benefits it produces. The battle of Waterloo left France the victim of two invasions. The losses which had been inflicted upon her territory have been estimated at fifteen hundred millions of francs, the same sum that she was condemned to pay the Allies.

From 1818 to 1827, in nine years alone, says M. Dupin, “these wounds, profound and terrible as they were, had been healed; and even their scars obliterated. In the wars of twenty-three years, fifteen hundred thousand men had perished, and in thirteen years their loss had been repaired.” Agriculture, which the presence of a foreign enemy had repressed, - (one department alone had suffered to the extent of 75 millions of francs,) revived, and had even advanced, during the Restoration, as well by an increase in horses and cattle, as by various improvements in the art of cultivation.

The manufactures of wool, of cotton, of silk, aided by the improvement of machinery and the experiments of chemistry, had added during that time in no small degree to the resources of industry and the investments for wealth. The population of Lyons alone had advanced in eleven years from 100 to 150,000 inhabitants. The product of indirect taxation, that sign not merely of the riches, but of the enjoyments of a people, had been swelled during the interval of 1818 to 1827 by 25 per cent. The Customs and the Post produced more, the Lottery less ; and-a circumstance not to be forgotten in the details of administration — the expense of collecting the revenue had diminished as the revenue itself had increased. The number of printed sheets were, in 1814, 45,675,039; in 1826, 144,564,094 ; thus displaying in the production of human knowledge a yet greater increase and a yet greater activity than in the other rapidly and daily increasing productions.

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Accroissemens Annuels.
De la population humaine
Du nombre des chevaux
Du nombre des moutons
Des consommations indiquées par les

droits indirects
Idem, par les octrois
Des opérations industrielles indiquées

par le revenu des patentes
De la circulation indiquée par le revenu

de la poste
Du commerce indiqué par les droits de

Des productions industrielles indiquées

par l'extraction de la houille
Idem, par la fabrication du fer
Des publications de la presse périodique

et non-périodique.

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“By this table it appears,” says the valuable little pamphlet I quote from, * “ que l'accroissement numérique de la population est moindre que celui de toutes les forces matérielles, que celui de tous les produits du travail ; et que l'accroissement des publications, qui représente l'activité progressive de l'esprit, est le plus grand de tous.”+ In three years (from 1817 to 1820) the elementary schools, from 856,212, advanced to have 1,063,919 scholars; and the number of persons receiving instruction at these institutions within the period contained between 1816 and 18:26 has been computed at five millions and a half. Schools of arts, agriculture, and the sciences, were formed throughout the kingdom; and, borne along on this mighty rush of new opinions, came a new and more noble philosophy—a new, a more rich, a more glowing, a more masculine, a more stirring, and energetic literature. The spirit and intellect of the country received a fresh birth, and at the same time a fresh race was born ;

-a race that had neither the ideas, the wants, nor the history of its predecessors.

• “Les Forces Electorales,” by Ch. Dupin.

+ The effect of which may be seen in the subjoined calculation. Printed sheets on matters of Science : In 1814-232,314; in 1820—369,862; in 1826–1,177,780.



This was the real revolution. Within the last thirteen years a population of twelve millions and a half had been added to Young France,' a population of ten millions belonging to 'Old France had gone down to the tomb. In 1828, the electors belonging to the new ' régime' were 25,089; to the ancient régime, 15,021. Thus the two generations were in presence; the one published the ordonnances, and the other raised the barricades.


Not violent enough for their purpose ; Charles X. would

have acted more wisely in throwing himself entirely upon

the army--The people did not look to the mere act of the Government, but its object—They saw that if these means failed to effect that object, another would be tried.

On July 26th* appeared the Ordonnances, accompanied by that famous report, not less remarkable for the eloquence than for the history it contains. As a matter of history, that document stands forth as the most singular and public protest against constitutional liberty that ever appeared in a constitutional country ; as a display of eloquence,t that document convinces us that arbitrary power, even in the worst times, and under the least favourable circumstances, will never want able, perhaps conscientious defenders. The Ordonnances totally put

Signed the 25th. + Supposed to be written by M. de Chantelauze.

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