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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX.

The names with an asterisk prefixed are those of memoir-writers
belonging to the reign of Louis XIV, but not necessarily mentioned in
Voltaire's work.]

ABEILLE (Gaspard), an abbé and a poet [1648-1718], member of the
Académie Française; composed several tragedies and operas which
have long since been forgotten.

ABLANCOURT (Nicolas Perrot d') [1606-1664], one of the earliest of
the Academicians. His translations of Lucian, Thucydides, Cæsar and
Tacitus were nicknamed Les belles infidèles.

ADDISON (Joseph) [1672-1719]. The celebrated essayist; his tra-
gedy of Cato was brought out in 1713.

ADELAIDE DE SAVOIE, duchesse de Bourgogne [1685-1712], one of
the principal ornaments of the court of Louis XIV. "Douce, timide,
mais adroite, bonne jusqu'à craindre de faire la moindre peine à per-
sonne." (Saint-Simon.)

AIGUILLON (Marie Madeleine de Vignerod, dame de Combalet,
duchesse d') [1604-1675], niece of Cardinal Richelieu, spent her large
fortune in works of charity.

ALEMBERT (Jean le Rond d') [1717-1773], the well-known collabo-
rateur of Diderot in the editorship of the Encyclopédie, equally dis-
tinguished as a mathematician and a prose-writer.

ALEXANDRE VII (Fabio Chigi) [1599-1667], elected Pope in 1655.
One of the worthiest representatives of the Papacy. "Sa conduite
morale et religieuse ne le rend pas indigne d'estime. (Dubois, in the
Biog. universelle.)

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ALEXANDRE VIII (Pietro Ottoboni) [1610-1691], elected Pope in

1689.

ALIGRE (Étienne d') [1592-1677], director of the finances [1648],
keeper of the seals [1672], chancellor of France [1674].

ALLACCI (Leo)- in Latin Allatius [1586-1669], a distinguished
oriental scholar and liturgical writer; librarian of the Vatican in 1661.
Beaucoup plus de lecture et de savoir que d'esprit et de jugement."
(Nicéron.)

66

ANGÉLY (L') court-jester to Louis XIII and Louis XIV, had been a
stable-boy in the household of the Prince de Condé. Boileau names him
in his first and eighth satires.

ANGUIER (François) [1604-1669], a well-known sculptor. His
best work, the mausoleum of Henry de Montmorency, is in the chapel
of the Lycée, at Moulins.

ANNE D'AUTRICHE [1602-1666], eldest daughter of Philip III,
king of Spain-queen of France-married to Louis XIII (1615).
"Princesse fière de son rang, ferme dans l'infortune." (Fiévée.)

AQUIN (Antoine d') [1629-1696], first physician to Louis XIV.
ARBAUD DE PORCHÈRES (François d') [?-1640], cousin of Malherbe,
and a poet of some reputation in his day.

*ARGENSON (Marc René, marquis d') [1652-1721], lieutenant-
general of the police [1697]; keeper of the seals and president of the
board of finances [1718-1720]; minister of state [1720]. His Notes are
described by M. Lalanne as "très-intéressantes."

ARIOSTO (Ludovico) [1474-1533], one of the most brilliant of Italian
poets, author of Orlando furioso [1510].

ARIUS [? 270-336], the well-known heresiarch.

*ARNAULD D'ANDILLY (Robert) [1589-1674]. His memoirs extend
from 1600 to 1656, and are full of interesting details. He was the elder
brother of the following, and the eldest of twenty children.

*

ARNAULD (Antoine) [1616-1698]. His memoirs [1634-1675] were
published for the first time in 1756. On y trouve des faits curieux, des
anecdotes piquantes qu'on chercherait vainement dans les nombreux
mémoires sur le siècle de Louis XIV." (Biog. universelle.)

AUBIGNÉ (Constant d'), baron de Surineau [about 1584-about
1645], father of Madame de Maintenon.

AUDRAN (Jean) [1667-1756], a distinguished engraver, of the same
family as the two following; chief works: Alexander's battles (reduced
size); l'Enlèvement des Sabines (after Poussin); Athalie (after Ant.
Coypel).

AUDRAN (Girard) [1640-1691], one of the most celebrated of French
engravers. His chief works are the series of Alexander's battles, the
ceiling of the Val de Grâce (after Mignard), and the Enlèvement de la
vérité (after Poussin).

AUDRAN (Claude 11) [? 1639 ? 1641-1684], a painter; his best
known work represents the beheading of John the Baptist; he also
painted the principal staircase of the palace of Versailles, the chapel at
Sceaux, &c.

AUGER DE MAULÉON [died about 1650]; was excluded from the
Académie Française four months after his election on account of some
money transaction in which he played a disreputable part.

AUZOUT (Adrien) [died in 1691], left some reputation as a scientific
writer; he invented in 1667 an instrument which enables astronomers
to measure the apparent diameter of small objects.

AVÉDIK, Armenian patriarch at Constantinople, supposed by some
critics to have been the man with the iron mask.

BACON (Sir Francis), Earl Verulam, Viscount St Alban [1561-1626];
solicitor-general (1607), attorney-general (1613), keeper of the seals
(1617), Lord Chancellor (1618); one of the greatest of modern philo-
sophers.

BALLESDENS (Jean) [d. in 1675], preacher to the king; distinguished
as a scholar.

66

BALZAC (Jean Louis Guez, Seigneur de) [1594-1654], a distinguished
French
prose writer: "" 'On peut dire," says Boileau, que jamais per-
sonne n'a mieux su sa langue que lui, et n'a mieux entendu la propriété

des mots et la juste mesure des périodes." He did for prose what
Malherbe accomplished for poetry.

BANDURI (Anselmo) [1670-1743], a Benedictine monk, professor of
ecclesiastical history at Pisa.

BARBIER D'AUCOUR (Jean) [1641-1694], of some reputation as a
writer, took the part of the Port-Royalists against the Jesuits.

BARDIN (Pierre) [1590-1637], one of the earliest members of the
Académie Française; otherwise quite unknown to fame.

BARO (Balthasar) [1600-1650], a very third-rate poet, finished d'Urfé's
Astrée and wrote three or four tragedies now utterly forgotten.

BARON (Michel Boyron, better known as) [1563-1729], a celebrated
actor, the pupil and friend of Molière, author of a few comedies, the
best of which is l'homme à bonnes fortunes.

* BASSOMPIERRE (François de) [1579-1646], marshal of France. It
has been said of his memoirs : "C'est une lecture piquante, et qui offre
de précieux renseignements."

BAUDOIN (Jean) [? 1584? 1590-1650], has published some transla-
tions from the Greek and Latin classics.

BAUTRU (Guillaume), comte de Serrant [1588-1665], councillor of
state, ambassador, &c., celebrated for his bons-mots.

BAVILLE. See LAMOIGNON.

BAYLE (Pierre) [1647-1706], a well-known scholar, journalist and
philosopher. "Bayle est presque le seul compilateur qui ait du goût."
(Voltaire.)

BAZIN DE BEZONS (Claude) [1627-1684], intendant of the province
of Languedoc.

BEAUBRUN (Charles) [d. in 1692], distinguished as a painter.

BEAUBRUN (Henri) [d. 1677], portrait-painter, and professor at the
academy.

BEAUFORT (François de Vendôme, duc de) [1616-1669], grandson of
Henry IV; took an active part in the Fronde war, and received the
nickname of "le roi des Halles" on account of his popularity with
the mob.

BEAUMANOIR (Philippe de Remi, sieur de) [d. in 1296], one of the
most celebrated lawyers of the middle ages; his reputation rests upon
the Coutumes du Beauvaisis which were finished in 1283.

BEAUMELLE (Laurent Angliviel de la) [1727-1773]. The friendship
with which Maupertuis honoured him contributed in a great measure to
exasperate Voltaire, whose behaviour towards the author of the Notes au
siècle de Louis XIV was most unfair.

BEAUMONT DE PÉRÉFIXE (Hardouin de) [1605-1670], tutor to Louis
XIV (1644), bishop of Rodez (1648), archbishop of Paris (1662), author
of an excellent history of Henry IV.

BEAUVAIS (Catherine Henriette Bellier de) [d. 1690], had been first
femme de chambre to the queen Anne of Austria; she was expelled in
1649 on account of her scandalous living.

BEAUVILLIERS (Paul, duc de St Aignan, then duc de) [1648-1714],
president of the board of finances, successively governor of the dauphin
and of the duc d'Anjou. Minister of state (1691). Had married a
daughter of Colbert.

BELLIÈVRE (Nicolas de) [1583-1650], councillor of state, président
à mortier in the Parlement of Paris.

BENSERADE (Isaac de) [1612-1691], obtained much_reputation by
his poetry.
The Métamorphoses d'Ovide mises en rondeaux are ridi-
culously bad. His famous sonnet on Job, pitted against Voiture's sonnet
sur la princesse Uranie, gave rise to a literary warfare, the judges being
divided into Jobelins and Uranists.

BERNINI (Lorenzo), le cavalier Bernin [1598-1680], distinguished
as a painter, a statuary, and an architect, was surnamed the second
Michael Angelo.

BERNOUILLI (Jacques) [1654-1705], professor of mathematics at
the university of Bale, one of the first savants who applied the principles
of the differential calculus.

BERNOUILLI (Jean) [1667-1748], brother of the foregoing, whom
he succeeded in the chair of mathematics, after having been (1695)
professor at Groningen.

* BERTHOD (Father) served the royalist cause during the wars of
the Fronde, accepted the dangerous mission of reducing to obedience
the city of Bordeaux, and left on this episode some memoirs written
with much simplicity and modesty.

BERWICK James Fitzjames, duke of) [1660-1734], natural son of
James II of England; marshal of France [1710].

BIANCHINI (Francesco) [1662-1729], an Italian astronomer and
antiquarian.

BIGNON (Jérôme) [1589-1656], celebrated as a magistrate and a
scholar. Was tutor to the Dauphin (Louis XIII), and advocate general
in the Parlement of Paris.

BIGNON (Jean Paul) [1662-1743], a member of the oratory, librarian
and preacher to the king; grandson of the above.

BLONDEL (François] [1618-1686], a distinguished architect and
littérateur, professor of mathematics to the Dauphin.

BOERHAAVE (Hermann) [1668-1738], celebrated throughout Europe
as a physician.

BOILEAU-DESPRÉAUX (Nicolas) [1636-1711], the well-known poet
and oracle of the French classical school. His mock-heroic poem le
Lutrin is his best work.

BOILEAU (Charles) [? 1648-1704], abbé de Beaulieu; enjoyed some
reputation as a preacher.

BOILEAU (Gilles) [1631-1669], eldest brother of Despréaux, and
his rival in satirical powers. Turned Ménage, Costar and Scarron into
ridicule.

BoisGUILLEBERT (Pierre le Pesant de) [died in 1714]. His Détail
de la France sous Louis XIV (1695), and his Factum de la France
(1707) brought him into disgrace.

BOISROBERT (François le Métel, abbé de) [1592-1662], owed his
fortune to his wits; was one of the five collaborateurs of Cardinal
Richelieu, and wrote, besides, on his own account, eighteen plays.

BOISSAT (Pierre) [1603-1662] wrote some historical works.
BOIVIN (Louis) [1649-1724] has composed some valuable works on
chronology.

VOL. III.

16

BONIFACE (or rather Winfrid) [? 680-755], missionary and prelate;
bishop [723], archb. of Mainz [? 751].

BONIFACE VIII (Benedetto Cajetano), cardinal [1281], pope [1294],
died [1303].

BOSSE (Abraham) (1611-1678), distinguished as an engraver; lecturer
on perspective at the Académie de peinture, from which he was ex-
cluded on account of his quarrels with the director, Lebrun.

BOUGAINVILLE (Louis Antoine) [1729-1811], well known for his
travels and his scientific researches.

BOUILLON (Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, duc de), marshal of
France [1592], died [1623].

BOUILLON (Frédéric Maurice de la Tour d'Auvergne, duc de)
[1605-1652], took a prominent part in the war of the Fronde. "D'un
sens profond et d'une valeur éprouvée.” (de Retz.)

BOULLOGNE (Louis) [d. 1674], painter in ordinary to the king, and
father of the following.

BOULLOGNE (Bon) [1649-1717], professor at the Académie de pein-
ture; his picture representing the fight of Hercules with the Centaurs
is at the Louvre. "Dessinait bien, et avait un coloris vigoureux."
(Durdent, in the Biog. univ.)

BOULLOGNE (Madeleine) [1646-1710], sister of the foregoing, and
an agreeable painter of flowers and fruit.

BOULLOGNE (Geneviève) [1645-1709] painted in the same style
as her sister Madeleine. Note that the name of the family is variously
spelt Boullogne and Boulogne.

BOURDALOUE (Louis) [1632-1704], one of the most distinguished
pulpit orators of the age of Louis XIV. He was a Jesuit, and it
has been truly said of him: "Sa conduite est la meilleure réponse qu'on
puisse faire aux Lettres Provinciales."

BOURDON (Sébastien) [1616-1671] was painter to Queen Christina
of Sweden. His productions are of very unequal merit, owing chiefly
to the vivacity of his imagination. The crucifixion of St Peter, at
Notre Dame of Paris, is his best work.

BOURZEYS (Amable de) [1606-1670], a littérateur, a divine and a
diplomatist.

BOYER (Claude) [1618-1698], author of several plays which were
turned into ridicule by Racine and Boileau.

BOYLE (Robert) [1626-1691], a natural philosopher of much repu-
tation.

BRADLEY (James) [1693-1762], a distinguished astronomer and
mathematician.

BRAMANTE D'URBINO (Francesco Lazzari) [1444-1514], a great
Italian architect.

* BRÉGY (Charlotte Saumaise de Chazan, comtesse de) [1619-1693],
niece of the celebrated Salmasius, and lady in waiting on Anne of
Austria. The memoirs generally ascribed to her husband extend
from 1643 to 1690.

*BRIENNE (Henri Auguste de Loménie, comte de) [1595-1666],
secretary of state, and minister of foreign affairs. His memoirs are
extremely valuable. "Style simple et grande exactitude."

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