrew Kippis, Dr. William Paley, Rev. Robert Robinson,
Rev. Geo. Walker, Dr. John Coakley Lettsom, Dr. John Hey, Dr.
David Hartley, Abraham Tucker, Rev. Thomas Broughton, Bishop
Thomas Newton, Sir George Stonehouse, John Henderson, Dr.
Nathan Drake, Dr. James Brown, Rev. William Matthews, Rev.
Francis Leicester, Rev. Edward Holmes, Rev. Rochemont Barbauld,
Mrs. Ann Letitia Barbauld, Rev. John Brown, Rev. Theophilus
Lindsey, Rev. Dr. Joseph Priestley, Dr. John Jebb, Rev. John
Simpson, Rev. Timothy Kenrick, Dr. John Prior Estlin, Dr. Lant
Carpenter, Rev. Richard Wright, Rev. Henry Poole, Rev. Robert
Aspland, Rev. Dr. Thomas Belsham, Rev. John Grundy, Rev. Rus
sel Scott, Dr. Thomas Cogan, Rev. W. J. Fox, Rev. William Vidler,


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Nathaniel Scarlett, Rev. Mr. Creighton, Rev. James Rait, Rev. Henry Bell, and Rev. William Upjohn.

In Scotland, by Duncan Forbes, Rev. James Purves, Rev. Niel Douglass, Rev. William Worrall, Rev. James Edmands, Rev. Dr. Thomas Southwood Smith, and Rev. George Harris.

In Ireland, by Bishop George Rust.

In Germany, by John William Peterson, Boetius or Balduin, professors of Divinity, Paul Siegvolk, Mr. Marsay, Gruner, Eberhard, Steinhart, Fuller, Semler, Crellius, Fisher, Shetz, and Shepherd, and is now held by a majority of the clergy and laity.

In Prussia, by Paul Jeremiah Bitaube and Rev. Herman Andrew Pistorius.

In France, by Rev. Thomas Cuppe, James Necker, Chais de Sourcesol, Dr. Geo. de Benneville, Durant, De la Chevrette, Dumoulin, L'Archer, &c.

In Switzerland, by Murault, Charles Bonnet, Rev. Ferdinand Oliver Petitpiere, Rev. John Gosper Lavater, and Carbo a Cortiaro.

In America, by Rev. Richard Clarke, Rev. Dr. Jonathan Mayhew, Rev. John Murray, Rev. Elhanan Winchester, Dr. Redman, Dr. Benjamin Rush, Rev. Dr. Charles Chauncey, Rev. John Tyler, Gen. Greene, Dr. Benj. Franklin, Rev. Mr. Wright (a Moravian), Shippie Townsend, Rev. Mr. Duchee, Dr. Joseph Young, Dr. Wm. Pitt Smith, Rev. Dr. Joseph Huntington, Rev. Dan Foster, and Rev. Thomas Fessenden.

The following individuals are known, to have doubted the doctrine of endless misery, and to have been favorable to Universalism: Fenelon, Daniel De Foe, Dr. Isaac Watts, Dr. Philip Doddridge, Simon Episcopius, John Le Clerc, Rev. C. L. de Villette, Archbishop Newcome, Dr. Edward Young, Dr. Samuel Johnson, Dr. James Macknight, and others. There are some very good reasons for believing that the celebrated John Wesley was a Universalist. 1. He was one of those who requested Dr. Stonehouse to write a work in defence of Universalism. 2. "A work in which Universalism was taught (Brooks' Fool of Quality '), was republished under Mr. Wesley's supervision." 3. He republished a work by Charles Bonnett, entitled "Conjectures concerning the nature of Future Happiness," in which the same doctrine is inculcated. 4. The latter work “he introduced to the public with the following prefatory commendation :"


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