BRISSAC (Albert de Grillet de) [d. in 1713], field marshal (1688),
governor of the town of Guise (1691), lieutenant general (1693). An
excellent officer, and a great favourite of Louis XIV.

BROSSE (Jacques de), a distinguished architect, built the palace of
the Luxembourg and the portal of the church of St Gervais in Paris.
The date of his birth and that of his death are both unknown.

BROUSSON (Claude) [1647-1698], a Protestant minister; died a
martyr to the cause of religious freedom.

BUCKINGHAM (George Villiers, duke of) [1627-1688], an agreeable
poet, and a man of great conversational powers, but a most despicable
character, and a worthless statesman.

BURNET (Gilbert) [1643-1715], bishop of Salisbury [1689]. His
works, full of curious information, are not always accurate, and they
display the spirit of a thorough partisan.

BUSSY-RABUTIN (Roger de Rabutin, comte de Bussy, better known
as) [1618-1693]. If his conduct as a courtier and a nobleman is
thoroughly despicable, his intellectual merits are of a high order. The
collection of his memoirs and of his correspondence proves, to quote
the Biog. universelle, "que la France avait un grand écrivain de plus.'

CAILLIÈRES (François) [1645-1717], a writer and a diplomatist;
took a part in the preliminaries which led to the peace of Ryswick.

*CAMPION (Henri de) [1613-1663], a retainer of the duc de Beaufort,
whom he assisted in his plots against Mazarin. Has left some valuable

CAMPISTRON (Jean Galbert de) [1656-1713], a very inferior dramatic


CARCAVI (Pierre de) [d. in 1684], celebrated as a geometrician; was
appointed in 1663 keeper of the king's library.

CARLOMAN, son of Charles-Martel; died in 754.

CASSAGNE (the abbé Jacques) [1636-1679], one of Boileau's victims;
was keeper of the king's library.

CASSINI (Jean Dominique) [1625-1712], the famous astronomer.
Professor at the university of Bologna. Settled in France and received
in 1673 letters of naturalisation.

CASSINI (Jacques) [1669-1756], son of the foregoing, and equally
distinguished as an astronomer.

CATHERINE DE' MEDICI [1519-1589], married [1533] Henry, duc
d'Orléans, afterwards Dauphin [1536], and finally [1547] king under
the title of Henry II.

CATHERINE II [1729-1796], empress of Russia [1762].

CAULET (François-Étienne de) [1610-1680], bishop of Pamiers [1644],
an able and faithful friend of the Port-Royalists, and of Jansenism.
CAUMARTIN (Jean François Paul de) [1668-1733
Vannes [1717], and of Blois [1719].

bishop of

CAUVIGNY-COLOMBY (François) [? 1588-? 1648] was a kind of
public orator to the king; has left some translations of the Latin

CAVALIER (Jean) [1689-1740], the famous leader of the Camisards
in their rebellion against the despotism of Louis XIV.

*CAYLUS (Marthe Marguerite de Villette de Murcay, marquise de)
[1673-1729], niece of Madame de Maintenon. M. Sainte-Beuve says
of her memoirs: "Suite rapide de portraits et de croquis; elle y

LA CHAMBRE (Martin Cureau de) [? 1594-1675], a physician and a

LA CHAMBRE (Pierre Cureau de) [d. in 1693], son of the foregoing,
and like him, a member of the Académie Française.

CHAMIER (Daniel) [1570-1621], a Protestant divine and controver-
sialist, professor at Montauban.

CHAMILLARD (Jean François), bishop of Dol (1692), and of Senlis
(1702), senior chaplain to the Dauphine (1704), d. 1714.

CHAMILLARD (Michel de) [1651-1721], comptroller general of the
finances [1699], minister of war [1701], one of the most inefficient
of statesmen; owed his extraordinary fortune to his skill at billiards.
On his appointment to the war office a squib was circulated of which
the following are the first lines:

"Heureux Chamillard

Qu'un coup de billard
A mis dans la France
Sur notre finance,
Par un coup d'hasard
Tu es sur la terre

Le dieu de la guerre."

CHAMPAGNE (Philippe de) [? 1602-1674], a celebrated French painter.
"Ses compositions sont plus savantes que poétiques."

CHAMPAGNE (Jean-Baptiste) [1635-1681], nephew of the foregoing,
and eminent also as a painter.

CHAPELAIN (Jean) [1595-1674], ridiculous as a poet, but a man of
good learning, and an enlightened and generous patron of literature.

CHARLEMAGNE [742-814], crowned emperor of the West [800].
CHARLES II, king of Spain [1660-1700], ascended the throne
[1665], the last of the elder branch of Austrian princes who reigned in

CHARLES II [1630-1685], ascended the throne of England in 1660.
CHARLES VI [1368-1422], succeeded to the throne of France in

CHARPENTIER (François) [1620-1702], a distinguished critic and

CHAUMONT (Paul Philippe), bishop of Dax, keeper of the king's
private library; d. 1697.

CHEVREUSE (Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de) [1600-
1679], celebrated for her attachment to Anne of Austria, and for the
persecution she had to suffer in consequence from Cardinal Richelieu.
CHIABRERA (Gabriele) [1552-1637], a celebrated Italian poet.

CHILPÉRIC I, the youngest son of Clotaire 1, king of Soissons
[561], murdered [584].

* CHOISY (François Timoléon, abbé de) [1644-1724], prior of Saint-
Lô, contributed to the election of Pope Innocent XI, and went as a

missionary to Siam. "A laissé des mémoires agréablement écrits."

CHOMEL (Pierre Jean Baptiste) [1671-1740], a well-known botanist
and physician.

CHRISTINA-ALESSANDRA [1626-1689], queen of Sweden in 1632.
CLAUDE (Clemens Claudius) [9th century], bishop of Turin [817],
chaplain to Louis le Débonnaire; d. 839.

CLEREMBAULT (Jules de), abbot of St Taurin at Evreux, d. 1714.
CLERMONT-TONNERRE (François de) [1629-1701], bishop of Noyon


COISLIN (Armand du Cambout, marquis, then duc de) [1635-1702],
a peer of France.

COISLIN (Henri Charles du Cambout de) [1663-1732], son of the
foregoing; bishop of Metz [1697].

COISLIN (Pierre du Cambout, duc de) [1664-1710], a peer of France,
brother of the foregoing.

COLBERT (Jean Baptiste) [1619-1683], minister and secretary of
state, comptroller general of the finances. "Fit tout ce qu'il pouvait
pour le bonheur de la France, mais ne fit jamais tout ce qu'il voulait."

COLBERT (Jacques Nicolas) [1655-1707], second son of the states-
man, archbp. of Rouen [1691].

* COLIGNY-SALIGNY (Jean, comte de) [1617-1686], followed Condé
in the wars of the Fronde, and played a brilliant part in the defeat
of the Turks near St Gothard. His memoirs are full of interesting
details on the minority of Louis XIV.

COLLETET (Guillaume) [1598-1659], a writer of some talent, but
of very questionable behaviour. The ms. of his voluminous history of
the French poets was destroyed during the commune (1871).

CONDE (Louis II de Bourbon, prince de), “le grand Condé" [1621-
1686], one of the greatest of French generals, the rival of Turenne,
whom he succeeded [1675] in the campaign against Montecuculli.

*CONRART (Valentin) [1603-1675], may be considered as the real
originator of the Académie Française, and was a man of great taste
although he wrote very little. Boileau says,

"Ainsi, craignant toujours un funeste accident,
J'imite de Conrart le silence prudent."

COPERNIC (Nicolas) [1473-1543], the celebrated astronomer; his
views on the system of the universe are explained in a work entitled de
revolutionibus orbium celestium which was published the very year of
his death.

CORDEMOY (Giraud de) [1626-1684], reader to the Dauphin.

CORNEILLE (Pierre) [1606-1684], "the father of French tragedy."
Le Cid [1636]-Horace, Cinna [1639]—Polyeucte [1640]—Rodogune

CORNEILLE (Thomas) [1625-1709], brother of the foregoing, and
next to him the best French dramatic writer before Racine appeared.
Ariane [1672]-le comte d'Essex [1678].

*COSNAC (Daniel de) [1630-1708], bishop of Valence [1654]; arch-

bishop of Aix [1687]. "Ses mémoires, écrits par un homme d'esprit,
qui avait été mêlé à toutes les intrigues de la cour, offrent un vif
intérêt." (Bouillet.)

COSTAR (Pierre) [1603-1660], one of the staunch friends of Madame
de Rambouillet, and an enthusiastic admirer of Voiture, led a dissi-
pated life for an abbe, and was said to be ie plus galant des pédants et le
plus pédant des galants.

COTIN (Charles) [1604-1682], one of the best known of the précieux,
the great rival of Benserade, and the victim of Boileau and Molière,
who turned him into ridicule under the nickname of Trissotin.

COUSTOU (Nicolas) [1658-1733], a celebrated sculptor, many of his
works are in the gardens of the Tuileries, the park of Versailles, the
cathedral of Paris.

COUSTOU (Guillaume) [1677-1740], brother of the foregoing, and
his equal as a sculptor. The two horses, known as the Chevaux de
Marly, which stand at the entrance of the Champs-Élysées in Paris,
are his work.

COYPEL (Antoine) [1661-1722], a distinguished artist; painter to
the duke of Orleans and to the king (1716); some of his best works are
at the Louvre.

COYPEL (Charles-Antoine) [1694-1752], was the son and pupil of
the foregoing; the palace of Compiègne, the museum of Nantes and
that of Nancy contain his chief productions.

COYSEVOX (Antoine) [1640-1720]; the gardens of Versailles and
Marcy have been embellished by the works of this excellent sculptor.

CRÉQUI (Charles III, Sire de) [1623-1687], lieutenant-general
[1651], duke and peer [1653]; was ambassador at Rome [1662], and
in England.

CROMWELL (Oliver) [1599-1658], Lord Protector of England

CUPER (Gisbert) [1644-1716], professor of history at Deventer, a
well-known scholar and archeologist.

DACIER (André) [1651-1722], one of the most eminent of modern
scholars; published several editions and translations of classical au-
thors, perpetual secretary of the Académie Française [1713]. His wife
(Anne-Lefèvre, daughter of the well-known Tanneguy Lefèvre) was
equally celebrated for her learning.


DANCHET (Antoine) [1671-1748], a dramatic poet. His tragedies
are described as "maladroites imitations de Racine, sans invention ni

*DANGEAU (Philippe de Courcillon, marquis de) [1638-1720]; his
journal, extending from 1684 to 1720, completes Saint-Simon's me-
moirs, and may be regarded as a storehouse of the most valuable inform-
ation on the court of Louis XIV.

DANGEAU (Louis de Courcillon, abbé de) [1643-1723], brother of
the foregoing, wrote several treatises on grammar, heraldry and geo-

DAUDE (Pierre) [1681-1754], a French protestant minister and

DE BOZE (Claude Gros) [1680-1753], a well-known archaeologist
and scholar. "Critique sagace et judicieux."

DESCARTES (René) [1596-1650], divides with Lord Bacon the
honour of having reformed philosophy. (Discours de la méthode, 1637—
Méditations philosophiques, 1641.)

DESMARETS DE SAINT SORLIN (Jean) [1595-1676] was the first
chancellor of the Académie Française; the only one of his numerous
works which obtained any reputation was his comedy les Visionnaires,
on account of the allusions it contains to Madame de Sablé, Madame
de Rambouillet, and other persons of that time.

DESMARETS (Nicolas) [1650-1721], nephew of Colbert; comptroller-
general of the finances [1708] where he succeeded Chamillard.

DESMARETS (François Séraphin Regnier) [1632-1713], took a very
important part in the composition of the grammar and dictionary pub-
lished by the Académie Française.

DIAMANTE (J. B.), a Spanish dramatist who flourished about the
middle of the seventeenth century.

DORBAY (François), d. 1697, a distinguished architect.

DOUJAT (Jean) [1609-1688), historiographer of France, a lawyer and
an elegant writer.

DREVET (Pierre) [1664-1739], a celebrated engraver; his best works
are the portraits of Louis XIV, Villars, Boileau, Dangeau, Cardinal
Fleury, &c.

DRYDEN (John) [1631-1700]. “Reason in rhyme was his peculiar
delight. His prose may rank with the best in the English language."

DU BOIS (Philippe Goibaud) [1626-1694]. After having begun by
teaching music and dancing, he applied himself to classical studies, and
became a good scholar. Published translations of some of the works of
Cicero and St Augustine.

Du Bos (Jean Baptiste) [1670-1742]; his best known work is enti-
tled Histoire critique de l'établissement de la monarchie française dans
les Gaules, 1734; its object is to prove that the Franks settled in Gaul
peacefully and without any conquest.


DU CHAILA, a Roman catholic priest who persecuted the Hugue-

*DU CLOS (Charles Pineau) [1704-1772]; his Mémoires secrets des
règnes de Louis XIV et de Louis XV were published after his death;
they were chiefly borrowed from Saint-Simon's mss., and have accord-
ingly lost some of their interest.

*DUGUAY-TROUIN (René) [1673-1736]. This celebrated sailor has
left some memoirs which were published for the first time in 1740.


DUPERRON (Jacques Davy) [1556-1618], bishop of Evreux [1591]
and of Sens [1604], cardinal; l'ambition paraît avoir été sa seule
passion, et il l'étendit même à la littérature, où il croyait occuper un des
premiers rangs."

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