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imentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Ja wh, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Malachi
e, it will not be pretended that either of these books teads stence of such a being; and whether such a thing is taught me books where the word does occur, let the reader determis
sing all the passages where it is found. Can it be supe A the Jews of ancient times were knowing to the existenti -1, who was doing extensive mischief in the world, enticing in, and leading millions down irretrievable ruin and mis yet, that such holy men as Joshua, Nehemiah, Soloma, nah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, &c., should say not on erning him?
God never gave the Jewish people, through the melimi prophets, any warning concerning the devil, any informati and to the extensive and powerful evil influence which le antly exercising over them. Nor are any directions give
ence might be resisted, and his power counteracted h was certainly very necessary, if such a being really is No person, of whom we have any account in the Old Tes ever undertook to excuse himself for his crimes and inpati ng he was enticed, or tempted, by the devil, and ne upon him. The case of Eve may be thought an insta =; but I remark, that we are not told that the serpent ra angel, nor that the devil assumed the form of a serpent d Eve. Besides, Adam acknowledged no influenced
or the devil in his case, but charges the blame up We might as well, therefore, suppose Eve to be the deri
Dan to be the form which the devil assumed, as to supp he serpent.
e children of the Jews were not taught by their par concerning the devil; nor were they cautioned to be
ductive wiles and stratagems; nor told that for disobedie El be consigned over to his tender mercies. All th unaccountable, if Jewish parents believed as some par
ong all the prayers recorded in the Old Testament, the
did not believe as many do now, or they were culpably negligent in this respect.
7. We are not informed, in the Old Testament, of any person who ever swore by the devil, or cursed by the devil, or ever wished any of their fellow-men to go to the devil. Certainly, wicked, profane Jews did not believe as profane men do now, or we should have some instances of this kind.
8. Another fact is, that no person under the Old Testament dispensation, either good, bad, or indifferent, ever expressed any fears of going to the devil himself, or of any other persons going to the devil. They express no such fears when well, when sick, nor on the bed of death. Nor do the living express any fears that their deceased relatives, friends, or acquaintances, had gone to the devil.
This word is found in the Old Testament four times. It occurs once in Leviticus, once in Deuteronomy, once in 2 Chronicles, and once in Psalms. By consulting Section 2 of this Chapter, which contains all the passages where it occurs, every person can see that it is used to signify the heathen divinities, or false gods of the heathen; and in no other sense. pretended that this word is used to signify a fallen angel, no more
As it is not
need be said on it.
SATAN.-This word occurs both in the Old and in the New In the Old it occurs just eighteen times. Once in 1 Chronicles, fourteen times in the book of Job, and three times in Zechariah. In the Old Testament we have seen it signifies an enemy, an opposer, an adversary. It is used in precisely the same sense in the New. This word occurs in the New Testament thirtyseven times. Four times in Matthew, six times in Mark, six times in Luke, once in John, 'twice in Acts, once in Romans, twice in 1 Corinthians, three times in 2 Corinthians, once in 1 Thessalonians, once in 2 Thessalonians, twice in 1 Timothy, and eight times in Revelation. It is not found in Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, James, 1 and 2
Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, nor in Jude.
This word is applied in the New Testament as follows: To Peter, one of the disciples of Christ; to Beelzebub, the imaginary prince, or god, of the demons or spirits of dead men; to Judas, another
disciple of Christ, who deserted him, and thereby became an enemy or adversary to him; to the unbelieving Jews, who were the adversaries of Christ, and of his religion; to false teachers, they being the enemies of truth; and to the heathen opponents of the Gospel, and persecutors of the followers of Christ; see Rev. 2: 13. It is also applied to the spirit of wickedness in man, and to the evil pas sions and desires of men; see Acts 5: 3, and John 13: 27.
DIABOLOS. This word is found in the Greek Testament thirty-six times. Six times in Matthew, six times in Luke, three times in John, twice in Acts, twice in Ephesians, three times in 1 Timothy, twice in 2 Timothy, once in Titus, once in Hebrews, once in James, once in 1 Peter, three times in 1 John, once in Jude, and six times in the book of Revelation. It is not found in Mark, John, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, Philemon, 2 Peter, nor in 2 and 3 John.
If the reader will examine Section 4 of this Chapter, he will see that the words devil and Satan are used in the New Testament as synonymous terms.
The word diabolos is translated in the common version of the New Testament thirty-three times devil, twice false accusers, and once slanderers. Had it been invariably rendered by words which properly define it, no one would ever have dreamed that it was used to signify a fallen angel. Donnegan defines this word thus: Diabolos an accuser, a calumniator. See Donnegan's Greek and English Lexicon, p. 356. We are aware that some writers say it signifies the devil; meaning a fallen angel, such as has been generally believed in; but before it can be allowed to have this signification, it must be proved that such a being exists; or, at least, that the New Testament writers believed in the existence of such a being, and applied this word to him; which we think cannot be done. This word is applied in the New Testament in the same manner that Satan is, and signifies precisely the same thing. If the reader, therefore, will examine all the texts where it occurs, and read them as if it was rendered slanderer, accuser, calumniator, opposer, enemy or adversary, he cannot fail of understanding them in their true
In closing this chapter, we will state some objections to the com
OCTRINE CONCERNING THE DEVIL
deserted him, and thereby became an en to the unbelieving Jews, who were the a of his religion; to false teachers, they and to the heathen opponents of the followers of Christ; see Rev. 2:13. rit of wickedness in man, and to the eil en; see Acts 5: 3, and John 13:21.
mon view of the subject, and reply to some objections against the views which we have presented.
1. The common view of the subject is absurd. It supposes sin to have originated in heaven. Now heaven is everywhere represented in the Scriptures as a holy, happy place, into which nothing sinful, unholy, or unclean can ever enter. To suppose, therefore, that sin and rebellion against God originated there, is absurd in the
2. It is contrary to experience. This word is found in the Greek Tenced to sin by a personal devil. times in Matthew, six times in Lake with human nature, ever felt, or in Acts, twice in Ephesians, three times fluence. Timothy, once in Titus, once in Hebrews Teter, three times in 1 John, once in Jud
of Revelation. It is not found in 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philipinas alonians, Philemon, 2 Peter, nor in
56. We are aware that some writers s aning a fallen angel, such as has been
3. It is unphilosophical. It supposes more causes than are necessary, to account for the wickedness of man.
We think the
fact of man's animal nature being so closely connected with his spiritual is abundantly sufficient to account for all his sin and wickedness, without resorting to the supposition that a personal devil has any concern in the matter.
We have no doubt that thousands
-xamine Section 4 of this Chapter, he have imagined they felt the influence of such a being. So have thousands imagined they felt the influence of witches; and this fact
and Satan are used in the New Testame
proves as much in one case as in the other.
4. It comes directly in contact with the plain declarations of
that such a being exists; or, at least, Hers believed in the existence of such a to him; which we think cannot the New Testament in the same man precisely the same thing. If the r all the texts where it and read occurs, derer, accuser, calumniator, opposer, fail of understanding them in th -, we will state some objections to the
is translated in the common version d'a -three times devil, twice false it been invariably rendered by words w ne would ever have dreamed that it wa
1st. It supposes sin to have been introduced into our world by a fallen angel. Whereas, the Bible declares that by one man, not devil, nor by one fallen angel; but "by one man, sin en
1. Donnegan defines this word dans
calumniator. See Donnegan's Gratered into the world, and death by sin." See Rom. 5: 12. 2d. It supposes man to be tempted by a personal devil. But when the Bible speaks out plainly on this subject, it declares that before it can be allowed to have this every man, yes, every man from Adam down to latest posterity;
every man is tempted, not by the devil, not by a fallen angel, but "every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, See James 1: 14, and 4: 1-4, and Prov.
Now no rational man, acquainted It supposes man to be influimagined that he felt, any such in
3d. This theory supposes that the works of the devil will remain, and that he himself will exist throughout the ceaseless ages of eternity. But the Bible affirms that he himself, and all his works, shall be destroyed. Heb. 2: 14; 1 John 3: 8. Whatever this
supposed to be, then, one thing is certain; he is des
tined to be completely destroyed, together with all his works. So far, therefore, as the salvation of the human race is concerned, it is a matter of no consequence whether such a being as a personal devil has any real existence or not.
We will now notice some objections to our views. It is ob jected,
1. That personal pronouns are applied to the devil in the Bible, and the Scriptures frequently speak of him as a real being; and represent him as talking, acting, &c.
To this we reply, that personal pronouns are applied to many inanimate things in the Bible; and oftentimes they are represented as talking, acting, &c. The earth is personified. Job 31: 38. The heavens are personified. Jer. 2: 12, 13. The sea. Job 38: 8, 9. Destruction. Job 28: 22. Death and the grave. 1 Cor. 15: 55; Job 28: 22. The hosts of heaven. Ps. 148: 1-5. The mountains and hills. Isa. 55: 12. The trees of the forest. Judges 9: 7-16. Wisdom also is personified. Prov erbs, chapters 8 and 9; also, Prov. 1: 20-33. Seeing so many things are personified in the Scriptures, is it any marvel that evil, that wicked men, that the lusts and passions of men, should be personified? So far from it, it is just what we should be led to expect.
2. It is said, If the idea of a personal devil and an endless hell be given up, our preachers will have nothing to preach about. We frankly confess, we know of many preachers who, in such a case, would lose a principal topic of conversation and pulpit declamation. But then it must be confessed that, if in reality no such being as a personal devil exists, the less that is said about him the better. And if these preachers can find no better subjects to discourse upon, they had better abandon the ministry, and be silent.
3. It was remarked by a certain old lady, that the existence of a devil was perfectly clear; else how could mankind make a picturé of him? We know there have been a great many pictures of the devil, and we also know that a great many pictures of things exist in the human imagination, and are even put upon paper, which have no existence in reality. Mankind are extremely fond of pictures; and perhaps some will esteem it a hard case that we should attempt to rob them of their beautiful pictures of the devil.
In conclusion we remark, that until the facts and objections stated
in this section, against the existence of a personal devil, are satisfactorily accounted for or removed, we must continue to believe that ingape such a being exists only in the imaginations of the ignorant, the weak, and the credulous; and that the idea of his existence ought to be abandoned by every rational man.