collection of drawings which preserves a sound tradition of some of Raphael's studies and works in Rome; and trustworthy representations of sculptures which have been lost sight of, and paintings which have perished, and which are otherwise known only by muchmodernised engravings; a collection, too, which shows what zeal and energy were possessed by the great connoisseurs of the 17th century;—that this knowledge cannot be devoid of interest and value. B. B. WOODWARD.

Royal Library, Windsor Castle,
December, 1865.

LORD PALMERSTON'S ANCESTRY.-It has been the fortune of the Temples to find themselves associated with one of the prettiest legends of the middle ages, which has formed the subject of one of the prettiest poems of our own time. They have been given out as coming from the stout old Earl Leofric, of the Confessor's time, and his Lady Godgifa, or Godiva, who saved Coventry from a harsh impost by riding through the market-place clad only in her beautiful long hair. Leofric (who died in A. D. 1057) and his spouse are, of course, as really historical personages as the Confessor and Edith. And though the Godiva legend does not occur in the Saxon Chronicle, in William of Malmesbury, or in Florence of Worcester, it is found in Brompton, who flourished in 1193, less than a century and a half after the date of its heroine. Nor have we a right to doubt the truth of any story simply because there is a noble and daring poetry about it. But as regards the descent of the Temples from Leofric and Godiva, that is a comparatively modern statement. Dugdale knew nothing of it, though he gives a full account of the earl's real successors and family in his "Baronage," and much information about him, his wife, and their pious and generous doings, in his "Warwickshire." An earlier writer, and more important for this special question than even Dugdale-a writer whose "Leicestershire" is said to have suggested Dugdale's "Warwickshire"-knew no more of the fact than he. We speak of William Burton, the elder brother of the author of the "Anatomy of Melancholy,' to whose curious mind his own bore a strong family resemblance. Burton was a Leicestershire squire himself, and in speaking of the lands of Temple, in Sparkenhoe Hundred, near Bosworth, from which the whole family of Temple derived its name, this is what he tells us :-"This land was granted by one of the old earls of Leicester to the Knights Templars. This land was afterwards granted by the Templars to a family of the place called Temple, being of great account in these parts. (Burton's "Leicestershire," p. 264.) Burton, then, knew nothing of the Saxon origin of the family; and it is certain that in the famous Sir William Temple's time they looked upon themselves as having "come in with the Conquest. It is often loosely assumed that a family must be either Norman or Saxon, though Burgundians and Flemings, Angevins and Poitevins, are found among the settlers in England in the stormy and adventurous ages during which the foundations of its modern life were laid. To which of the various races struggling for place and power the founder of the Temples belonged cannot now be known. The earliest names in the pedigree, Robert, William, and Henry, are those of Norman dukes and sovereigns-a -an indication which has sometimes been allowed to have suggestive value in such cases. At all events, we are

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safe in assuming that the man to whom the Templars gave land would have the qualities which the Order of the Temple held in honour, and that he acquired his estate, as his descendant acquired his premiership, by being superior to other rivals in the battle of life. Dismissing, then, the descent from Leofric as fabulous and modern, and trusting to old writers and official pedigrees, we shall be content to derive the Temples from Robertus Temple de Temple Hall, living in the reign of Henry III.— Cornhill Magazine.

Antiquarian Entelligence and Proceedings of Learned Societies.

Quid tandem vetat

Antiqua misceri novis ?

Notes of the Month.

Slack, Yorkshire.-It appears that excavations are being made, by a local Society, at Slack, the supposed site of the Cambodunum of the Itinerary of Antoninus. A building of considerable extent has been laid open, the rooms of which were heated by means of a hypocaust. The tiles discovered are not unfrequently stamped with the name of a cohort of soldiers asserted to have been Britons. The inscriptions read CO H. IIII BRE. There are reasons against this interpretation of the BR E. Inscriptions recording the Britons or Brittones have been met with in the north of England; and many examples of tile stamps evidently indicating the same people, have been discovered in London. In all of these, the letters B R I, and not BR E, occur. The latter seems peculiar to Slack, unless it be authenticated that such are also found at Eland, in Yorkshire. I have long since suggested that these tiles, instead of referring to the Britons, denote that the fourth cohort of the Breuci was stationed at the locality now known as Slack. It is true no lapidary inscriptions have been recorded as found in England confirming this reading; but the Breuci, a people of Pannonia, contributed several cohorts to the Roman auxiliary forces (as many, indeed, as eight); and of these, three at least were, for some length of time, in Germany, on the Rhine; so it is probable that the fourth passed over into Britain. The Roman legions and cohorts, when permanently stationed, usually stamped the tiles they manufactured for building with their respective names; and thus these humble records are often of great use in aiding towards a knowledge of the disposition of the military forces; and by them their movements can frequently be traced. Gale places Cambodunum at Almondbury; Horsley, near Gretland and Stainland. In the Itinerary of Antoninus, it stands about midway between Calcaria (Tadcaster), and Mancunium (Manchester); so that it is to be hoped the present explorations may serve to decide the question as to the correct location. It must be borne in mind that Camden states similar tiles (COH. IIII BRE) to have been found at Grimscar, near Eland Bridge.

Silchester.-The Rev. J. G. Joyce has been almost incessantly continuing the excavations referred to in the GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, of last August and September. Room after room in the extensive house then excavated has been laid open; and the general plan now developes itself, more and more, into a series of rooms disposed round a central area, as in the instance of two other large rooms already open; there are

two corridors, one on the north, and the other on the south side, about seventy feet long and eight feet wide. The rooms along that on the north, present some interesting subjects for speculation, owing to the evident traces of superimposition of later over earlier work. On the south side the rooms were warmed in the usual way, by heated air passing beneath the floors, and rising in the thickness of the walls. It appears, however, Mr. Joyce states, as if it was not a hypocaust of the usual kind, but ducts consisting of lines of square flues laid under the pavement, and springing from a furnace in the centre of one side. Upon this floor has been discovered a deposit of forty-two coins, which had most likely been in a bag or purse; and had perhaps been thrust into a hole in a wall, or among the timbers resting upon the wall. They are nearly all the small brass of Carausius, except one, which is in silver. This, with three others, had been struck upon coins previously in circulation, namely, on those of Gallienus, Postumus, and Maximianus.

Lyminge, Kent.-Recent excavations made in the interior of the ancient church at Lyminge, the subject of an interesting correspondence between the Rev. R. C. Jenkins and Mr. Parker (printed in the GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE), have brought to light more of the foundations of the Roman villa upon which the original church was built. A wall of apparently unquestionable Roman work has been discovered under the columns of the nave, and a transverse wall has been found beneath the towers. is to be hoped Mr. Jenkins may be induced to publish a second and enlarged edition of his excellent "Historical Sketch of the Church or Minster of Lyminge," embodying with suitable illustrations the discoveries. made since its publication in 1859, up to the present time.


Among the lesser objects discovered by Mr. Jenkins, is a small brass implement, of globular shape, divided into two cups by a fillet in the middle. It was recognised by Dr. Rock as an ancient reliquary. It contained a mass of woolly substance, such as used to be rubbed upon the blood-stains or other remains of martyrs and saints. Dr. Rock states that it was customary to send these reliquaries to the principal churches of a diocese, of which, in earlier ages, Lyminge was undoubtedly one.

Caistor, Northamptonshire.-In a recently published Report of the Proceedings of the Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society, is an account by the Rev. H. Maclean, of an inscribed Romano-British leaden vessel, found in making a drain in the road on the western side of the churchyard at Caistor, contiguous, it is inferred, to the site of the very interesting explorations of the late Mr. E. Artis. The vessel, when entire, was about two feet long at the bottom; two feet six inches at the top, and fourteen inches high. It was made of a piece of sheet lead about a quarter of an inch thick, bent up so as to form its sides, and cut at the angles, where the edges were soldered into stout uprights. It weighed more than 50lbs. On one side, found in two portions, is inscribed in wellformed letters: CVNOBARRVS FECIT VIVAS: below this is a band of similar width, with a foliated pattern. On a third fragment appears the last word of the above inscription, reversed; and, below, two bands with a different pattern. Mr. Maclean suggests that this vessel was probably intended for thickening wine; that supposition involves the question of to what extent vineyards were cultivated in Britain by the Romans. To the Romans we, no doubt, owe the first introduction of the vine ;

and there is no reason why, so far north as Caistor, the grapes under their scientific culture should not have ripened so as to be fit for making wine. There can, also, be no doubt of the native origin of the lead, and of the manufacture of the vessel by a native plumber, whose name, Cunobarrus, is analogous to several British and Gaulish names which are preserved; as, especially, to that of the celebrated Cunobelinus of history and of coins.


Orléans. An inscription of importance, in reference to the history of Orléans, has been found, or rather recovered from obscurity, for it was dug up some years since; but it remained unnoticed, and but for a fortunate accident would have been broken up for building materials. It is now preserved in the Museum of Orléans. Portions of the entire marble slab are wanting; but quite enough of the lettering remains to justify a restoration sufficiently satisfactory. It is as follows:

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The honour of the discovery is due to M. Dufaur de Pibrac, who has given a paper on it to the Société Archéologique de l'Orléanais, which contains the following reading by M. Léon Renier. M. Loiseleur has also furnished an able memoir on the subject, with various suggestions as regards the missing letters; but M. Renier's seems so entirely agreeable to epigraphic formulæ, that, of all, it is perhaps the most acceptable:






Lucius Cornelius Magnus, Atepomari filius, civis Senonius, Curator Cenabensium, vivos sibi (posuit.)

Atepomarus was the name of a Gaulish king mentioned by Plutarch. There are numerous instances of the descent of regal names over many centuries, as in this instance, in which we find it given to a Gaul, or Roman-Gaul of the Senones (whose capital is represented by the modern Sens), in, as may be assumed from the character of the finely formed and cut letters, the first century of our era, and probably early in it. He held some civil office (possibly that of Curator) at Genabum or Cenabum (the ancient name of the city), upon the ruins of which stands the modern Orléans. Cæsar twice mentions Genabum. Ptolemy and the Itineraries spell it Cenabum, which we may consider was the earlier form. Valesius observes that, in his opinion, the city was first called Cenabum, which afterwards passed into Genabum, in the same manner as Gebenna sprang from Cebenna, and Andegavi from Andecavi.

• Bulletin, année 1865, p. 234.

b Notitia Galliarum, sub voce.

Cenabum was a town of the Carnutes, of which Autricum (now Chartes) was the capital. Its name is supposed to have been changed into Aureliana after the defeat of Tetricus by Aurelian: at all events, towards the decline of the Empire, it was termed Civitas AURELIANORUM, whence comes the present name.

Excavations at Vieux.-M. de Caumont reports that excavations are being continued at Vieux, near Caen, by the Society of Antiquaries of Normandy; and that it may be expected M. Charma, the Secretary, will give a complete description of the discoveries made. Vieux occupies the site of the capital of the Viducasses,—a fact established by the celebrated Thorigny inscription discovered there so far back as the sixteenth century. This inscription is upon a pedestal which originally supported a statue; and as it is among the most curious and important, these excavations, made upon the site of its discovery, have special interest for the antiquaries of England, as well as of France; and from the architectural remains and a portion of another inscription recently brought to light (engraved by M. de Caumont), there is every reason to believe that a wide extent of the area of the ancient city is as yet unopened.

Mayenne. From the same source it appears that no less than 10,417 Roman coins, with one Greek and one Gaulish coin, have been catalogued as found in the bed of the river Brives, at or near Mayenne. They are chiefly in brass, the most numerous being those of Tiberius and Claudius; the next of Augustus, Nero, Vespasian, and Domitian. Of Trajan and Hadrian there are above 250: afterwards they decrease in number, the latest being of the Tetrici, of whom there are seven only. The entire number brought to light is computed at 11,000.

It appears from what is stated by M. de Caumont, that a ford crossed the river at the spot where the coins have been found; but that this ford, instead of being paved with stones, as was usually the case, was constructed with planks: as therefore the passage must have been under water at all times and occasionally dangerous, it is supposed that the coins were thrown in as offerings to the genius or deity of the river by the passengers to ensure them a safe transit.

Miscellaneous antiquities have also been found: but the most valuable is part of a mile-stone. The letters remaining are :—





It is not improbable that the inscription may, as General Creully suggests, refer to Victorinus; but there can be no doubt about the meaning of the last line, Leuge 1111, when we are informed this is effectively the distance which separates the passage of Brives from the Roman city of Jublains, the capital of the Diablintes, the existing remains of which are not surpassed in interest by any in France.

Champlieu, near Compèigne.-For some years successful excavations

• Bulletin Monumental, vol. xxx., p. 851.

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