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long before his nature had ceased to quiver with the shock of parting; never seemingly for a moment led by grief to take conscious refuge in the love of God and his hopes of an hereafter. And so, with his eyes still clinging to the life he left, on the 22d March 1832 he passed away himself, while drawing with his finger pictures in the air and murmuring a last cry for "more light." During the quarter of a century which has intervened, the influence of his writings in England has become great. He has been held up as the wisest man of modern days, and by some half-worshipped as a demigod. And, in truth, his was a light and spacious mind. Let us grant that he was the wisest man of modern days who ever lacked the wisdom of a child; the deepest who never knew what it was to kneel in the dust with bowed head and broken heart. And he was a demigod, if a demigod be a being at once more and less than ordinary men, having a power which few attain, and owing it, in part, to a deficiency in qualities in which few are so deficient; a being who puts forth a stronger fascination over the earth because expending none of his strength in yearnings towards heaven. In this sense Goethe was a demigod :
"He took the suffering human race;
He read each wound, each weakness clear;
And said, 'Thou ailest here, and here.""
He knew all symptoms of disease, a few alleviations, no remedies. The earth was eloquent to him, but the skies were silent. Next to Luther he was the greatest of the Germans; next-but what a gulf between! "Adequate to himself," was written on that broad calm forehead; and therefore men thronged eagerly about him to learn the incommunicable secret. It was not told, and will not be told. For man it is a weary way to God, but a wearier far to any demigod.
ART. II.-EARLY ENGLISH EXPLORERS.
The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins, Knt., in his Voyage into the South Sea in 1593. Reprinted from the Edition of 1622, and edited by Capt. C. R. Drinkwater Bethune, R.N., C.B. Select Letters of Columbus; with Original Documents relating to the Discovery of the New World. Translated and edited by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum.
The Discoverie of the Empire of Guiana by Sir Walter Raleigh, Knt. Edited, with copious Explanatory Notes, and a Biographical Memoir, by Sir Robert H. Schomburgh, Phil. D., &c.
Sir Francis Drake his Voyage, 1595, by Thomas Maynarde; together with the Spanish Account of Drake's Attack on Puerto Rico. Edited, from the original Ms., by W. D. Cooley, Esq.
Narratives of Early Voyages undertaken for the Discovery of a Passage to Cathaia and India, by the North-west; with Selections from the Records of the Worshipful Fellowship of the of Merchants of London, trading into the East Indies; and from Mss. in the Library of the British Museum. Now first published, by Thomas Rundall, Esq.
The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, expressing the Cosmographie and Comodities of the Country; together with the Manners and Customs of the People, gathered and observed as well by those who first went thither as collected by William Strachey, Gent., the First Secretary of the Colony. Now first edited, from the original Manuscript in the British Museum, by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum.
Divers Voyages touching the Discovery of America and the Isles adjacent. Collected and published by Richard Hakluyt, Prebendary of Bristol, in the year 1582. Edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by John Winter Jones, Esq., of the British Museum. A Collection of Documents on Japan; with a Commentary. By Thomas Rundall, Esq.
The Discovery and Conquest of Florida, by Don Ferdinando de Soto. Translated out of Portuguese by Richard Hakluyt; and edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by W. B. Rye, Esq., of the British Museum.
Notes upon Russia: being a translation from the earliest account of that country, entitled Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii, of
the Baron Sigismund von Herberstein, Ambassador from the Court of Germany to the Grand Prince Vasiley Ivanovich, in the years 1517 and 1526. Translated and edited, with Notes and an Introduction, by R. H. Major, Esq., of the British Museum.
The Geography of Hudson's Bay. Being the Remarks of Captain W. Coats, in many Voyages to that Locality, between the years 1727 and 1751. With an Appendix, containing extracts from the Log of Captain Middleton on his Voyage for the Discovery of the North-west Passage, in H.M.S." Furnace," in 1741-2. Edited by John Barrow, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.
Three Voyages by the North-east, towards Cathay and China, undertaken by the Dutch in the years 1594, 1595, and 1596, with their discovery of Spitzbergen, their Residence of ten months_in Novaya Zemlya, and their safe return in two open boats. By Gerrit de Veer. Edited by Charles T. Beke, Esq., Ph. D., F.S.A. The History of the great and mighty Kingdom of China, and the situation thereof. Compiled by the Padre Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza; and now reprinted from the early translation of R. Parke. Edited by Sir George T. Staunton, Bart. With an Introduction by R. H. Major, Esq. 2 vols.
The World encompassed by Sir Francis Drake: being his nex Voyage to that to Nombre de Dios. Collated with an unpublishea Manuscript of Francis Fletcher, Chaplain to the Expedition. With Appendices illustrative of the Voyage, and Introduction, by W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., M.A.
The History of the two Tartar Conquerors of China, including the two Journeys into Tartary of Father Ferdinand Verbiest; from the French of Père Pierre Joseph d'Orleans. To which is added, Father Pereira's Journey into Tartary; from the Dutch of Nicolaas Witsen. Translated and edited by the Earl of EllesWith an Introduction by R. H. Major, Esq.
A Collection of Documents on Spitzbergen and Greenland. Edited by Adam White, Esq., of the British Museum.
HERE is a list of books the very titles of which are the earnest of a singular feast to those who can appreciate the delight of escaping for awhile from the atmosphere of modern fine writing into a region of simple facts simply narrated. Of all the publishing societies, the Hakluyt has performed and is still performing the most deservedly popular service. This society has had the peculiar good fortune of catering for an interest which is at once general, scientific, and antiquarian. Its publications find an appropriate place on the schoolboy's bookshelf beside Gulliver and Crusoe; in the catalogue of the circulating library
beside the modern novel of the most "startling interest;" and in the study of the historian or the geographer. Any one of the sixteen books we have undertaken to notice would afford "cream" enough for a highly amusing review article. As it is, we find ourselves suffering under an embarras de richesses. Our space will scarcely suffice for a catalogue raisonné of these works and their contents; and we are in some dread of being compelled to write a dry notice by the mere abundance of interest in our materials. One of the greatest charms of the simple narratives of these "old travellers" is a certain spaciousness and leisurely air about their way of saying things. Without the least pretension to literary art, theirs is in reality the grand style" of narrative. Their "important facts" stand simply and strikingly in a pleasant wilderness of naïve platitude and commonplace; and Stonehenge, should it ever be brought to London by rail and set up as the central decoration of Trafalgar Square, would not differ more from Stonehenge in the centre of breezy Sarum Plain than these principal facts, condensed in a review article, must differ from the same in their original context. We cannot, however, pretend even to cull the principal facts from a mass like this, where so much is principal. Warning our readers against the injustice of mistaking single bricks for models, or hasty glances for epitomes, we proceed to speak of the Hakluyt Society's publications in order of their issue, reserving our space chiefly for the later volumes, with which the non-subscribing public have had fewer opportunities of making themselves acquainted by means of the Reviews.
The first work of the series is one of the least interesting. If we except some remarks of Hawkins, on the naming of ships, with a history of the christening of the vessel in which he sailed, we can scarcely recommend the work to those who seek mere amusement. It is a curious fact, that Sir Richard was in the habit of distilling pure water from the sea,-a process which most persons, we believe, imagine to be of quite modern invention. "The water so distilled was wholesome and nourishing," we are told. Wholesome it might have been; but the fact of its having been nourishing must rank in credibility with some others which rest on the same authority,-as, for example, the power of the moon's rays to produce "a furious burning pain, enough to drive one mad;" and the liability of water, under certain circumstances, to spontaneous combustion.
The Select Letters of Columbus are full of interest and value. Before the publication of this volume by the Hakluyt Society, only one of these letters had been translated, and that many years ago in the pages of the Edinburgh Review. No biography of Columbus or history of his discoveries has any thing approach
ing to the interest of these elaborately written accounts addressed by Columbus to his king and queen, or to persons about them. Perhaps the deepest impression left by the perusal of these letters after the first overwhelming indignation at the ingratitude with which his services were requited-is admiration for his single-heartedness and the high motives by which he was actuate: in his work. The conversion of the Indians and the extension of the realms of knowledge seem to have inspired him to the exclusion of all consideration of personal advantages either of fame or wealth; and his own nobility throws into deep contrast the grovelling spirits of those by whom he was surrounded. His companions and employers seem to have seen nothing in his great discoveries beyond the prospect of increased wealth and extended dominion. From scores of passages of equal interest we take the following characteristic trait of this great and noble mind :
"They" (the natives of Hispaniola, or San Domingo,) "exhibit great love towards all others in preference to themselves; they also give objects of great value for trifles, and content themselves with very little or nothing in return. I, however, forbad that these trifles and articles of no value, such as pieces of dishes, plates, and glass keys, and leather straps, should be given to them, although, if they could obtain them, they imagined themselves to be possessed of the most beautiful trinkets in the world. It even happened that a sailor received for a leather strap as much gold as was worth three golden nobles; and for things of mere trifling value offered by our men, especially newly-coined blancas, or any gold coins, the Indians would give whatever the seller required. Thus they bartered, like idiots, cotton and gold for fragments of bows, glasses, bottles, and jars, which I forbad as being unjust; and myself gave them many beautiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing for them in return. I did this in order that I might the more easily conciliate them, that they might be led to become Christians."
The Discovery of the large, rich, and beautiful Empire of Guiana by Sir Walter Raleigh is a work full of amusing matter, and sprinkled plentifully with travellers' wonders. We have accounts of Amazons; of men whose eyes were in their shoulders, whose mouths were in their breasts, and whose hair grew from their backs; of a race who "do use to beat the bones of their lords into powder, and their wives and friends to drinke it all in their several sorts of drinks ;" of poisoned arrows fatal to Europeans, but harmless to natives, &c. The editor of Raleigh's work, Sir Robert H. Schomburgh, has accompanied it with materials of his own, which render the entire volume an excellent and most entertaining biography. Raleigh was a fine writer as well as a fine gentleman and a great adventurer; and this volume