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St. Paul's Churchyard, or some other public thoroughfare, at a penny a peep per object and we dare say they have been much disappointed and annoyed by the object of their gaze quietly retiring from the field of the telescope just when their eye was getting into the way of observing its peculiarities. This motion-due to the rotation of the earth-is very convenient to the proprietor of the telescope, for it serves as an admirable means of limiting the time that each customer can occupy the instrument; but it would never do for the astronomer, who sometimes wants to gaze at the same object for hours together. So the equatoreal is furnished with a piece of machinery, called a drivingclock, which turns the polar axis around with a steady and uniform motion of exactly the same speed as the rotation of the earth, but reversed in direction: this keeps the telescope, once pointed to an object, always following the object, which is thus as it were kept stationary

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in the centre of the field of view. Thus it is that the diameters of planets, the distances between double stars, and such-like measures, are conveniently made; that comets and minor planets, invisible to the naked eye, are picked up and observed; and that such interesting observations are made as the scrutiny of solar spots, lunar craters, Saturn's rings, Venus's crescent, Jupiter's belts, and Mars' snowy poles.

The illustrations to this article are from the Pictorial Handbook of London; for their use we are indebted to the kind permission of the publishers, Messrs. Bell & Daldy, of Fleet Street.

Of this class of instrument Greenwich Observatory possesses three examples: one of about 4ft. focus, another of 8 ft., and the gigantic one represented in the annexed engraving.

This last is one of the finest equatoreals in the world. Its object-glass, 13 in. in diameter and 18 ft. focus, was supplied by the famous Munich firm of Merz & Sons, at a cost of 1200%.,-about one-eighth of the cost of the whole instrument and building carrying it. The mounting, designed by the Astronomer Royal, was executed by Messrs. Ransome & Sims, of Ipswich. What we have already said concerning this class of instrument will doubtless make the engraving intelligible. It would be impossible within the confines of an article like this to enumerate all the peculiar properties and appliances this particular one possesses: suffice it to say that every improvement that experience could suggest or modern engineering skill could supply (for the manufacture of the main parts of astronomical instruments has been of late years in a great measure transferred from the optician to the engineer) has been brought to bear on its perfection. In an apartment beneath that in which this instrument is situated we see the driving-clock that gives it the necessary motion. This clock is driven by the force of falling water, converted into rotatory motion by means of a "turbine" or reaction watermill; perfect regularity being obtained by means of a rotary pendulum, which controls the supply of water to the turbine, and hence keeps it spinning at the proper speed. The communication of this regular motion from the clock below to the instrument above, is effected by suitable worm-wheel gearing.

(To be continued.)

WATER-COLOUR EXHIBITION, DUDLEY GALLERY,
AND SOCIETY OF FEMALE ARTISTS.

THE good thanks of all lovers of art are certainly due to those gentlemen, who, feeling the want of an exhibition for the display of water-colour drawings, the work of artists not members of the two established water-colour societies, have set on foot the exhibition at the Dudley Gallery, Egyptian Hall. The present exhibition (the second), opened to the public at the beginning of last month, fully bears out the wisdom and necessity of the project. The general standard of excellence is so high, that it would indeed have been a great loss to the public, as well as injustice to the artists, had such works been hidden away, or, at best, merely thrust forward at those one or two loop-holes for the exhibition of water colours, such as the small room at Suffolk Street, and the miniature room at the Royal Academy. In fact, as regards the general public, water-colour aspirants, unlike their oilcolour brethren, have hitherto been forced to pursue their career unknown, until membership in one of the two established societies has given gallery-room to their works-no Royal Academy exhibition affording them the opportunity of displaying their growing powers. In

the very nature of its constitution, the Dudley Gallery possesses the zest of "new blood "-names, hitherto unknown, have been brought before the public-young artists, but not immature-young artists, with all the interest of future promise clinging to the excellence of present work-the promise of youth, rather than the attained and defined limits of matured mastership. It cannot be denied that, in many instances, even of the best work, there are traces of the influence of great names-no great harm perhaps in the beginning, provided that "influence" does not deteriorate into slavish imitation, to the utter destruction of that most precious quality in art, individualism. It will be impossible to do justice to all the merit displayed: we can only select certain of the most striking works for special mention.

Mr. Arthur Severn carries on the great promise of his last year's work, which bore the stamp of so much originality and freshness of conception. "The sea from the Land's End" (483), is a masterly treatment of sea and cloud-a tone of golden brown, the effect of an afternoon sun striving to break forth after a day of storm, governs the picture-tinting, under divers conditions, the heavy rain-clouds, and the long sweeps of milky surf in the foreground, as also the dark masses of wave breaking on the shore, or wildly speeding shorewise from the distant horizon.

"Notre Dame" (86), is a Quay view of Paris, steeped in the red glow of sunset; the towers of Notre Dame rising grandly in the middle distance; clear atmosphere, contrasting with Mr. Severn's London pictures of last year, sun effects amid smoke and fog. The reflection of sky-light in the river, and the contrast of purple shade on the righthand quay, are very effectively treated. Mr. J. C. Moore's picture, "The noble River that flows by the Towers of Rome" (121), is worthy of high commendation-a reach of the Tiber flowing majestically past terraced mounds, through a land of sedgy reedy growth, burnt yellow by the heat-desolation and silence-a picture executed without effort at effect, soberly painted, but conceived and treated in that grand manner which appeals to the feeling as well as the eye. "Near Tivoli" (71), by the same artist, is a charming effect of recent sunset -a foreground of hill-summit looking over a wide expanse of wooded hills, the gathering shades of night rising in the valleys contrasting with the glow of lingering light.

The works of Mr. Arthur Ditchfield give evidence of great power and progress. "A Late-Autumn Afternoon-Cowes" (49), is admirable in the exquisite manner in which the hedge-summit of a high bank stands out against a delicate daffodil glow of sunset sky, and the subtlety with which the foreground and coarse grass of the shelving bank are lighted in low grey tone. "A Storm passing over Moel Tryfau" (96); the break of light amid the clouds behind the mountain-top, and the lighting of the green valley depths, are admirably treated. Worthy of great attention is, "A Beech Wood" (171); also "A Village at Sunset" (530), with the evening mists rising and obscuring the landscape, although the light still remains strong in the sky. "Our English Homestead" (69) is solidly painted, but bears in its treat

ment a certain resemblance to the manner of Boyce, and Mr. Ditchfield possesses so much power that he ought wholly to stand by his own individuality.

There is lovely pearly light in Mr. Walter Field's "At Morning's Prime," with the misty reach of river and delicately treated distance. "A Scene on the Thames, with fly-fisher at his sport" (516), by the same hand, is very admirable; also "An Empty Cart" (672), traversing a stubble-field, with distant landscape lighted by an afternoon sun.

"On the River at Quimper" (47), by Mr. S. J. Hodgson, is a truthful and delicate study of sunlight falling on white stone building; the lower portion of the picture is less satisfactory. Mr. Hodgson's other landscape works, particularly, 560 and 571, are marked with great force of colour and vigour of touch.

Mr. George Mawley's "Pine Wood" (284) is a study of twilight effect-a line of fir-plantation massed, in dark green contrast, against a sky of purple rain-cloud flecked with the rosy glow of sunset; the subject is treated with great power and breadth.

There is freshness in Mr. Charles Earle's "Orchard in Spring Time" (130); the apple-blossom is treated with great tenderness and freedom, and the tone of the landscape is very bright. Exquisitely bright, too, and worthy of high praise for charm of treatment, is Mr. William Eden's "Lledr Valley" (189), steeped in afternoon-light; and no less pleasing is the pensive tone which marks this same artist's "Llyn Helsi-Morning" (172), with the bright reflection of early daylight in the still, glassy lake.

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"Evening-A Barley-Field: Tintagel" (229), by Mr. R. T. Pain, is a very effective treatment of a fine theme,-a low mass of fantastic clouds on the horizon, giving force to a sky of bright after-glow," which lights up the landscape. Effective use is made of the long sweeps of cut barley, which carry the eye from the foreground to the middle distance. Admirably treated, too, and contrasting with this power of producing bright effect, is the same artist's "Misty Morning-Tal-yLlyn" (210), with a foreground of meadow-grass and flower, admirably rendered in a low tone of light.

Rest-Swanage" (379), by Miss S. Beale, gives evidence of power and originality. A foreground of lushy meadow-grass, intersected by a streamlet, the light of an afternoon-sun glistening amid the foliage, which occupies two-thirds of the background; thence pouring over a park-wall, firmly painted in shady relief, and falling in bright spaces on the foreground meadow; to the right a meadow distance, with the details admirably rendered in bright sunlight. The general treatment of this picture bears the mark of careful study from nature.

"Repose" (29), by Mr. J. F. Wainewright, is a very interesting study of evening effect: folded sheep, their woolly outlines looming through the cold night-mists, faintly illumined by the rising moon, which, with large yellow disk, is partly visible on the crest of a fieldknoll.

There is fine effect of colour in Mr. Albert Goodwin's "Aspen Trees

in Autumn" (27); the surface of the stream, with its variety of reflections, is admirable, and the effect of sunset on the russet and golden foliage is very powerfully treated. The other works of this artist are well worthy of mention, particularly 233, another lovely effect of sunset glow on foliage, and 606, a burning red flush of sunset sky, with river foreground.

Special and high praise must be awarded to Miss Constance Phillott's "After Sunset" (554). The foliage, standing in relief against the bright sky, is painted with the utmost delicacy and force. Admirable, too, is the treatment of flower, foliage, and general detail in the foreground, which is lighted with sufficient glow for the retention of a certain amount of local colour. We must recommend attention to Mr. Vicat Cole's admirable snow effect (319); also to Mr. Edward Binyon's "Saint Peter's" (387), which stands up in dark outline against the light of western sky. Mr. Binyon's name is new to us, and this work gives great promise for the future. The two landscapes by Mr. T. Danby (185 and 199), are marked with poetic feeling, though perhaps somewhat conventional in treatment.

With regard to figure-painting, the work of Mr. Calderon, A.R.A., stands forth in the first place, as might be expected when so excellent a master enters an arena devoted chiefly to landscape subjects. "La Fontaine" (293), represents an Italian woman leaning with her pitcher at the spout of a fountain. The face is highly interesting, though not beautiful. The whole work is broadly and powerfully treated, the figure admirably posed, and the colour bright and harmonious in tone. The picture embodies neither sentiment nor incident, but stands solely upon its technical excellence.

Mr. Lamont's picture of "Bored to Death" (192), the work of an unfamiliar name, is worthy of careful attention. A seigneur of the old régime is seated, intently reading a tiresome book to a wearied but resigned Abbé, who stands with his back to the fire, and a daughter, seated, examining her tapestry-frame by way of relief. The face and figure of the girl are partly averted from the spectator, and her head is thrown back to gain a better view of her work; a charming sweep of line is thus formed by the pose of the figure. The general character of the work would seem to point to foreign influence and education. The tone of the colour is low, but exquisitely harmonious, and the story, though forcibly told, is rendered with that absence of effort and perfect naturalness which invest the genre painting of French artists with so much charm. The faces are admirably studied; perhaps a somewhat handsomer face might with advantage have been selected for the Abbé.

Mr. S. Solomon's "Coptic Baptismal Procession" (318) presents a rich and striking effect of light and colour. "A Footstep" (26), by Miss Eliza Martin, exhibits careful and conscientious study. A lady in rich medieval costume, with purpose to abstract a document from a quaintly carved cabinet, stands suddenly arrested by the sound of approaching footsteps. The general pose of the figure and the attitude

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