of thoughts and things. It was a government of the ' bourgeoisie,' in which we were neither to look for the chivalry of ancient France, nor the turbulent energy of the Republic, nor the military greatness of the Empire, nor the hereditary majesty of the Restoration.

It was a government of the 'bourgeoisie in action as in ideas, of that order which is least susceptible to imaginative impressions — the most likely to be conducted by material interests of that class which looks to the enjoyment of the ordinary rights and pursuits of life; and which occupies itself the least with the governmental theories and the state of Europeof that class which, in the present state of civilization, forms the bulk of every nation, but rarely the force; given, too much, in every crisis, to cry, like the Italian Marquis when hoisted on the shoulders of the Carbonari and proclaimed chief of the Piedmontese revolution, “Faites ce que vous voulez, Messieurs ; mais, ne me chiffonnez pas."

It was this feeling which created the first reluctance to fire upon the insurgents of June, and produced, after it was put down, the cry of “ Vive l'état de siége !" It was this feeling which, on a late occasion, sanctioned the barbarities of the troops, and permitted an innocent

family to be butchered in cold blood, because somebody, in somebody's part of the building they inhabited, had disturbed the order so beloved by the · bourgeois' of Paris.

Such is the government of Louis-Philippesuch, if he remain, must his government remain—a government of order and peace. If a foreign war break out, there is the chance of a military republic; if internal agitation long continue, there is a chance for the Bonapartes--there is even a chance for Henry the Fifth. The sovereign's policy is distinctly traced, nor can he govern by any other party than that which, possessing the ideas conformable to his origin, is alone compatible with his existence. They who exclaim against the policy which is the destiny of Louis-Philippe's reign, exclaim against Louis-Philippe himself.

Now, who are the men by whom the inevitable policy of Louis Philippe can best be supported ?

The principles of those who are placed at the head of a government, more especially when that government is a government of principle, and has a peculiar line traced out for it, is no doubt an object of great importance; but neither must we forget that to individuals and to names there is also an importance which it is never wise wholly to despise or to neglect.




of · A bas les Jésuites !' was fatal to the ministry of Polignac. The cry of ' A bas les Doctrinaires !' was raised against the administration of the Duc de Broglie.

" What do you mean by Doctrinaires ?" is the question that a foreigner is perpetually asking in France, and it is very rare indeed that he gets an answer from which much can be understood.

During the time of the ‘Restoration there was a small party in France, consisting chiefly of young men, affecting to consider the Duc de Broglie as their head, and conducting a paper called the Globe.' M. Guizot was their historian, M. Cousin their philosopher. This party was a party of system, which, laying down certain ideas as the general basis of all good government, admitted few exceptions to its peculiar plan, and, allowing little for time and circumstances, measured by a fixed rule the goodness or badness of all that was meditated or proposed. It was not a school that answered to that of our utilitarians, since it supported the intrinsic merit or demerit of actions, and defended virtues, altogether independent of utility. Its metaphysics were German, its politics English. It combated the Government of the time by appeals to the reason, and never by appeals to the passions—and from the kind of doctoral tone in which it lectured the public, obtained

the name, at that time popular, of 'Doctrinaires.'

The great misfortune of this party was, to have accepted power directly after the days of July, when the minds of men were in that state of agitation which made it necessary to govern them rather through their passions and their imagination than through their judgment -when there was something more than absurd in speaking with book-learned pedantry of a liberty which had been conquered in a moment of drunken enthusiasm-and measuring out the refinements of legislation to a mob who had conquered with the barricade and the bayonet. The name which had been given as one of respect became then a by-word of ridicule and reproach; and for having at an unfavourable moment wished to govern the nation by its reason, the Doctrinaires lost all their hold upon its sympathies.

The cabinet of M. Lafitte failed through want of administrative skill; and the nation, placed between a bankruptcy and a change of ministers, cheerfully accepted his resignation. The administration of M. C. Périer, unwise and impolitic in many respects, was the administration which, more than any other, represented the destiny and the genius of the existing government; and this was so generally felt

and acknowledged, that the overthrow of the minister and the overthrow of the monarch were considered almost

synonymous. The

system was a weak one, but it was sustained by a man of energy and force.

At Monsieur Périer's death it was necessary to maintain, and difficult to avoid changing, the policy he had pursued. The three alternatives were — M. Dupin ; the Duc de Broglie ; M. Odilon Barrot. But M. Dupin would only enter on the condition of forming his own cabinet ; and the discontent, or retreat, or expulsion of M. Périer's friends, would necessarily be taken, for the time at least, as the sign of that change which was to be avoided. M. Odilon Barrot could not enter without the real change of which M. Dupin would have been the appear

The preference then was given, not without some intrigues, to the Duc de Broglie.

But the Duc de Broglie, though a person of great knowledge, and indeed of great ability, was too much of the Grand Seigneur,' and too much of the savant,' to conduct an administration which was to be perpetually dealing with the casual views, and the passing passions, which a representative system will be perpetually bringing into play.

A man of views, he was not a man of expedi


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