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THE

BRITISH JOURNAL

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Federick Lawrence . mmonplace Man

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LABOUR IN AUSTRALIA.
ia ály acounts are reaching us of the excitement caused
-k venly caused–in Australia by the constantly increasing

nld fields ; each apparently yielding more abundantly
23 E-rhen we are told that the locks, on which her prosperity
se e dying for lack of shepherds to attend them ; and that the
3* * nitting on their golden stalks for want of husbandmen to
ia-it were indeed time, under any circumstances, to bestir
38 24

, if possible, to spare some portion of the overflowing
- z « the mother-country in order that they might assist her

bldren in their hour of need. But when we consider the Distage which would be derived from organised systerns of be benefits which would be reaped by the colonies

, the parent bieber-country, and the individuals carrying their na zew land : the only question which arises to our minds, is eng eeguiry why some more effective measures than those

meration have not been, and are not still being, systernatistrand I cannot be sufficiently regretted that this question le made a party movement, as has

, but too often been the e na gred and general basis it appears to us that the only ques

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1-2 skal, is the question of the poet:

" Is there no beggar at your gate!

Nor any poor in all your lands!
en el bat question can be as satisfactorily answered as the constitu-
stan nature will permit

, the inquiry-shall emigration to our
set to be encouraged ? must be considered as still an open
* said as satisfactorily as the constitution of human nature
kit, because we are painfully aware that there exists that, in
E praciples of which society is constituted, which precludes the
Sand any congregation of men being without its quota of

sa pa, from lack of industry, perseverance, and energy, defy every
terms to raise then from the lowest depths of poverty. Beings in

bara the seeds of self-respect even if sown—seem unable

me and take root.

Mina with this unhappy, and, we earnestly trust, rapidly these whom a sufficient stimulus would excite to help themselves

minunity, that we have now to do. Our present task lies the pho need no such stimulus, who ask but the most modedesin of the helping hand and above all with those whose

maled even yet less manful by their education, unfits them for todas ut their own energies. It is not our intention, even to attempt Tafla gestion in all its world-wide bearings. Bearings, which

de la comprehension of the most clear-headed of statesmen. Still Witwa win to enter on the large questions of political

Vetrust that, ere long, parliament will be called upon to

some portion of the five millions with which Britain

B

BRITISH JOURNAL.

LABOUR IN AUSTRALIA.

When daily accounts are reaching us of the excitement caused --and naturally caused-in Australia by the constantly increasing discoveries of gold fields; each apparently yielding more abundantly than the last--when we are told that the flocks, on which her prosperity depends, are dying for lack of shepherds to attend them; and that the harvests are rotting on their golden stalks for want of husbandmen to gather them-it were indeed time, under any circumstances, to bestir ourselves

, and, if possible, to spare some portion of the overflowing population of the mother country in order that they might assist her colonizing children in their hour of need. But when we consider the treble advantage which would be derived from organised systems of emigration-the benefits which would be reaped by the colonies, the over-wrought mother-country, and the individuals carrying their energies to a new land; the only question which arises to our minds, is a wondering enquiry why some more effective measures than those already in operation have not been, and are not still being, systematically pursued! It cannot be sufficiently regretted that this question should ever be made a party movement, as has, but too often been the case. On a broad and general basis it appears to us that the only question to be asked, is the question of the poet:

“ Is there no beggar at your gate ?

Nor any poor in all your lands? And until that question can be as satisfactorily answered as the constitution of human nature will permit, the inquiry-shall emigration to our colonies cease to be encouraged ? must be considered as still an open

We have said as satisfactorily as the constitution of human nature will permit, because we are painfully aware that there exists that, in the first principles of which society is constituted, which precludes the possibility of any congregation of men being without its quota of spirits

, who, from lack of industry, perseverance, and energy, defy every attempt to raise them from the lowest depths of poverty. Beings in whose natures the seeds of self-respect_even if sown---seem unable to germinate and take root.

But it is not with this unhappy, and, we earnestly trust, rapidly decreasing minority, that we have now to do. Our present task lies with those whom a sufficient stimulus would excite to help themselves -with those who need no such stimulus, who ask but the most moderate extension of the helping hand--and above all with those whose youth, rendered even yet less manful by their education, unfits them for dependence on their own energies. It is not our intention, even to attempt to grasp this question in all its world-wide bearings. Bearings, which may task the comprehension of the most clear-headed of statesmen. Still less is it our intention to enter on the large questions of political economy. We trust that, ere long, parliament will be called upon to examine whether some portion of the five millions with which Britain

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LABOUR IN AUSTRALIA.
z children instinctively demand ; yet knitting is not

apoy for manly energies ; neither is it an occupation
e a develop manly resources

. These boys

, we repeat

, are
9 h a certain age, without one single care bestowed
Riter buscles ; upon the education of their physical strength.
But is to the exertion of that strength that a very large pro-

12x bok for support through life. In carving the partridge
hert

, we practically admit the principle that use descope His secular strength. The first named bird passes most of par de ground, actively running about for the greater portion

ad thus acquires great firmness in the muscular fibre of
s te let spends its time mostly on the wing, which gives a
same to the muscles of its wing, and consequently of its

a terkes of the two parts being intimately united and depen-
na shether.! We seize on the fact, and embody it in the old

arged for the support of paupers-many of them able

whom the very relief is a degradation-might not be ally, and far more satisfactorily applied to the transin of them to a new and budding land. A question

no man more capable of bringing before the House, in bearings, than the Hon. Sidney Herbert, the member for re. For the simple reason that no man is so fitted, effi

out a public measure, as that man who, in a private and acity has forwarded on a smaller scale that which he ald lead the nation to effect on a public and national * man, without exertion, commands attention by his and his slightest argument bears with it a preponderant o such men we commend the subject. But we have yet uggestion to make. Two portions of the world, in which re nearly balanced, are in very different social stages. In nmense demand for labour has caused the migration from her parts of the settled districts of five thousand men, ation of sixty-seven thousand; yet this is but a handful,

New South Wales the flock-masters are suffering, not for , not from failures in their stock, not from those adverse hich all engaged in agricultural pursuits are so eminently But from the actual want of men to execute their work is want, and this want alone, is draining them of their osing their flocks to the ravages of the dingoes and to the uences of neglect and want of superintendence ; and is rops, which a benign and favourable season has brought to fall again, untended, to the earth from whence they r shepherds, untempted by the highest remuneration ve it in their power to offer, leave " wool-gathering," e “diggings." They have imported Chinese labourers, hful, though touchy and easily offended men, are at preore steady at their posts than their former servants, yet in only arrest the progress of affairs, as the pebble arrests It Melbourne, while the crops which must feed the gold ting, the most inexperienced, the most unskilled labour & wages of an ounce of gold-valued in the colony at terling -per week, in addition to food and lodging, and 1 is wholly unresponded to--the craving for labourers is Fuch is the Australian side of the picture. To the the same picture we have already alluded, as a topic investigation of the highest powers; but we must now suggestion of which we spoke. In every Union in the sh of Great Britain has its number-greater or less—of ng boys brought up from early infancy, at the expense Fers, and reared within the four walls of those Union ry many instances, we doubt not these boys are educated e best mode which is possible in the existing state of at is, they are, in very many instances, taught to read, ep accounts, correctly and readily. They are perhaps ucted in their religious and moral duties. Some few re worthy of the boon, are initiated into the mysteries of crafts. The remainder are taught to knit; and far t a young boy should be employed in knitting, than that oft wholly unemployed, to seek'in mischief that occupa

de

* If the partridge had but the wood-cock's thigh,
I would be the best bird that ever did fly;
If the woodcock had but the partridge's breast,
I would be the best bird that ever was drest!"

soulpably neglect -to draw a human inference from
ruzie discoveries, and raise our eyes in wonder at the uni-
a higation of masters to receive into their employ these poor
se beds, who faint beneath the noonday sun, er bend like saplings
a riding lood. Of course we do not here allude to the moral
da aldependence, though even that may be advanced by a
se range of physical training. Again

, there are masters whose
sota la mot demand the unbending firmness of muscular fibre
sa ne peaks ; yet they are met by a want

, a deficiency, in the on tehing of these boys, which makes them at once burdensome Soos taš those around theni

. The cottage children are helpful van cradles—aye, even the most neglected amongst them-sebe daily struggles to meet the daily necessities ; they see—and e a children who do not quickly become adepts in such artsslikarrangements and contrivances by which the daily supplies eredet , are eked ont by good management

, and, greater or less

, be in learning how to make the most of that which has been

der a shilling, they learn almost how to double that shilling;
en yet, they learn, should that shilling fail, what next best

boe, when it is earned, they can effect some thrift by which at the best possible substitute for the shilling of which they are,

erabilge, such expedients, cannot obviate the woes of poverty; e jua lighten its too heavy burdens; and, therefore, the know

bars that poverty has not become absolute, they tend most and sah expedients is a thing ardently to be desired by every lover Para Buch knowledge, however, the children brought up lisans do not, and cannot possess. Their daily food is furnished mult enkelt, regularly measured out in stated and unvarying

. And these things must be so, lest greater evils bebide. Yet na nie notwithstanding; and as such, should be softened where helle, although we have it not in our power to obviate them,

a byla, wa the self-supporting principle are daily estab

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tion which all children instinctively demand ; yet knitting is not
exactly the employ for manly energies ; neither is it an occupation
calculated to develop manly resources. These boys, we repeat, are
trained up to a certain age, without one single care bestowed upon the
training of their muscles; upon the education of their physical strength.
And yet it is to the exertion of that strength that a very large pro-
portion must look for support through life. In carving the partridge
or the woodcock, we practically admit the principle that use develops
and solidifies muscular strength. The first named bird passes most of
its time on the ground, actively running about for the greater portion
of the day, and thus acquires great firinness in the muscular fibre of
the legs; the last spends its time mostly on the wing, which gives a
similar texture to the muscles of its wing, and consequently of its
breast (the muscles of the two parts being intimately united and depen-
dent on each other. We seize on the fact, and embody it in the old
philosophic rhyme;

“ If the partridge had but the wood-cock's thigli,
'T would be the best bird that ever did fly;
If the woodcock had but the partridge's breast,

'T would be the best bird that ever was drest!”
But we neglect-culpably neglect--to draw a human inference from
our gastronomic discoveries, and raise our eyes in wonder at the uni-
versal objection of masters to receive into their employ these poor
untrained lads, who faint beneath the noonday sun, or bend like saplings
under a trifling load. Of course we do not here allude to the moral
strength of self-dependence, though even that may be advanced by a
different course of physical training. Again, there are masters whose
occupations do not demand the unbending firmness of muscular fibre
of which we speak ; yet they are met by a want, a deficiency, in the
everyday teaching of these boys, which makes them at once burdensome
to themselves and those around them. The cottage children are helpful
from their very cradlesmaye, even the most neglected amongst them--
they see the daily struggles to meet the daily necessities; they see-and
there are few children who do not quickly become adepts in such arts-
the many little arrangements and contrivances by which the daily supplies
are husbanded, are eked out by good management, and, greater or less,
skill

. And in learning how to make the most of that which has been
purchased for a shilling, they learn almost how to double that shilling;
and, better yet, they learn, should that shilling fail, what next best
substitute they may turn to, in order, not only to earn sixpence in other
Ways; but how, when it is earned, they can effect some thrift by which
to make it the best possible substitute for the shilling of which they are,

Such knowledge, such expedients, cannot obviate the woes of poverty ; but

, so long as that poverty has not become absolute, they tend most materially to lighten its too heavy burdens; and, therefore, the knowledge of such expedients is a thing ardently to be desired by every lover of his fellow-men. Such knowledge, however, the children brought up in the Unions do not, and cannot possess. Their daily food is furnished forth ready cooked, regularly measured out in stated and unvarying portions. And these things must be so, lest greater evils betide. Yet they are evils notwithstanding ; and as such, should be softened where practicable, although we have it not in our power to obviate them. Industrial schools, on the self-supporting principle are daily estab

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avis a very serious responsibility

. Yet such responsibility ana ew the absolute necessity which would exist for such ze Guardians should be chosen from

among

men whose 3. Set, each in his own district, should be such as may be speed to guarantee his faithful discharge of the daties z malim And for the efficient performance of these duties,

Deverable to the legally constituted authorities either of ve of Great Britain berself. Such men cannot be rashly at they may be met with ; and, perhaps, all other circum. pering

, they were best selected from amongst emigrating and other men possessed of small capital about to invest

in the colony. As such men are the most likely to have 3 wel being of those who are to become members of society sy which is henceforward to be their own abode ; while there Iz beling of rivalry or competition between classes which

at any rate—are not likely to clash in the struggle sa duch a system has, we understand, been tried, on a small Ez of our unions ; but we would make it a regular, and reading. We would have it the rule, and not the excepteret ve believe, that in so doing we should indeed be fur** in the duty of states, as well as of individuals to do the 2 tappiness of the greatest number." That we should be

old amongst the many improvements of the day. ally self-supporting system are becoming yet more loes not appear to us that the obstacles are insurshould prevent the juvenile departments of our prepared for the world, through which they are to i friend than their own energies, on some such prinurse would become more developed as the system more enduringly. Some such scheme might send le world far different beings from the spiritless, too If-distrusting creatures they now appear. And such ove hand in hand with yet another and a nobler them on life. Why may not these boys be sent fficient guardianship to the Australian settlements ? he course of preparation which they should undergo nich would ultimately convert them from paupers rosperous labourers in a new and too thinly popu

be improved and increased. At present, the very per regulations, would land them on Australian rent beings from what they were when they left the grown nursery, and came wondering forth to the half of men, and half of babies, mingling in their subtless, on the arrival of such a party of emigrants, It say

we want immediate labour, we would you en for every hundred boys.” They would most ungive them wages such as those to which we have h even as regards men, is but a temporary and a policy.) But no person could, for a single moment, emplated such a thing. If these boys, for some time eceived no other wages than their food, lodging, and e would yet be a good and a hopeful one for them. assuredly come, when the colonists would say, “these offed have grown up, moulded to our very hands, they hood in the midst of habits and operations which are

from parallel habits and operations in the northern ney are consequently our most valued and ready

While on the other hand these nurslings of the Id look with heartfelt commiseration on such of their een suffered to remain under the old system, and Luiet thankfulness on their own prosperous state of

happy and self-depending homes, on their thriving the sunny future which they could look forward and lers may object to this proposal, upon the plea of the unds for the purpose ; yet, were the expense to be ne, we should feel the objection to be short-sighted. eason why it should be so. We believe that the uld be ultimately lessened by such a measure, and be no sufficient reason why these boys should not be, the expense of their respective parishes, while the nd might devote a portion of its profits to the furne. And thus an outlay, which would be little felt occurrence, would ultimately lighten the poor-rates hile it produced more solid good in another way. of proper and efficient protectors for these boys of

| 3D skep towards rescuing Australia from a ruin which seems to

te ber; that we should be actively benefiting our own land; what we should be laying a reasonable and lasting foundation serity and well-doing, not only of a numerous class of indivi& Bone rongs were inflicted in the helpless years of childhood, a biz descendants

, even to many generations yet unborn.

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is beter to live happy on one guinea than miserable upon ten," Tist

, alias Peter Lindar, when he gave up his practice as a sain Cornwall

, and made London his residence-a sentiment the say

. The old churl with the forelock and hour-glass has dei that could perish of many a noted character since he levelled u svirit, and humorist, as novel

, bold, and original as this say the produced—one who declared it was sweet

* To bear the shrinking great exclaim— That's Peter,
The makes much immortality of metre ;
Who nobls dares indulge the tuneful whim,
And cares no more for kings, than kings for him !'”

ere bis shuttlecocks. The follies and foibles of men in high

aliame. With great opportunities, he penetrated deeply e kanter, observed the weaker points in human nature, and with sa imining to satire, indulged it to the full bent of his inclinambe let it be said he was not a discriminating writer. Time a fired his judgments. A proof of this is found in his decisions sebany the academical artists gone to their account. Those whom

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