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› Gehenna, nor does the word Gehenna occur in his Jewish writings composed within one hundred yearsda of Josephus have descended to us; so that it cam it any change in the meaning of Gehenna had taken pr hundred years after the time of Christ. first time that Gehenna was used to signify a placed ter death, of which we have any account, was by Jasi out the year of our Lord 150.
observed, that, in historical matters, it is not to le what the Jews write, or what they omit.' Most of the ritics now agree that it could not have been completed
between two hundred and four hundred years afte Dr. Jahn thinks it ‘a collection of the interpretations arned men, made towards the end of the third century ning some of a much older date.' Eichhorn says that certainly lived later than the birth of Christ;' anl n his style, his fables, his perversions of the prophasis the Messiah, and from the profound silence of the ear Christian Fathers, he concludes that his compilation
en made before the fourth century. The same ciresta at Echhorn adduces, are thought by Bertholdt to india or third century; and he is confident that the collecti we attained its complete form before the end of the seco With these general conclusions it is said that Bur rees; and some critics have referred the work to as late the seventh and eighth centuries." See Universali vol. 2, p. 368. There is no proof, then, that the meani Gehenna was changed until one hundred and fifty your .If, therefore, we believe this word signifies a place ter death, we must believe it on the authority of un -- on the authority of Jewish Targums and Talmud he authority of the Bible. If the reader is disposed authority, he can do so; but we beg to be excused
1. The words eternal, everlasting, forever, &c., are not connected with either Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, or Gehenna, in a single instance in the whole Bible.
first time this word is used to signify a place of misery rld, by any Jewish writer of whom we have any acous nathan Ben Uzziel, in a Targum written by him, the die is uncertain. “Prideaux, together with several of the
2. Paul says he "shunned not to declare the whole counsel of God;" and yet he has not, in all his writings, mentioned either Tartaros or Gehenna. He mentioned hades but once, and then used it to signify the grave. Now, if Paul believed these words signified a place of endless misery, how is this fact to be accounted for?
3. Among all the charges brought against Jesus and his apostles
even Gesenius, place it not far from the Christian
thority, chiefly, of Jewish traditions. Prideaux, how by the unbelieving Jews, they never charged them with threatening
The following facts bear equally against understanding either Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, or Gehenna, to signify a place of endless misery.
them with endless misery in Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, Gehenna, or anywhere else. Now, the Jews believed themselves to be the peculiar people of God; and if Jesus or his apostles had threatened them with endless misery, it would have excited their indignation to the highest pitch; and we should have heard them accusing Christ of being audacious and presumptuous. But no; no such charge is brought against him.
4. No person mentioned in the New Testament ever expressed any fears of going to a place of endless misery after death, or ever prayed to God to be saved from such a place. Nor is it said of any person who had died, that he had gone to a place of endless misery, either in Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, Gehenna, or anywhere else. 5. The salvation of the gospel is never spoken of as a salvation from a place of endless misery, either in Sheol, Hades, Tartaros, or Gehenna. It is spoken of as a salvation from sin, from the darkness of this world, from wrath, from unbelief, and from the power of darkness; but no intimation is given that Jesus came into this world to save mankind from endless misery in another.
Thus, we have finished our examination of these words. The reader can judge for himself whether either of them, as used in the Scriptures, can possibly signify a place of endless misery.
The English word hell occurs in the thirty-one times in the Old Testament, and twenty-three times in the New. In the Old Testament, it occurs
once in Deuteronomy, once in 2 Samuel, twice in Job, seven times in Psalms, seven times in Proverbs, six times in Isaiah, four times in Ezekiel, once in Amos, once in Jonah, and once in Habakkuk. In the New Testament, it occurs nine times in Matthew, three times in Mark, three times in Luke, twice in Acts, once in 2 Peter, once in James, and four times in the book of Revelation. In the following books of the Old Testament it is not found: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, nor Malachi. It is not found in the following books of the New Tes tament: John, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, 1 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, nor Jude.
in Deuteronomy, once in 2 Samuel, twice in Joh, seran as, seven times in Proverbs, six times in Isaiah, for in
el, once in Amos, once in Jonah, and once in Habit The New Testament, it occurs nine times in Matther, sa Mark, three times in Luke, twice in Acts, once in 2 Pa in James, and four times in the book of Revelation. ha
g books of the Old Testament it is not found: Ges as, Leviticus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samad. Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Ether, Sag of Solomon, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Daniel, H Oliah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechari hi. It is not found in the following books of the New la it: John, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians E l'alippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 l Ay, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, 1 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 Ji Lie.
BIBLE DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE
Gen. 26: 21. and he called the Num. 22: 22.
All the passages in the OLD TESTAMENT wherein the original word SHAITAN or SATAN occurs, in whatever way rendered in the common English Version.
And they digged another well, and strove for that also : name of it Sitnah.
And God's anger was kindled, because he (Balaam) went and the angel of the Lord stood in the way for an adversary against him.
Verse 32. And the angel of the Lord said unto him, Wherefore hast thou smitten thine ass these three times? Behold, I went out to withstand thee, because thy way is perverse before me.
1 Sam. 29: 4. And the princes of the Philistines said unto him, Make this fellow return, that he may go again to his place which thou hast appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he be an adversary to us.
2 Sam. 19: 22. And David said, What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah, that ye should this day be adversaries unto me?
1 Kings 5: 4. But now the Lord my (Solomon) God hath given me rest on every side, so that there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent.
1 Kings 11: 14. And the Lord stirred up an adversary unto Solomon ; Hadad the Edomite: he was of the king's seed in Edom.
Verse 23. And God stirred him up another adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah, which fled from his lord Hadadezer, king of Zobah.
Verse 25. And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, beside the mischief that Hadad did; and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria.
1 Chron. 21: 1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel.
Ezra 4: 6. And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, wrote they unto him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.
Job 1: 6. Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them.
Verse 7. And the Lord said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.
Verse 8. And the Lord said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job? that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil?
Verse 9. Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, Doth Job fear God for naught?
Verse 12. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord.
Job 2: 1. Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the Lord.
Verse 2. And the Lord said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.
Verse 3 And the Lord said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? and still he holdeth fast his integrity, although thou movedst me against him, to destroy him without cause.
Verse 4. And Satan answered the Lord, and said, Skin for skin; yea, all that a man hath will he give for his life.
Verse 6. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, he is in thine hand; but save his life.
Verse 7. So went Satan forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote
For my love they are my adversaries.
Psalm 38 20.
Let this be the reward of mine adversaries from the Lord.
All the passages in the OLD TESTAMENT where the word DEVILS occurs.
Lev. 17: 7. And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a whoring.
Deut. 32:17. They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.
2 Chron. 11: 15. And he (Jeroboam) ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made.
Psalm 106: 37. Yea, they (the Jews) sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils.
passages in the OLD TESTAMENT where the word DEVILS occur 7. And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto der a they have gone a whoring.
17. They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom the to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared t 11: 15. And he (Jeroboam) ordained him priests for the b
for the devils, and for the calves which he had made.
All the texts in the NEW TESTAMENT where the word SATAN occurs.
Matt. 16:23. But he turned and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan; thou art an offence unto me: for thou savorest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.
Mark 8: 33. He (Christ) rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan.
Luke 22:31. And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you that he may sift you as wheat.
Mark 3: 23. And he (Christ), called them (the Scribes) unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan?
Verse 26. And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end.
Matt. 12:26. And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?
Luke 11: 18. If Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye (the Scribes) say that I cast out devils through Beelzebub.
Luke 10: 18. And he said unto them (the seventy), I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.
Luke 13: 18. And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day?
Luke 22: 3. Then entered Satan into Judas, surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.
John 13:27. And after the sop Satan entered into him (Judas). Acts 5:3. But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land? Acts 26: 18. To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith which is in me.
Rom. 16: 20. And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly.
1 Cor. 5: 5. To deliver such an one (a fornicator) unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
1 Cor. 7:5. Defraud ye not one the other except it be with consent for a time, that ye may give yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incontinency.
2 Cor. 2:11. Lest (if they did not possess a forgiving spirit) Satan should get an advantage of us; for we are not ignorant of his devices.
2 Cor. 11: 14. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.
2 Cor. 12: 7. And lest I (Paul) should be exalted above measure, through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan, to buffet me, lest I should be exalted
Thes. 2: 18. Wherefore we would have come unto you (even I Paul) once and again; but Satan hindered us.
2 Thes. 2: 9. Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders.