2. soft and long as in English roll, gore, more: bolo, cake gordo, fat- raposa, the fox (fem.). 3. quite short, almost like oo in:

poder, to be able

molho, a bundle

almost pronounced like molyou, medo (pr. maydoo).
at the end of words (like the english in wood).

U is pronounced like the oo in the word wood, but the pronunciation depends much upon the length of the syllables, as in túmulo, the grave, the first u is long, the second is short. If provided with the til" and before m and n it takes the nasal sound.

If it follows after g and q, it is either aspirated, or it is quite mute, as: guerra (gerrah), war - quero (kayro), I will quieto (key-eh-to), quiet. In qual, it is slightly sounded to distinguish it from the noun cal, the chalk.

Y is pronounced like the vowel I.

4. The Consonants.

B is pronounced like the English B.

C before a, o, u, I and r is pronounced like k, as:

cavallo (kahvallo), the horse

cuidado (kooeedado), the care. Before e and it sounds like s, as:

ceo (sayo), heaven

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cravo (krahvo), the pink

cigarro (seegarro), cigar.

If the before a, o, u has a cedilla (c) it sounds like
Ss, as:

caça (kassah), chase

açucar (assookar), sugar.

aço (asso), the steel

The double cc is distinctly heard only before e and i, the first sounds like k, the second like s, as:

accidente (akseedentay), the accident.

In most cases it sounds only like one c: occidente (pr. ossee-dentay).

D is pronounced like the English.

F is pronounced like the English.

before a, o and a consonant is pronounced like the English g, as: gordo, fat gravo, grave.


g before e and i sounds like the j in the English word joy, as: general, genro (like the french jenro),

gua almost sounds like the English wa, as: guarda, pr. gwarda.

gue is pronounced gay.

gui is pronounced gee, as: guerra (gerrah), guia (geeah). His only softly aspirated in few words, as: anhelar, hálito; otherwise it is mute, as:

homem (omem), man

hora (ora), hour.

Many writers drop the h at the beginning and write um, uma, instead of: hum, huma.

J is pronounced like the English j.

K only occurs in foreign words and is pronounced like the English k.

L is pronounced like the English L.

at the beginning of words, or between two vowels when it belongs to the second syllable, is pronounced like the English m, as: menino, child amar, to love.

It takes a nasal sound at the end of words, or when it follows after a, e, i, o or u which cannot well be described, as condição, condition bem (bang), wellbom (bong), good: the french nasal sound always gives the proper pronunciation, bom (pr. bon), tem (pr. ten). N is pronounced like the English n, but has the same peculiarities as m; at the end always like the french n: irman. maçan.

P is pronounced as in English.

Q sounds like k, as: quero (kayro), I will; aqui (pr. a-kee). R is pronounced as in English.

S is pronounced as in English; between two vowels it sounds

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xarope (sharope), syrup

enxaqueca (anshakeykah),


2. After e it is pronounced like ks, as:

extenção, extenuado, expulso, excellente.

3. Between two vowels it is pronounced like gz, as: exactamente, exornar, except in: paixão, puxo, Alexandre, baixo, and some other words, where it sounds like sh. The must be pronounced so softly that it is scarcely audible.

Z sounds like the English, as: zelo, zona. words it sounds like s, as: rapaz, luz, voz.

At the end of

5. Double Consonants.

The Portuguese Language has the following double con


Ch 1. is pronounced like the English ch, or the german sch, as:

acho, chaga, marchar.

2. it is pronounced like k in words derived from Latin or Greek as:

monarchia, archeo, archonte, Achilles.

Ct drops the c in the pronunciation: acto (ahto), electrico (elaytreekoo).

Lh is pronounced like the l in the English word billiards or in the French words ,,fille, bouilli", as:

mulher, woman mólho, the bundle.

Mp sounds like n, as: prompto (pr. pronto), assumpto (aszoonto), in compounds it retains the mp sound.

Nh is pronounced like the French gn in ,,espagne, peigner", as: ganho, I win banho, bath

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Ph is pronounced like f, as: philosophia.

Rh and Th are pronounced like r and t.

manha, trick.

6. The Diphthongs.

The Portuguese Language has two kinds of diphthongs: the pure, those which are distinctly pronounced, and the nasal diphthongs, pronounced with a nasal sound.

Each vowel is pronounced by itself as: áula (pr. ah-oo-lah), rei (ray-ee), rio (ree-o), lagôa (lago-ah), heroe (ayro-ay), boi (bo-ee), sôa (szo-ah), ou (o-oo), eu fui (ay-oo foo-ee).


as: taes, olivaes,

Pure Diphthongs.

ai, (the a and i do not blend), as: pai (pa-ee), ai (a-ee), as: páo (pá-o), máo (ma-o).


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aula, auto, paula, causa.
rei, rey, lei, sei.
papéis, réis.

deo, mordeo, viveo.
Céo, véo, réo.

eu, euro, meu, seu.
pio, rio, vio, ouvio.

loa, toa.

heroe, doe, róe.


vôo, sôo, môo,

ou, ouvir, douto.

fui, Rui.

In the above the first vowel is preeminent, in the following the second vowel has most emphasis.

ea, as: lactea, área.



lacteo, arboreo.


oa (pron. od and oa), as: agoa, coadura, coalho,

ui (pron. uí), as, quirinal, inquirir.

uo (pron. uó), as: equoreo.

uu (pron. uu), as: equuleo.

Nasal Diphthongs.

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The til always gives to the final syllable the nasal sound of the french n, allemã (pr. alleyman), allemão (pr.


allaymon), põe (po-en), sermões (pr. sermo-ens), aldeãos (pr.






aa (bad or old orthography, better am or an), as: maçãa (massang), apple, irmãa (ir-mang), sister. ae (better aem, aen), as: capitães (kapeeta-engs), captains, cães (ka-engs), dogs.

am, as: amparo (ang-paro), protection.

an, as: andar (ang-dar), to go.

ão (better orthogr. ao. am, an), as: capitão, captain. em, če, čem, as: lem or leem (lay-eng), they read. bem, good.

im, as: fim (fing), the end.

õe (oem, oen), as: põe (pong-eng), nações (nahs-so-engs). om, as: bom (bong), good.

um, un, as: mundo (moong-do), the world.

The Portuguese have also syllables of three vowels, such, as:

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Manifesto é que, como entre todas as nações que manee-festoo ay kay komo entray todas ass nasso-ens*) kay no mundo ha, nenhuma se allongou tanto de noo moon-doo ah, nenjoo-mah szeh allon-goh-oo tantoo day sua terra natural como a nação portugueza, pois szooah terrah natooral komo ah nasza-on portoogayzah po-is sendo do ultimo occidente e derradeira parte szendoo doo ultee-moo oszeedentay ay derrahıday-ee-rah partay

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