1. 15. death-watches, noises superstitiously supposed to forebode the death of some one in the house, frequently caused by insects within the wainscot of walls; cp. Tennyson, The May Queen, Conclusion, 1. 21, “I did not hear the dog howl, mother, or the death-watch beat, There came a sweeter token when the night and morning meet," said by the dying 'May Queen.'

1. 18. extravagant, going beyond the limits of good sense. cast of mind, disposition, character, of mind: engages, binds, involves.

1. 19. impertinent, used in its literal sense of what is not pertinent, has no real relation to, the matter in question.

11. 19, 20. but in ... life, but in the performance of duties which are unnecessary; these works of supererogation being performed in order to avert imaginary ill consequences.

1. 22. entertain, receive into our minds and dwell upon.

1. 25. observation, notice.

1. 27. retrench, lessen, curtail; literally to cut off, F. retrencher; the word in this figurative sense as applied to evils is

uncommon now.

1. 31. this divining quality, this habit of mind which is always interpreting trifling events to have some important significance; from O. F. divin, a diviner, augur, one who predicts the future by holy methods.

P. 18, 1. 3. thread, a metaphor from the thread of life which the Greeks supposed to be spun by the three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, the first of whom held the distaff, the second spun the web, and the last cut it off.

1. 8. question not, doubt not.

1. 11. solicitous, anxious, eager to pry into it.


1. 26. Westminster Abbey, England's great national temple, originally founded by Sebert, King of the East Saxons, who died in 616; rebuilt by Edward the Confessor, 1049-1065; and again by Henry the Third, 1245-1272.

1. 27. the use ... applied, i.e. as the burial place of great men.

P. 19, 1. 1. cloisters, generally, as here, used for the partially enclosed walk beneath the upper story of monasteries, convents, colleges, etc., but also for any place of religious seclusion, from Lat. claustrum, an enclosure.

1. 18. in holy writ, in the Bible; The Wisdom of Solomon, v. 12, 13, "Or like as when an arrow is shot at a mark, it parteth


the air, which immediately cometh together again, so that a man cannot know where it went through: Even so we in like manner, as soon as we were born, began to draw to an end, and had no sign of virtue to shew; but were consumed in our own wickedness." 11. 21, 22. entertained... grave, found food for reflection in watching the making of a grave.

1. 25. had a place... body, formed part of the substance of which a body was composed.

1. 29. prebendaries, functionaries of a cathedral church, so called from the 'prebend' or portion received for their maintenance, from Lat. præbenda, a payment to a private person from a public source.

11. 34, 5. this great... mortality, this great storehouse of the dead. as it were... lump, so to speak, as a whole.

P. 20, 1. 10. poetical quarter, now generally known as the 'Poets' Corner,' a name first given by Goldsmith to the southern end of the south transept, the burial place of most of the great English poets from Chaucer to the present day.

1. 11. monuments... poets, i.e. which were cenotaphs, the bodies of the poets they commemorated being buried elsewhere.

1. 15. Blenheim, the great victory of Marlborough over the French, in the war against Louis the Fourteenth, A.D. 1704.

1. 22. turn, character, nature. Cp. p. 7, 1. 13.

1. 25. Sir Cloudesly Shovel, 1707, Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet; wrecked off the coast of Sicily when returning from Gibraltar. His body, being washed on shore, was buried, disinterred, and brought to England.

1. 27. character, characteristic.

1. 30. canopy, a covering; from "Gk. Kwvwπelúv, kwywπeîov, an Egyptian bed with mosquito curtains.-Gk. Kwvwπ-, stem of kwvwų, a gnat, mosquito; lit. 'cone-faced,' or an animal with a cone-shaped head, from some fancied resemblance to a cone. —Gk. Kŵvos, a cone; and y, a face, appearance"... (Skeat Ety. Dict.). is answerable to, corresponds with, sc. in its want of fitness.

1. 36. greater taste... politeness, a truer appreciation of ancient art and refinement; antiquity and politeness is little more than a hendiadys for 'ancient politeness.'

P. 21, ll. 4, 5. rostral crowns, decorations such as those of the Rostra, or pulpit in the Forum at Rome, so called because adorned with the (rostra) prows of ships taken from the Antiates, A.U.C. 416; from rostrum, the beak of a bird, the prow of a ship. 11. 7, 8. the repository... kings, that portion of the Abbey in which so many of the English sovereigns are buried.

1. 9. so serious an amusement, so serious a subject for meditation; though now used only of a pleasurable diversion of the mind, amusement originally meant any occupation that caused one to muse, ponder, over something, frequently with the idea of wonder, sorrow, etc.

1. 10. entertainments, occupations of the mind.

1. 26. holy men, divines; from the context, Addison appears to be using the epithet with something of latent sarcasm.

1. 28. competitions, rivalries. debates, altercations, quarrels ; a stronger sense than the word now has. that of oral dispute only.


P. 22, 1. 4. to miscarry, to go wrong, fail; literally to carry amiss, to the wrong point.

1. 6. teems with, is abundantly full of; the verb literally means to produce, to be fruitful, pregnant, prolific.

1. 9. set up for, claim to be, assert their title to being.

1. 17. Bedlam, a contracted form of Bethlehem, a lunatic asylum originally in Moorfields near Bishopsgate, since transferred to the junction of Kennington Road and Lambeth Road; the name is also used typically for mad-houses generally.

1. 19. nicest, most accurate.

1. 20. by so... more, in proportion as.

1. 21. nature, naturalness.

1. 23. discover, show.

1. 26. delirious, frantic, insane; Lat. delirus, one who goes out of the furrow in ploughing, hence crazy, mad; de, from, and lira, a furrow.

P. 23, 1. 1. Shadwell, a contemporary of Dryden's, satirized by him in his poem of The Medal.

11. 2, 3. an empty rake, a foolish, empty-headed, profligate.

1. 7. chimerical, fanciful, extravagant; from Chimera, a fabulous monster with a lion's head, serpent's tail and goat's body, mentioned by Homer, Iliad, vi. 181; from Gk. xíμaɩpa, a she-goat. 1. 8. distempered, diseased; see note on p. 12, 1. 23. 1. 23. habit, dress. Cp. p. 9, 1. 28.

1. 26. a merry-andrew, a buffoon, jester; Andrew being a personal name, "asserted by Hearne ... to have been given to jesters in remembrance of the once famous Andrew Boorde, Doctor of Physic in the reign of Henry viii.; several jest-books were ascribed to him, perhaps wrongly"... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

11. 26, 7. a great.....mother, much of the nature and qualities of his mother.

1. 31. to the end, with the object.

P. 24, 1. 7. if he would pass for, if he might be taken for.

1. 18. pedigrees, tables of descent, lineage; the derivation of the word is much disputed.

11. 29, 30. more in number ... sea, a quotation from Psalms, cxxxix. 18.

1. 32. invidious, hateful, as causing pain to living persons. P. 25, 1. 2. buffooneries, antics; Span. bufón, a jester.

11. 3, 4. all one to him, all the same to him, a matter of indifference to him.

1. 7. unlucky, unfortunate in his choice of subjects.

1. 26. lampooner, one who indulges in personal satire; from "F. lampon originally a drinking song; so called from the exclamation lampons != let us drink, frequently introduced into such songs"... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

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1. 27. annoy, used in a stronger sense than nowadays, = plague, worry.


KINGS. No. 50.

P. 26, 1. 4. rabble, noisy mob; connected with the O. Dutch rabbelen, to chatter.

the pre

1. 24. Church of St. Paul, St. Paul's Cathedral; sent building is by Sir Christopher Wren, the first stone being laid in 1675 and the work being completed in thirty-five years. But five other edifices had at different periods been erected on the same site, all of which were destroyed by fire, three of the fires being caused by lightning.

P. 27, 1. 5. apt to think, disposed to think. 1. 15. their liking, in the way they desired.

1. 30. in black, the black silk gown in which till of late years the sermon was preached; the adoption of this gown was intended by the Reformers as a protest against the white surplice worn in Catholic churches, a form of vestment which has now pretty generally come back into use.

11. 30, 1. mounted... rest, sc. in the pulpit.

P. 28, 1. 1. had enough, knew enough; a common phrase as late as Lamb's time.

11. 4, 5. We could... them, we managed with difficulty to make out from one of them.

1. 7. Whigs, answering as a political party to the Liberals of to-day. The word is said by Burnet to be a contraction of "whiggamor, applied to certain Scotchmen who came from the west in the summer to buy corn at Leith... A march to Edinburgh made by the Marquis of Argyle and 6000 men was called 'the whiggamor's inroad,' and afterwards those who opposed the court came in contempt to be called whigs" ... (Skeat, Ety. Dict.). The derivation of the word is uncertain.

11. 9, 10. apt to knock ... kings, they being advocates of a commonwealth.

1. 12. a Tory, answering to the Conservatives of the present day, and, like whig, first applied in an obnoxious sense. Tories was a name properly belonging to the Irish bogtrotters, who during our Civil War robbed and plundered, professing to be in arms for the royal cause; and from them, about 1680, to those who sought to maintain the extreme prerogatives of the Crown” (Trench, Select Glossary, quoted by Skeat).

1. 13. treat us... .. foreigners, the Tories for a long time having a great aversion to foreign countries and their inhabitants.

11. 24, 5. making up... ourselves, putting things together and thus arriving at a meaning.

1. 26. handicraft, "manual occupation, by way of trade... A corruption of handcraft; the insertion of being due to an imitation of the form of handiwork, in which the i is a real part of the word" (Skeat, Ety. Dict.).

1. 27. raw-boned, big boned, burly.

1. 28. little covered rooms, sedan chairs, from Sedan, a town in France, much in use in England from the latter end of the sixteenth century until the earlier years of the present one.

11. 30, 1. strangle... neck, an allusion to the fashionable ruffs, or collars of the time. with many ligatures, an allusion to the wearing of stays.

1. 35. buy up, we should now say 'buy' alone, unless up is intended to express the eagerness with which they bought. a monstrous... hair, the wigs of Addison's day were very full and fell low down between the shoulders.

P. 29, 1. 6. pitching a bar, a common rural exercise of strength in which the competition was as to who should pitch a heavy iron bar to the greatest distance; similar exercises still in use are putting the weight, and the Scotch tossing the kaber, a young tree torn from the ground.

1. 19. little black spots, the patches worn on the face by ladies of fashion; see the Essay on Party Patches.

1. 21. figures, shapes, forms.

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