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ORIGINAL CAUSE OF EXPULSION FROM HEAVEN.
OF THE ORIGINAL OF THE DEVIL, WHO HE IS, AND WHAT HE WAS
BEFORE HIS EXPULSION OUT OF HEAVEN, AND IN WHAT STATE HE WAS FROM THAT TIME TO THE CREATION OF MAN.
To come to a regular inquiry into Satan's affairs, it is needful we should go back to his original, as far as history and the opinion of the learned world give us leave.
It is agreed by all writers, as well sacred as profane, that this creature we now call a Devil, was originally an angel of light, a glorious seraph; perhaps the choicest of all the glorious seraphs. See how Milton describes his original glory:
Satan, so call him now, his former name
In favour and preeminence.—Par. Lost, lib. v.
Brighter ones amidst the host
16. lib. vii. The glorious figure which Satan is supposed to make among the thrones and dominions in heaven is such, as we might suppose the highest angel in that exalted train could make; and some think, as above, that he was the chief of the archangels.
Hence that notion, and not ill founded, namely, that the first cause of his disgrace, and on which ensued his rebellion, was occasioned upon God's proclaiming his Son generalissimo, and with himself supreme ruler in heaven, giving the dominion of all his works of creation, as well already finished as not then begun, to him; which post of honour, say they, Satan expected to be conferred on himself, as next in honour, majesty, and power, to God the supreme.
This opinion is followed by Mr. Milton, too, as appears in the following lines, where he makes all the angels attending at a general summons, and God the Father making the following declaration to them :
Hear all ye angels, progeny of light,
My only Son, and on this holy hill
Ordained without redemption, without end.
With all bis legions to dislodge, and leave
Contemptuous.- Par. Lost, lib. v.
In a word, Satan withdrew, with all his followers, malcontent and chagrined, resolved to disobey this new command, and not yield obedience to the Son.
But Mr. Milton agrees in that opinion, that the number of angels which rebelled with Satan was infinite; and suggests
* Mr. Pool's words are these: Some refer the words, this day have I begotten thee,' to the incarnation of the Son of God, others to the resurrection : our translators lay the stress on the preposition, of which the verb is compounded, and by adding again,' (viz.) 'raised up Jesus again,' Acts xiii. 33, intend it to be understood of the resurrection; and there is ground for it, in the context, for the resurrection of Christ is that which St. Paul had propounded in v. 30. of the same chapter, as his theme or argument to preach upon.
Not that Christ at his resurrection began to be the Son of God, but that he was manifested then to be so.
DESCRIPTIVE OF THE FALL.
in one place, that they were the greatest half of all the angelic body or seraphic host.
But Satan with his powers,
Impearls on every leaf and every flow'r.—Ib. lib. v. Be their number as it is, numberless millions and legions of millions, that is no part of my present inquiry; Satan, the leader, guide, and superior, as he was author of the celestial rebellion, is still the great head and master-devil as before; and under his authority they still act, not obeying, but carrying on the same insurrection against God, which they begun in heaven; making war still against heaven, in the person of his image and creature man; and though vanquished by the thunder of the Son of God, and cast down headlong from heaven, they have yet resumed, or rather not lost, either the will or the power of doing mischief.
This fall of the angels, with the war in heaven which preceded it, is finely described by Ovid, in his war of the Titans against Jupiter, casting mountain upon mountain, and hill upon hill (Pelion upon Ossa), in order to scale the adamantine walls, and break open the gates of heaven, till Jupiter struck them with his thunderbolts and overwhelmed them in the abyss. Vide Ovid. Metam. new translation :
Nor were the Gods themselves secure on high,
But now the bolt, enraged the Father took,
They're in their own ungodly ruins slain.—Lib. i. p. ix. Then, again, speaking of Jupiter, resolving in council to destroy mankind by a deluge, and giving the reasons of it so the heavenly host, says thus, speaking of the demigods, alluding to the good men below:
Think that they in safety can remain,
Since, then, so much poetic liberty is taken with the Devil, relating to his most early state, and the time before his fall, give me leave to make an excursion of the like kind, relating to his history immediately after the fall, and till the creation of man; an interval which I think much of the Devil's story is to be seen in, and which Mr. Milton has taken little notice of, at least it does not seem completely filled up; after which I shall return to honest prose again, and pursue the duty of an historian.
Satan, with hideous ruin thus supprest,
In the remotest gulf of dark they land,
Thus Hell began; the fire of conscious rage
This fire outrageous and its heat intense
The malice, viper like, takes vent within,
Hell's but the frenzy of defeated pride,
O state of being! where being's the only grief,
THE NAME OF THE DEVIL, HIS ORIGINAL, AND THE NATURE OF HIS CIRCUMSTANCES SINCE HB HAS BEEN CALLED BY THAT NAME.
THE Scripture is the first writing on earth where we find the Devil called by his own proper distinguishing denomination, Devil, or the Destroyer*; nor indeed is there any other
• The meaning of the word Devil, is destroyer. See Pool, upon Actu güi. 10.