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Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, F.R.S.L., read observations on Archbishop Nicolson's MS. Glossary of the Dialect of Cumberland and Westmoreland, which is now preserved in the library of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle. The excellent prelate drew up this curious MS. with the view of vindicating the northern dialect from the charge of barbarism brought by the English of the south. About one hundred new words, after comparison with the works of Brockett and Jamieson, and the "Promptorium Parvulorum," were adduced; and a spirited discussion. followed on many of the derivations.

On the word "holm," Sir Patrick Colquhoun and Mr. Greenwood offered some interesting observations, showing that it occurred in Hamburgh, meaning insula in flumine sita, and possibly in Oppenheim. Mr. Nash stated that "ham" was well known in the west, meaning enclosed land, usually that reclaimed from the river, and left moist. Mr. Nash and Sir Patrick Colquhoun showed that "stark" usually signified stiff, rather in the sense of strong. "Lift" appears in the sense of spoiling in Scotland. Mr. Birch observed that some few of these words appeared to be High German, whilst others were of Low German origin. In relation to "Antwerp," Sir Patrick Colquhoun showed that, according to a legend, the word meant the hand-thrower, in relation to a destructive giant, and Mr. Birch noticed that "Jack the Giant Killer" was the representative of "Thor." The Greek derivations were shown to be pure Celtic, embodying common roots, and Mr. Birch said that "khen," a goose, and "zeph,” a sword,—Egyptian words,—like many others, reappear in Greek; and suggested that the study of the former language would throw great light on philological studies. A discussion occurred on the derivation of the word "Belten," which was considered to be of Phoenician origin. Sir Patrick Colquhoun said that on St. John Baptist's-day, in Greece, the children camp out all night in the fields, revelling, and light fires, through which they jump, and eat figs. Mr. Beresford observed, that on St. John's-eve, in Ireland, the young men having drawn lots by a piece of black bread, leap through the fires after a leader who has jumped through the fire surrounded by a circle of turf. Mr. Nash said that on Midsummer-day, in Germany, a wheel of fire is rolled down from a hill-top into the river below, and contended that these rites were of Phoenician origin.

Mr. Mackenzie Walcott also read an account of five catalogues of books (to which he had appended bibliographical notes), three of which contained prices of sale, with notices of the varieties of binding: these included those of-I. Henry VIII., 1543. Vacomeis de ducendâ fratris relictâ; Terms of Marriage; Roselle on the power of the Pope and Emperor; Treatise on the Seven Sacraments; La Prison d'Amour; Determinations of the Universities; The Old and New Doctrine; Rufus de Novo Orbe, etc. II. The Duke of Gloucester, 1397. III. Sir Simon Burley at the Mews and Castle Baynard, 8 Nov., 11 Richard II. IV. Sir William de Walcote (possibly Canon of St. Stephen's, Westminster), formerly an officer in Queen Isabella's household, whose goods were sold to pay a debt owing to the Queen about 20 Edward III.; and V. John Parney, Chaplain, A.D. 1413.

By the kind permission of Henry Brownlow, Esq., Mr. Walcott exhibited a large series of beautiful water-colour drawings, made by Lieut. Eliot

Brownlow, of the Bengal Artillery and Trigonometrical Survey of India, who was killed by the explosion of a gunpowder-cart before the gates of Delhi, and was commemorated in the Obituary of the GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. They embrace views of Thibet and the Vale of Cashmere. Sir Patrick Colquhoun returned special thanks for this exhibition of pictures of a country which has been scarcely visited, much less pourtrayed, by English travellers, and it appeared to be the general hope of the meeting that these interesting pictures should be published at some future time. Mr. Nash gave notice that he would read an account of a recently discovered Gaulish inscription at the next evening meeting.

ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS.

Dec. 4, 1865.-A. J. B. BERESFORD HOPE, Esq., M.P., President, in the chair.

A paper was read by Mr. James K. Colling, Fellow, on Art-Foliage. He regarded the foliage of the Early English school as, in itself, the most beautiful of all, but the mode of treatment as too conventional for modern use-hence it could now be employed only as a revival; indeed its conventionality tended to mere mannerism, as instanced in the Perpendicular style of ornament. He discussed, in turn, the foliage of the Egyptian, Assyrian, Roman, and Romanesque periods, and treated of medieval religious symbolism in architecture, wall paintings, tiles, brasses, and manuscripts. He ended by recommending the diligent study of nature at different seasons of the year, and strongly condemned the over ornamentation of many modern structures, as degrading architecture into a mere peg on which to hang the fancies of the decorative artist. A discussion followed the reading of the paper, in which the President, Mr. Burges, Mr. Digby Wyatt, and several others took part.

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.

Dec. 19, 1865.-Annual General Meeting. JOHN ROBINSON M'CLEAN, Esq., President, in the chair.

The Report of the Council announced the satisfactory progress of the Institution, which has now a recognised place among the scientific societies of the metropolis. There had been twenty-four Ordinary General Meetings during the past session, when twelve papers only, out of those submitted to the Council, had been read, owing to the protracted and animated discussions to which they gave rise. Of these communications, one-half had reference distinctly to foreign enterprises or discoveries, including-a description of Giffard's Injector, probably one of the most ingenious and scientific pieces of mechanism of modern times; an account of the Docks and Warehouses at Marseilles, where the imports and exports were estimated to amount to three million tons per annum ; a notice of the Chey-Air bridge on the Madras Railway, and particularly as to the methods employed for raising the water out of the foundations; an account of the Drainage of Paris; and two essays on the Decay of Materials in Tropical Climates,

and the methods employed for arresting and preventing it. At home, the works for the Main Drainage of London, and for the interception of the sewage from the River Thames, were fully detailed and illustrated; a description was given of the Great Grimsby (Royal) Docks, with a minute account of the enclosed land, entrance locks, dock walls, &c. ; the particulars were recorded of a highly interesting experiment-the employment of locomotive engines, for passenger traffic, on the Festiniog Railway, a mineral line with a gauge of two feet only; the maintenance of Railway Rolling Stock (the subject of a useful communication, embodying the statistics, for a period of thirteen years, of all the stock belonging to the North-Eastern Railway Company); a careful and elaborate inquiry on Uniform Stress in Girder Work, suggested by a previous discussion at the Institution, and by which it was sought to be maintained that uniform stress was perfectly consistent with the utmost economy of materials; and a description of the River Tees, and of the works upon it connected with the navigation.

It was stated that arrangements had been made by which volume xxii. of the Minutes of Proceedings would be in the hands of the members in February next, volumes xxiii. and xxiv. in the months of May and August following, and volume xxv. for the present session before the meetings are again resumed in November next. In the belief that many members and associates of the Institution were in the habit of making observations and experiments on subjects connected with engineering science, which were seldom published, but remained as notes in memorandum books, and in time were lost, the Council urged the members to contribute results of this kind, for the purpose of forming an Appendix to the Minutes.

About 300 volumes had been added to the library during the year; and a portrait of the late Sir William Cubitt, past president, by Mr. Boxall, R.A., had been received from his son, Mr. Cubitt.

The tabular statement of the transfers, elections, deceases, and resignations, showed that the number of elections had been 142; of deceases, 21; of resignations, 5; and of erasures, 8; leaving an effective increase of 108, and making the total number of members of all classes on the books on the 30th of November last, 1,203. This was an increase of nearly 9 per cent. on the present number in the past twelve months.

The Report having been adopted, the Telford and Manby medals and premiums of books were adjudged; and the following gentlemen were elected to fill the several offices on the Council for the ensuing year :John Fowler, President; Joseph Cubitt, Charles Hutton Gregory, Thomas Hawksley, and John Scott Russell, Vice-Presidents: James Abernethy, William Henry Barlow, John Frederic Bateman, Nathaniel Beardmore, James Brunlees, Thomas Elliot Harrison, George Willoughby Hemans, John Murray, George Robert Stephenson, and Charles Vignoles, members; and Joseph Freeman and John Kelk, M.P., associates.

The meeting was then adjourned until Tuesday, January 9th, 1866, when the monthly ballot for members would take place, and the discussion would be resumed upon Mr. J. Grant's Paper on "The Strength of Cements."

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND.

Dec. 11, 1865.-Mr. JOSEPH ROBERTSON in the chair.
The following communications were then read:-

I. Account of the Opening of a Cairn on the Estate of Pittodrie, Aberdeenshire. By Mr. Chas. E. Dalrymple, F.S.A. Scot. Communicated by Mr. John Stuart, Secretary.

This was one of several cairns of the same character, which were placed near to each other. It measured 40 feet in diameter and about 3 feet in height above the surface of the ground. It was composed of small stones on the top and of large ones at the bottom. An opening was first made in the centre, and on reaching the surface the earth was found of a yellow colour, with bits of charcoal intermixed. On further examination, a large urn of baked clay was found in a hole dug in the subsoil. It was inverted, and was about half filled with burnt bones, apparently human. In the earth packed round the urn, three fragments of stone were found, one of which was a piece of flint, from which flakes had been broken.

Mr. Stuart drew attention to the varieties of the modes of interment recently communicated to the society, and to the value of every additional discovery, as widening the basis of ultimate induction. The chairman made some remarks on the periods of the Danish antiquaries of stone, bronze, and iron, and held that they were untenable in the strict sense of their originators. The Rev. E. L. Barnwell, secretary of the Cambrian Archæological Association, took the same view, and gave instances of interments by burning and inhumation in monuments of the same character and period, which on the Danish theory would have to be ascribed to different times.

II. Notice of recent Excavations in Chedworth Wood, on the Estate of the Earl of Eldon, in the county of Gloucester. By James Farrer, Esq., Hon. Mem. S.A. Scot. Communicated by Mr. John Stuart, Secretary.

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These excavations, which are not yet completed, have already brought to light two Roman villas, with their varied arrangements and remains. The ground which has been examined extends to about 2 acres, but traces of other remains have been observed in the neighbourhood, and Mr. Farrer proposes to resume his investigations so as to uncover the whole. The villas occupy a sheltered position, commanding a good view of the narrow but well timbered valley of the Coln. One of the villas had been built in the form of two sides of a square, with a long corridor. Two short flights of steps led from this corridor into various rooms, many of which, as well as the corridor itself, contain ornamental pavement. A bath is at the north end of the corridor, and behind it is a hypocaust. The largest room was 28 feet 9 inches long, by 18 feet 6 inches broad, and had been warmed by flues inside the walls. Many fragments of pillars, stone easing, troughs, worked stones, and hexagonal roofing slates, many of them still retaining

large flat-headed nails, very much corroded, were dug out of the ruins. In a recess behind one of the rooms were fragments of two small stone statues. In another part of the building the Christian monogram or labarum appeared. A reservoir, with a lead pipe for conveying the water to a small trough, and from thence to a drain, also appeared; also a bath, with its lead pipe. The second villa stood at right angles to the first, and twenty-three apartments have been opened out. It had a corridor in front, 300 feet long and 10 feet wide. This corridor, as well as many of the rooms, had been paved with teperæ. There were two baths here, and stone drains large enough to admit a boy. Many of the rooms had been paved and warmed in the usual manner, and the whole building seems to have been destroyed by fire. The interior of the rooms had been plastered with mortar and painted. In one there was a rude cross on the wall. Objects of all sorts have been found in the ruins-of stone, bone, iron, and bronze, pottery and coins. Bones of the horse, ox, sheep, and pigs, were numerous, as also the shells of oysters. Upwards of 250 copper coins appeared, the majority of which belong to the families of Constans and Constantius.

As bearing on the interesting subject of Mr. Farrer's communication, Mr. Stuart read a memorandum communicated by Miss Hope Vere, of Craigiehall, to Professor Simpson, giving details of the discovery of another Roman villa at Seavington, the property of Earl Poulett, in Somersetshire. As in the case of the other villas, the rooms had been paved with teperæ, of which specimens, sent by Miss Vere, were examined, as well as bits of the painted stucco of the walls.

III. Notes relating to Mrs. Esther Inglis, or Langlois, the celebrated Caligraphist, with an enumeration of MSS. written by her between 1586 and 1624. Communicated by Mr. David Laing, VicePresident.

From Mr. Laing's paper it appeared that the lady was a native of France, and was born in the year 1571. Her father and mother escaped from France after the massacre of the Protestants on St. Bartholomew's day, 1572, and took refuge in Edinburgh, where the father, Nicholas Langlois, became a teacher of the French language. In the accounts of the Lord Treasurer for 1579, there is an entry of a payment to him and his wife, "for their help and releif of som debt contractit be thame in the zeir of God 1578;" and similar payments occur for several years afterwards. His daughter Esther was married to Bartholomew Kello, who for some time enjoyed a benefice in the English Church. She is known only for her wonderful skill in caligraphy, of which various specimens found their way to collections in Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. Only two volumes are known of an earlier date than 1599, by which time she had secured the respect of some learned men in this country, such as Andrew Melville, Principal Rollock, and John Johnston, professor at St. Andrew's, each of whom wrote Latin verses in her commendation. Her works were invariably dedicated to persons of rank, and she frequently prefixed her own portrait in miniature.

Mr. Laing exhibited a portrait in oil of Esther Langlois, dated in

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