tree. To those who are perfectly unacquainted with the science of felling trees, it may be interesting if I dwell for a minute on this subject. In felling a large tree the common practice is to make two deep incisions, one above the other, on the same side of the trunk, about a foot and a half apart, according to the size of the tree ; by this means, you will be able to chip out the centre bit, which, when done, will leave a large gap. Having cut about three parts through, you do similarly on the opposite side, only nothing like so deep, and it must be above the first cut. You will very soon be rewarded by hearing a terrific crash, and seeing your gallant foe biting the dust. In clearing land, all trees are cut down breast high, and afterwards topped—that is, all the leafy top cut off, and piled in windrows. It is a common practice, and a very profitable one too, to cut up all your good hard wood into firewood as you proceed. Clearing the land of the standing timber is doubtless the hardest work, but I question if it is not, on the whole, the most agreeable: the weather is generally fine

- lovely, bright mornings, with a keen, pleasant, sharp frost—the occupation is manly and healthy above all things. The work may be varied by looking after your maple sugar, and, perhaps, taking a shot now and then at partridges, wood pigeons, or hares. We will suppose the fallow to be chopped by the end of March, the next step is to cross-cut all the long logs into twelve-feet lengths. This will take some time, and I consider it the most laborious part of the whole work, as it has a nasty knack of making your back ache, unless you are accustomed to it. This done, you may dismiss your mate, and rest on your oars until the heat of summer sets in, which will be about the middle of June.

The climate of Canada goes to two extremes-extreme heat and extreme cold. The summer heat of Canada is almost tropical, so great, indeed, that the forest will burst into full leaf within the short space of a week, when, apparently, the buds bore no appearance of opening previously. So it is that when the trees are once cut down and brushed, when the summer heat comes, they will dry like a chip, and a single match will set it all in a blaze. A day is always chosen to fire the clearing, when there is a slight breeze stirring; but you must be careful that the wind is in the right direction, or else, maybe, you may do harm to your neighbour, by destroying his fences and injuring his crops, merely from not taking the proper precautions.

I shall conclude this chapter with the description of a logging bee, which is the last operation to be performed before the land is cleared. Our

young backwoodsman, we will now suppose, has had a good burn; the devouring element has swept everything away, leaving nothing but the blackened trunks, which lie about the ground in every direction. To put these logs together, so that they will burn well, entails the necessity of calling a bee, for it would be almost impossible for one man to log bis own fallow. A bee in Canada means a collection of men called together for some purpose-as, for instance, it may be a raising bee, a thrashing bee, ploughing bee, quilting bee ; or, in fact, any job that requires the Assistance of your neighbours is dubbed a bee. The rule is, if you call a bee for any purpose, you are expected to return the same labour to any of them whenever they may require it of you.

One very great advantage in bees is that everybody knows their own work, and they do it with a hearty goodwill. There is no such thing as shirking, and even the youngest of the party can make themselves useful. Logging is very dirty work, and it is very necessary to put on the most worthless clothes that you may have by you, as the charcoal from the burnt logs will make you most charmingly black : a chimney-sweep is nothing to it. When a person intends calling a logging bee, he warns all his friends who are fortunate enough to own bullocks to attend on a given day. Previous to this, he will have supplied himself with a good stock of stout young ironwood saplings, from eight to ten feet long, and sharpened at one end, for handspikes. There are then different gangs formed, each gang being composed of a team of four bullocks. The owner of them is appointed " boss,” and he has under him from four to six men, with handspikes. The "boss" starts the logs with his bullocks, and the gang keep them rolling, until they pile them up on the heap. The several gangs do the same, only in different parts of the field. By this means, ten acres can be easily logged up in the course of the day. The shouting and yelling that goes on all the time is astonishing : but yet it does not seem to exhaust their energies much

At one o'clock they sit down to a substantial dinner, the like of which can only be seen in Canada, or in the United States. Dinner finished, they return to their work, and, at about four o'clock, buckets of tea, and cakes, and scones, are served round in the field. One hour more, and the work is finished ; the bullocks are then driven down to water, the men wash themselves, and prepare for supper. Every one is in the best of humour, and jokes go round the table; the merits of the different teams are then descanted on, and the evening winds up with athletic sports, singing, and dancing.

We have now seen our young settler clear his land. The difficulties he has had to contend against are not very great, it is true ; but I hold that it is men only of indomitable pluck and courage that do succeed. I have known many instances, and the same may be seen any day even in this country, where men, having come out to the colonies without a proper appreciation of the duties they are called upon to perform, rush into extravagance at the outset, employ labour when they should work themselves, and the capital that should have been employed in improving their farm, is frittered away at hotels, or in low company. Such men, if you do chance to meet them two or three years afterwards, you will find bullock-drivers, billiard-markers, or, perhaps, seedy loafers, bragging to everybody how well off they had been some time ago. Alas ! how pitiable! They were wanting in that true nobility of soul which urges the brave man on to conquer ; who, careless of the present struggle, looks forward only to a bright and happy future, be that future ever so distant, when he shall see his fields waving with the yellow corn, and his young herds of cattle lowing around him. When he can look upon this bright picture, and feel that it is his strong arm which has accomplished this wonderful change, carved, as it has been, from the primeval forest—such men, I say, are Nature's true nobility, and are the bone and sinew of any country. Time and space will not permit us to moralize long. Other

. important matters engage onr attention, amongst which we may class the log hut. We bave often heard of “Every man is the architect of his own fortune;" but here it is every man is the architect of his own house. The log hut is both simple and ornamental of its kind, and although the exterior may appear somewhat rough to refined eyes, still within it may contain all the essentials to comfort, if but properly built : for my part, VOL. I.-No. 8.

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give me a well-built squared timber shanty, and you may take all your lath and plaster houses, which rock like a cradle when the wind blows.

There are two kinds of log houses used in the backwoods of Canada -one called a shanty on account of the roof, which has only one side ; the other, a square house with the regular roof to it; the latter, of course, is far the best, if you can afford it, and the outlay is so trifling that I would advise every settler to give the preference to the square house. It is by no means an uncommon thing to see no less than three houses close together, within a short space of each other, which have been occupied by the same owner at different periods of his life, clearly marking the progress of his fortunes : first, you notice the little shanty now used perhaps for poultry ; next, the square well-finished log hut, converted into stable or barn ; and lastly, the mansion of wood or stone, which throws the former two quite into the shade.

Most of the log huts that I have seen have been chiefly built either of cedar, hemlock, or pine. It is important that the logs should be straight, and as near one size as can be procured. To make the hut look well, the timber should be squared, and the corners dove-tailed; but this is merely a matter of taste, and of the least importance. The crevices between the walls are carefully stuffed with chunks of wood and clay; after which, you may either give it a coat of whitewash, or, if that does not please you, canvas and paper it. Shingles are always used in Canada as they are here, and a handy backwoodsman will make his own, which, as a rule, are far superior to any made by machinery, and fetch a better price. A square four-roomed hut, with underground cellar, ought not to cost much more than from twenty to twenty-five pounds sterling. The only expenses are the flooring boards, windows, and doors—that is, supposing he has been wise enough to call a bee, and handy enough to finish it off himself. A well-built log hut will last upwards of twenty years, and even after that it will be found useful for several purposes. The reader will doubtless have observed that I have made no mention of either fireplace or chimney in the erection of my house. This is easily accounted for, as in most instances stoves are used. Some people prefer the stove to a fire-place ; but give me the latter, as there is then a good ventilation to any room. These stoves, in the depth of winter, are often heated until they become red hot; the consequence is, the air becomes baked and raritied, which must be very injurious to the constitution, and perhaps accounts for the apparently premature aged appearance of ladies in America, who have arrived at the age of thirty and thirty-five; this, undoubtedly, should be the prime of their life. We know it is so, both in this country and in England ; yet, in Canada and the States, ladies look positively old at that age. During the coldest nights in winter, when your very breath freezes, and settles like frost upon your beard and whiskers, persons will leave their heated rooms, which are like a hot-house, to go out into the open air. . Under these circumstances, I think it is wonderful that it does not shorten their lives more than it apparently does.

Time will not permit us to linger longer on this subject, for out-door occupations once more engage our attention. The preparation of the ground for seed is simple in the extreme. Nature in her bountiful goodness has done so much for man that little remains for him to do. The plough, that useful implement for preparing ground in every other country, is entirely dispensed with here ; also this same forest, which, for all we know, has endured for ages, has every succeeding year enriched the soil with its foliage, until the ground has become a rich loam two feet deep ; so rich, indeed, that I have known three crops taken off the same land successively, without the least application of manure. This is indeed poor policy, and should be discouraged, as it must impoverish the land ever afterwards.

Sowing wheat in new bush land is conducted in the following manner : -You first provide yourself with a triangular harrow-a rough implement of its kind, constructed by yourself. With this harnessed to a pair of bullocks, you scratch in the seed, the same having been first sown broad-cast. Two harrowings is generally deemed sufficient. In early spring, you seed the same ground down with red clover and Timothy grass seeds, which is a famous plan, as the wheat shelters the young grass from cold winds; and the following year you have a splendid crop of hay, and are enabled to turn your attention to the clearing of the next ten acres. Before the wheat is above ground, you have ample time to fence your land in ; and if you have been wise, you will have reserved from the burning all the straight pine or cedar logs, which may be suitable for splitting. The fences in Canada are the ugliest features in the country ; they are downright abominable, and completely mar the landscape. But to make amends for this great blemish, they are extremely serviceable, and can be put up in a remarkably short space of time-so short, indeed, that I have seen one side of a ten-acre paddock put up in a day. These fences go by the name of snake fences, probably on account of their zigzag irregularity. Besides their awkward appearance, they occupy a great space of valuable ground ; and, what is far worse, the corners cannot be reached by the plough, so they become the nursery for thistles, docks, and other noxious weeds. The interval between burning and seed-time should be occupied in splitting rails. The quicker it is done the better; because the sun has then time to dry up the sap, which makes them much lighter to handle, the benefit of which


when you commence to shift them. There is much more that I could say respecting bush farms; but were I to dwell upon this subject any longer, I fear I should only weary my reader, who must be anxious by this time to hear more about the scenery and general aspect of the country.

Nature seems to have formed everything in Canada on a gigantic scale. Her forests, lakes, and rivers all bear testimony to this. Here is ample scope for the pencil of the skilled limner ; his fancy may revel in every description of romantic scenery. We will first notice the lakes ; the largest of these, such as Eric, Huron, and Ontario, are, in fact, inland fresh-water seas. Ontario, the last in chain, and the most easterly of these American seas (which may well be considered the wonder and admiration of the world) is in form elliptical, and measures 172 miles on a central line drawn from its south-west to its north-east extremity ; its greatest breadth is 59 miles, and about 467 miles in circumference. The water of Ontario, like that of the other lakes, and of the St. Laurence river, is limpid and pure, and fit to drink; also for washing, though it is not so suitable for the solution of soap as rain water. During the height of summer, the shore water is too warm for pleasant drinking, unless kept some hours in a cool cellar. Gales of wind on this lake are frequent, and attended with an unpleasant "sea.” The refractions which take

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place on Ontario, in calm weather, are exceedingly beautiful ; islands and trees appear turned upside down ; the white surf of the beach is translated aloft, and seems like the smoke of artillery blazing away from a fort. It is not on these large lakes, however, that you must look for the finest scenery ; but rather on the back lakes and rivers, which have no place on the map, where only the clear ring of the woodman's axe, the crack of the sportsman's rifle, or the cheering cry of the deer-hound, as he hurries his quarry on to destruction. Where the wild duck rises from the Indian rice-bed, or the red-headed wood-pecker taps the hollow pine, garlanded with the crimson Virginian creeper falling in graceful festoons; or the drumming of partridges, as they call to their mates-all is beautiful; the band of the destroyer-Man-has not yet been here. When, resting on our paddles in our Indian bark canoe, gazing on this lovely scene, the handywork of the Creator, we feel we have the book of Nature spread before us, which bears ample testimony to his omnipotence.

How wonderful, and how imperfectly understood, are many of the ordinary operations of Nature ! "No sooner does the axe of the woodman, or the accidental burning of the forest, destroy one class of trees and brushwood, when another race, perfectly distinct, rises up, as though by magic, from the disturbed and discoloured soil, and covers it with beauty. Wonderful as this is, I believe it has never been properly accounted for yet ; some say, they suppose that it is the seeds of forest trees which have been deposited by some catastrophe, and are forgotten, pursuing, however, the vital principle for centuries, till accident brings them to light and life. We have much more to say respecting the woods of Canada, the different species of trees, the denizens of the forest, &c., but space and time will not permit us to intrench further upon these subjects, interesting as they undoubtedly are, and which we purpose to reserve for a future time. If, however, we have succeeded in piqueing the curiosity of our readers regarding Canadian life, our feeble effort will be amply rewarded, and we trust, in the next chapter, to awaken renewed interest in the sports and pastimes of that country.


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