AA, PETER VAN DER, an eminent bookseller of Leyden. D. 1730.

AA, CHARLES HENRY VANDER, a Lutheran minister, who was among the founders of the Academy of Sciences. at Harlem, b. at Zwolle, 1718, d. 1795. A family of this name was distinguished in the annals of the United Provinces, for their resistance to the tyranny of Philip II. of Spain.

AAGARD, CHRISTIAN, a Danish poet. B. 1616; d. 1664.-NICHOLAS, a brother of the above, b. 1612, d. 1657, was a philosophical writer.

AALST, EVERARD, a Dutch painter of fruit pieces. B. 1602; d. 1658.-His nephew, WILLIAM, also a painter, was b. 1620, d. 1679.

AAGESEN, SVEND, a Danish historian of the 12th century. Sometimes called Sueno Agonis.

AARON, ST., a Briton, who suffered martyrdom under Diocletian in 303, and was canonized ten centuries later.

AARON, a physician and priest at Alexandria in the 12th century; the first man who described measles and the small-pox, on their first appearance in Egypt.

AARON, OF BARCELONA, a Spanish Jew, who wrote a book called "Precepts of Moses," at Venice, in 1523.

AARON BEN ASSER, a Jew, who is said to have invented the points in Hebrew writing, in the 5th century.

AARSENS, FRANCIS VAN, lord of Someldyck and Spyck, one of the greatest ministers for negotiation that the United Provinces of Holland have at any time possessed. He was the first person ever recognized as Dutch ambassador by the French court: the first of three extraordinary ambassadors


| sent to England in 1620; and the second in 1641, who were to treat about the marriage of Prince William, son of the prince of Orange. Aarsens died at an advanced age; and left behind him very accurate and judicious memoirs of all embassies in which he was employed. B. 1572; d. 1679.

ABACO, AVARISTO FELICE D'ALL, a musical composer and violinist of Verona. There was another of the same name, who flourished about the same time in 1750.

ABAGA, an emperor of the Moguls, who opposed the Crusaders with firmness and warlike skill, and d. in 1284.

ABARIS, a celebrated character of antiquity, said to have possessed vast abilities, and to have been endowed with the power of performing miraculous cures. He was a Scythian by birth.

ABAS, SCHAH, surnamed the Great, 7th king of Persia. D. in 1629.-ABAS, Schah, great grandson of the preceding, was a prince remarkable for mildness and humanity. D. in 1666.

ABASCAL, DON JOSE FERNANDO, viceroy of Peru during several years of the South American war of independence, was born at Oviedo in 1743, and having entered the military service of Spain, served in the numerous campaigns of that country during the latter half of last century in all parts of the globe. Appointed viceroy of Peru in 1804, he governed with a firm but gentle hand till 1816, when he was superseded by General Pezuela; and, on his retirement, he left behind him a character for ability and moderation which is still held in grateful remembrance. D. at Madrid, 1821.

ABASSA, or ABBASSA, sister of the

caliph Haroun al Raschid, who gave her in marriage to his vizier Giafar, on condition that their marriage should never be consummated; but having broken the contract, the caliph put Giafar to death, and banished his wife from palace, giving orders that no one should atford her relief.

ABATE, ANDREA, a Neapolitan artist, who was employed, together with Luca Giordio, in adorning the Escurial for Charles II. of Spain. D. 1732.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a French author of great merit and erudition. He was profoundly learned, and acquired the friendship of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Newton. B. at Uzes in 1679, and d. at Geneva in 1767.

was born, in 1562, at Guildford, in Surrey, where his father was a weaver and clothworker. He raised himself gradually till he became primate of all England; was the author of several thetheological works; and one of the eight divines, who, in 1604, by the order of James I., translated the edition of the Bible now in use. D. at Croydon in 1683.-ROBERT, bishop of Salisbury, the elder brother of the above, was an eminent divine, and famous for his skill in conducting polemical discussions, and vindicating the supremacy of kings. B. 1560; d. 1617. MAURICE, youngest brother of the above, was an eminent London merchant, knighted by Charles I. Maurice's son, George, was the auABBADIE, JAMES, an eminent Prot- thor of a Paraphrase on the Book of Job. estant divine, who accompanied Mar- B. 1600; d. 1648.-HULL, a respectable shal Schomberg to England in 1688, and minister of Charlestown, (Mass.) B. was present when that great commander 1696; d. 1774.-SAMUEL, one of the fell at the battle of the Boyne. He wrote founders of the Andover Theological many works, chiefly theological and in Seminary. B. 1732; d. 1812.-ABDIEL, the French language, the most esteem- a preacher, and author of several pubed of which is entitled "Traité de la lished sermons. B. at Andover, 1770; Vérité de la Religion Chrétienne." B. d. at Staten Island, 1828.-CHARLES, was at Berne in 1658; d. in London, 1727. a celebrated statesman, once speaker of ABBAS, the uncle of Mahomet, of the house of commons, and subsequentwhom, though opposed to him at first, ly raised to the peerage as Lord Colhe became a disciple, and served in his chester. B. at Abingdon, 1757; d. 1829. army as a general. D. 653.-EBN ABBAS-CHARLES, a distinguished lawyer, who, ABDALLAH, Son of the foregoing; chief in 1818, was made lord chief justice of of the "Sahabab," or companions of the King's Bench, and during the prethe Prophet, and author of a "Com-miership of Mr. Canning, was created a mentary on the Koran."-HALI or peer, by the title of Lord Tenterden. MAGUS, & Persian physician of the 10th B. 17 d. 1832. century; author of a pompous book on medicine, called "The Royal Work," which has been translated into Latin.

ABBATI, NICOLO, an Italian painter in fresco; b. at Modena in 1512.

ABBATISSA, PAUL, a poet of Sicily, who flourished about the year 1570, and translated the Iliad and Odyssey into Latin verse.

ABBE, LOUISE, a French poet of the 17th century, surnamed "La Belle Cordonnière."

ABBIATI, FILIPPO, an historical painter, of considerable eminence. B. at Milan in 1640; d. in 1715.

ABBT, THOMAS, a German writer who wrote a clever work, called "Historia Vitæ Magistra," when he was only 13 years of age. He was professor of philosophy at Frankfort, and of mathematics at Ritelin; wrote a treatise on "Merit," and on the "Duty of Dying for one's Country." B. at Ulm, in Suabia, 1788; d. 1766.

ABDALLAH, a camel driver, the father of Mahomet. He was so much esteemed by his tribe, that the stories relate how one hundred girls broke their hearts on the night of his wedding.

ABDAS, a bishop of Persia, who in

ABBON, or ABBO, CERNUUS, a Nor-stigated the thirty years' persecution of man monk of the 9th century, who the Christians, under Theodosius the wrote, in Latin verse, an account of the Younger. siege of Paris by the Normans.

ABBO, FLORIACENSIS, a learned writer of ecclesiastical biographies, who was killed in 1004.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of James I. and Charles I., and one of the most active political characters of that period. He

ABDIAS, author of a legend called "Historia Certaminis Apostilici," published at Basle in 1571.

ABDOLLATIPH, a Persian, who wrote the history of Egypt, published in England in 1800. B. at Bagdad 1161.

ABDOLMAMEN, a potter's son, who became a general and conquered Mo

rocco, and made himself monarch. D.


ABEEL, JOHN NELSON, an eloquent preacher, of New-York, who died in 1812, aged 48.

ABEILLE, GASPAR, a French dramatic writer of extraordinary versatility and wit. B. 1648; d. 1718.-SCIPIO, a brother of the above, wrote a "History of the Bones," and the "Complete Army Surgeon." D. 1697.

ABEL, THOMAS, teacher of grammar and music to Queen Catharine, but having opposed Henry VIII.'s separation from her, he was condemned and executed, under a pretence of denying the king's supremacy, in 1540.-GASPAR, a German historian. B. 1675; d. 1763.— CHARLES FREDERICK, a famous German composer, and player on the vigl di gamba, appointed musician to Queen Charlotte. D. 1787.

ABELA, JOHN FRANCIS, a commander of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, who wrote "Malta Illustrata," which was published in Malta in 1647.

ABELARD, PETER, a native of Palais, in Brittany, made immortal rather by his unfortunate love, than by his immense and varied attainments. He was educated at the University of Paris, and became one of the most learned men of his day. He opened a school of theology and rhetoric, which was so popular that it attracted more than three thousand pupils. But in the midday of his fame he fell in love with a young and beautiful scholar, called Heloise, the niece of the canon of Paris, Fulbert. He was then forty and she but fifteen, yet the attachment grew into a passion which for warmth and intensity has never been surpassed. Abelard forgot his lectures, his studies, and his fame in his abandonment to the raptures of delight. Yet the attachment was an unhappy one for both; Fulbert separated the lovers; when Abelard betook himself to the residence of his aunt in Brittany, whither he was instantly followed by Heloise, and where she gave birth to a son. Abelard would have married her secretly, but she disdained the restraints of wedlock, preferring her free attachment to him to a relation sanctioned and enforced by law. After a while, however, she reluctantly consented to marry him, yet refused to confess the marriage in public. She even denied it under oath. Her uncle was so incensed at this conduct, that he treated her with great severity, to release her from which Abelard carried

her away and placed her in the convent of Argenteuil. Baffled by this manoeuvre, Fulbert was so enraged that he had Abelard ignominiously mutilated, and thereby caused him, through sorrow and shame, to become a monk of St. Denis. When his mortification had somewhat subsided, he began to lecture again, but his enemies charged him with heterodoxy, and had him condemned. He then erected an oratory, called the Paraclete, in the diocese of Troyes, but, being still pursued by bitter persecutions, after a few years of vicissitude and desertion, died at the priory of St. Marcel. Heloise, then abbess of the Paraclete, did not desert him in death, but had his ashes removed to a place where, in a few years later, she was destined to sleep by his side. The remains of both were taken to Père-laChaise, in 1817, by order of the nation. Abelard was a poet, an orator, a philosopher and a mathematician-in short, a man possessing the highest qualities of mind and heart-but, while his works have mostly perished, his name is rescued from oblivion by the story of his passion. The letters which passed between him and Heloise have been made the foundation of many poems and novels. The best of these is the celebrated version of Pope. B. 1079; d.


ABELL, JOHN, a musician who flourished at the court of Charles II.

ABELLI, Louis, bishop of Rhodes, and author of several theological works. B. 1604; d. 1691.

ABERCROMBIE, JOHN, M. D., an eminent Scotch physician and author, was born at Aberdeen, Nov. 11, 1781. Having taken his degree at Edinburgh in 1803, he permanently fixed his residence in the Scotch metropolis, where he soon gained the first rank as a practising and consulting physician. But the writings of Dr. Abercrombie contributed more to his fame than his skill as a physician. His purely professional works are meritorious, but the most permanent monuments to his memory are his "Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers, &c.," published 1830, and the "Philosophy of the Moral Feelings," published 1833. In these works he has brought all the medical facts accumulated in the course of his extensive experience and research to bear on various moral and metaphysical systems. To his wide range of acquirements he added a piety as genuine as it was unassuming, and he will long be remem

bered for his large but unobtrusive be- | liberal and distinguished statesman of nevolence. D. 1844.

ABERCROMBY, THOMAS, a Scotch author, who was physician to James II. D. 1726.-SIR RALPHI, a British general, who served in the American war, in Flanders, Holland, the West Indies, Ireland, and in Egypt, near Alexandria, where he was mortally wounded, after a desperate battle with the French, whom he defeated. He was one of the bravest of Britons, but of great moderation and military skill, and high character. B. at Tillibodie, 1738; d. 1801.JOHN, a horticultural author, who published under the name of Mawe. B. 1724; d. 1806.

ABERLI, JOHN, an eminent landscape painter, of Switzerland. B. at Winterthen, 1723; d. 1786.

ABERNETHY, JOHN, an Irish dissenter and divine, of whose sermons there are two volumes, which are held in considerable esteem. B. at Coleraine, 1680; d. at Dublin, 1740.-JOHN, F.R.S., a surgeon of great repute and extensive practice. He was brought up under Sir Charles Blick, surgeon of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and was acknowledged to possess very considerable talent and originality; though he doubtless owed much of his fame to a blunt eccentricity of manner, of which a thousand various anecdotes are still current. He was the author of "Surgical Observations," "Physiological Essays," &c. B. 1764; d. 1831.

ABGARUS, a king of Edessa, in Mesopotamia, cotemporary with our Saviour, to whom he is said to have written a letter and received an answer to it. Both are supposed to be inventions.

ABGILLUS, surnamed PRESTER JOHN, son of a king of the Frisi. He accompanied Charlemagne to the Holy Land; and after his leader's return to Europe made vast, conquests in Abyssinia, which was long called "Prester John's Dominion." He is reputed to have written an account of Charlemagne's deeds in the East.

ABILDGAARD, PHILIP CHRISTIAN, & Danish physician; one of the ablest naturalists of the 18th century.-NICHOLAS ABRAHAM, brother of the above; a clever historical painter, and author of some equally elegant and useful essays on taste in works of art. B. 1744; d.


ABINGTON, FRANCES, a celebrated comic actress. B. in London, 1781; d. in Dublin, 1815.

ABINGER, LORD, (James Scarlett,) a

England, who, both as a lawyer and a politician, exhibited a high order of ability. He was raised to the bench in 1834 by Sir Robert Peel. B. in Jamaica, 1769; d. 1844.

ABISBAL, HENRY O'DONNELL, Count of, a celebrated Spanish general, born in Andalusia, 1770. Having entered the royal guards at the age of fifteen, he served in the war against the French republic; and on Napoleon's invasion of Spain, the part he took in the relief' of Gerona in 1809, led to his promotion to the command of Catalonia, where he displayed great energy, and reaped much success. Though defeated in the plains of Vich by General Sonham, he a month afterwards forced Augereau to abandon Lower Catalonia; and, at the village of Abisbal, he compelled the surrender of a whole French column under General Schwartz. From this action he took his title. Towards the close of the war, he commanded with brilliant success at the capture of Pancorvo. In 1819 he suppressed a mutiny of the troops in the isle of Leon; but he fell into disgrace on suspicion of treachery, and it was not till 1823, on the invasion of Spain by the French under the Duke d'Angoulême, that he recovered his position and his fame. After the restoration of Ferdinand he retired to France, where he resided, almost entirely forgotten, till his death in 1834.

ABNEY, SIR THOMAS, Lord Mayor of London, in 1700, and one of the founders of the Bank of England. D.


ABRAHAM, NICHOLAS, a learned Jesuit, and professor of theology in the university of Pont-à-Mousson; author of a Commentary on Virgil and some of Cicero's Orations. B. 1589; d. 1656.A. SANCTA CLARA, a native of Suabia, whose real name was Ulrich Megerle. He was an Augustine friar, and extremely affected and eccentric as a preacher. B. 1642; d. 1709.-A teacher of music at Paris, composer of airs for the clarionet, and author of a method for the bassoon. D. 1805.

ABRASDATES, king of Susa, rendered memorable by the affection of his wife.

ABRESCH, FREDERICK LOUIS, a celebrated Dutch critic and Greek scholar. B. at Hamburgh, 1699; d. in Switzerland, 1782.

ABRILOLA, an Arabian poet. B 973; d. 1057.

ABROSI, JOHN, an Italian physician



of the 16th century; author of a Dia- | Younger.-Another was the founder of logue on Astrology.

Sicilian ABRUZZO, BALTHAZAR, & philosopher and civilian. B. in 1601; d. 1665.

ABSTEMIUS, LAURENTIUS, an Italian writer, born at Macerata, in La Marca di Ancona, who devoted himself early He to the study of polite literature. published under the pontificate of Alexander VI. a treatise, entitled "Hecatomythium," from its containing 100 fables, which have been often printed with those of Esop, Phædrus, Gabrius, Avienus, &c.

the Acaciani sect, and d. about 365.

ACADEMUS, the founder of the
Academic grove.
Academic sect at Athens, and of the

ACAMPIXTLI, the first Mexican
king, who ruled forty years, and intro-
duced many good laws.

D. 1420.

ACCA, ŠT., an Anglo-Saxon, bishop at Hexham, who wrote "Sufferings of the Saints," and was a patron of arts and music. D. 740.-LAURENTIA, the nurse of Romulus and Remus, to whom ACCAIOLI-the name of a distinthe Romans decreed a festival. guished Florentine family- DONATUS, was a translator of Plutarch, and a on Aristotle; learned commentator JOHN, was an author and public lecturer; ZENOBIO, a poet and critic, who translated Politian's epigrams, d. 1520; MAGDALENA, wrote "David Persecuted," and other poems, d. 1610; RENATUS, was a general of the 14th century, who conAthens, Corinth, and Boeotia. ACCIO, Zucio, a poet of Verona, in the 15th century.

ABUBEKER, father-in-law and successor of Mahomet. His original name was changed to that of Abubeker, or "Father of the Virgin," on the occasion of his daughter Ayesha becoming the bride of Mahomet. On succeeding his son-in-law he assumed the title of caliph, which signifies both successor and vicar, and which was first borne by him. He won vast territory from the Syrians,quered Per-ians, and Greeks. D. 634.

ABULFARAGIUS, GREGORY, son of Aaron a physician, born in 1226, in the city of Malatia. He wrote in Arabic a history which consists of ten parts, and is an epitome of universal history from the creation of the world to his own time.

ABULFEDA, ISMAEL, prince of Hamah, in Syria, but better known as author of Tables of Geography of the He Regions beyond the River Oxus. began his reign in the 743d year of the Hegira, and ended it three years afterwards, aged 72.

ABULGARI, BAYATM, Khan of the Tartars, and writer of a Tartar history, which has been translated in German and French. B. at Urgens, 1605; d.


ABU, MOSLEM, a governor of Korassan, put to death in 759.

ABU-NOWAS, an Arabian poet. B.
762; d. 810.

ABU-OBIDA, a friend of Mahomet,
who conquered Palestine and Syria, and
died of pestilence in 639.
Arabian poet,
whose works have been translated into
English. D. 845.

ACACIUS, bishop of Berea, an op-
ponent of Chrysostom. D. 436.-There
was another bishop of the same name,
who flourished at Amida, on the Tigris,
in the 5th century, and who is known
for his benevolence, in having sold his
church plate to ransom 7000 Persians
taken prisoners by Theodosius the

ACCIUS, LUCIUS, a Latin poet and dramatist. D. about 180, B. C.-TULLIUS, prince of the Volsci, to whom Coriolanus resorted for aid against Rome.

ACCOLTI, BENEDICT, an Italian lawyer, born at Florence in 1415, and author of many works, among which was a narrative of the wars in Palestine, to which Tasso was indebted in the "Jerusalem Delivered." D. 1466.-BENEDICT, a relation of the preceding, born in 1497, was so perfect a master of the Clement VII. made Latin tongue, that he was called the him a cardinal. D. 1549.-PETER, Son Cicero of the age. of the above, as cardinal of Ancona, composed the Papal bull against Luther. D. 1532.-BERNARD, brother of the last named, a poet of considerable powers; his works were published at Florence, in 1513.-FRANCIS, uncle of the above; a lawyer and scholar of great ability, but than for his talents.-BENEDICT, a man even more remarkable for his parsimony of violent passions, who conspired with fered death in 1564. five others to murder Pius IV. He suf

ACCORSO, MARIANGELO, a native of Aquila, in the 16th century; an eminent critic and scholar. He published remarks on Ausonius and Ovid, entitled "Diatribæ," and an edition of Ammianus Marcellinus.

ACCUM, FREDERICK, an operative chemist of eminence, who wrote several

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