Conflicts of Empires: Spain, the Low Countries and the Struggle for World Supremacy, 1585-1713

A&C Black, 1 jan. 1997 - 420 pagina's
The period between the late sixteenth and the early eighteenth centuries was one of tremendous, and ultimately decisive, shifts in the balance of political, military and economic power in both Europe and the wider world. Spain's overwhelming dominance in the 1580s seemed unassailable, yet by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 its greatness had been eclipsed, leaving supremacy to Britain, France and, in the commercial sphere, the Dutch. In these essays (five of which are previously unpublished) Jonathan Israel argues that Spain's efforts to maintain her hegemony continued to be centred on the Low Countries. One should not readily assume that Spain's order of priorities was misconceived: at times she appeared to be close to succeeding. Both France and Britain were deeply riven by religious, political and social divisions during a large part of the seventeenth century. While it is true that after Spain's final defeat, at the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), French preponderance within, and British supremacy outside, Europe seemed increasingly probable, the overthrow of James II in 1688 might well have been the prelude to political chaos and civil war in Britain. While long-term economic and social trends played a large part in shaping the outcome of events, it is also true that the impact of personalities and short-term contingencies could often be decisive.

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1 The Court of Albert and Isabella 15981621
Spains Strongholds in NorthWest Germany 15891659
The RhineMaas Canal 16249
9 Lopo Ramirez David Curiel and the Attempt to Establish a Sephardi Community in Antwerp in 16534
10 The Jews of Spanish Oran and their Expulsion in 1669
11 Toleration in SeventeenthCentury Dutch and English Thought
12 William III and Toleration
13 Englands Mercantilist Response to Dutch World Trade Primacy 164774
14 The Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the English Revolution of 1688
15 England the Dutch and the Struggle for Mastery of World Trade in the Age of the Glorious Revolution 16821702
16 Propaganda in the Making of the Glorious Revolution

The Road to Rocroi 163543
Gerard Ter Borch and the Münster Peace Negotiations 16468
6 Spain and Europe from the Peace of Münster to the Peace of the Pyrenees 164859
7 Dutch Sephardi Jewry Millenarian Politics and the Struggle for Brazil 164054
An Episode in DutchPortuguese Relations of the Seventeenth Century
17 Gregorio Leti 16311701 and the Dutch Sephardi Elite at the Close of the Seventeenth Century
18 The Dutch Republic and its Jews during the Conflict over the Spanish Succession 16991715

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