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There are upwards of 32,000,000 of people then in France-distributed between the towns and the country. In the country there are 10,200,000 landed properties paying the land tax, and 5,000,000 at least landed proprietors. In the towns there are 1,118,500 persons exercising trade and paying for a patent.* Add these 5,000,000 of landed proprietors, and these 1,118,500 persons exercising trade by patent together—and you have a total of 6,118,500.

Suppose there to be four persons to the family of each of these proprietors, and tradespeople, or merchants-i. e. patentees_and you have 24,474,000 persons possessing property in land or in trade. To this number again add the persons possessing property on mortgage, or in the funds,t and who do not come under either of the above denominations-and amidst this immense mass of proprietors, shop

* A licence to exercise a trade.

+ In 1824, the total amount of the interest, at five per cent. on the national debt was, 197,014,892 frs. divided as followsHolders of stock. Amount of stock.

Total. 10,000 from

10 to
50 frs.

310,000 frs. 36,000

50
99

2,750,000
76,000
100 1,000

30,600,000 15,000 1,000 4,999

42,500,000 5,000 5,000 9,999

- 27,990,000 10,000 10,000 and upwards - 36,550,000

152,000

140,000,000 frs. Goldsmith's Statistics o France,

keepers, fundholders, &c. behold 400,000 soldiers,* 55,000 placement and 200,000 electors !

Such is the population of France--its total revenue is estimated at about 8 milliards frs.— Agriculture

5 milliards. Commerce and manufactures 3 ditto.

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Of this there is only 696,282,132 frs. (1832) exported, the principal exports being stuffs, and felts, and drinks ; and the principal countries exported to

* 'The standing army in France of 1833 consisted of 406,399 men fit for active service, and 93,509 horses ;-thus divided : staff, 2,586 officers ; gendarmes, 622 officers, 15,277 subalterns and privates, and 12,260 horses; 89 regiments of infantry, 9,864 officers, 263,077 subalterns and privates; 52 regiments of cavalry, of which 24 are heavy--2,885 officers, 51,043 subalterns and privates, and 45,665 horses ; 11 regiments of artillery, 1,190 officers, 32,594 subalterns and privates, 29,689 horses; 3 regiments of engineers, 247 officers, 7,803 subalterns, and privates, and 769 horses. Baggage train, 127 officers, 4,364 subalterns and privates, and 5,126 horses. Veteran corps, 466 officers, 12,841 subalterns and privates.

The naval force of France afloat in 1833 consisted of 289 vessels of various descriptions; namely, 33 ships of the line, 39 frigates, 17 corvettes, 9 advice boats, 54 brigs, 8 bomb-ships 6 gun-brigs, 18 galliots and cutters, 36 flotilla-boats, 17 steamships, 52 sloops, transports, and yachts.

+ I have a curious statement of these places now before me.

# M. C. Dupin. During the empire, France with its various additions and dependencies, was estimated at a revenue of 7,035,600,000 frs., of which 5,031,000,000 was the product of the soil.

being, England, the United States, and Switzerland.*

The imports in the same year amounted to 652,872,341 frs. The principal articles imported being, skins, other animal matter, and farinaceous aliments; the principal countries imported from being, the United States, Sardinia, and Belgium.

The commercial shipping entering and leaving the ports of France, for the year 1832 :

Inward : 83,663 French

5,651 Foreign Outward : 82,134 French

4,634 Foreign

Tonnage. 2,873,520

174,638 2,768,307

161,704

The duties levied were-export duty, 1,421,477 ; import duty, 133,174,809 frs.

The manufacture most natural to France, and for which the French are the most suited, is perhaps the manufacture of silk. We find from the Archives Statistiques of the Department of the Rhône, the average of raw material employed in the silk manufactures of Lyons amounts to 55,000,000 francs, of which 30,000,000 francs are imported, and 25,000,000 francs are home grown. The following

* See Dr. Bowring's reports for a great variety of information respecting the commerce of France, and more especially its commerce with this country. VOL. I.

b

have been the vicissitudes in this manufacture during the space of forty years. In 1786, there were in Lyons and the neighbourhood, 15,000 looms; in 1789, there were 7,000; in 1800, there were 3,500; from 1801 to 1802 there were 10,720; in 1827, there were 30,000.

This manufacture, then, seems to have been reduced by the Revolution more than one-fourth ; and augmented during the Restoration, by two-thirds.*

There has been an exposition this year of the industry of France, the details of which are in every way interesting to those who trace the character of a people even in their manufactures. But this is not the place where I can enter at any length into a consideration of the facts connected with this subject. Neither have I

space
here to add many

of the interesting details relative to French commerce, which are to be found in Dr. Bowring's reports.

The expenses of the country (according to the budget of 1832)+ amounted to about 1,106,618,270 frs.; of which ordinary expenses 962,971,270 extraordinary 143,647,000 ; out of this there are the public debt, amounting to 344,854,303, and the expenses of collecting, &c. 114,759,433.

* In 1831, when the sale in this manufacture decreased onehalf, i.e. from 45,835,257 frs. to 26,981,303 frs., its export sale remained the same.

† 1834–1,058,080,547, frs. I have taken 1832, since I happen to have all the details by me for that year, and there is no very great difference in the amount.

# There are charged upon the debt pensions to the amount

The public departments cost 586,786,672 frs. ; that is,
Minister of justice

18,374,700
of foreign affairs

6,939,700 of public instruction and worship 36,327,883 of home department

3,889,600 of commerce and public works

122,894,589 of war

309,030,400 of mårine

65,172,900 of finances

24,156,900

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586,786,672 The expenses of religion as apart from the minister of public instruction, are 33,507,600 frs., i.e. 65,000 frs. to the Jews, 750,000 frs. to the Protestants, the rest to the Catholics. The Catholic religion alone cost before the revolution of 1789, 135,000,000 frs.; 100,000,000 frs. more than all the religions cost at the present day.*

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of 56,038,500 frs. The Journal Statistique de Paris gives the
following calculation for 1833:
Pensions inclnded in Debt are

Persons.

Francs. To the peerage

1,564,000 To persons for civil services

2,490 1,733,000 To persons for services of July 1,408 632,700 To the clergy

28,186 4,602,469 To persons for military services 127,011 46,683,221

159,223 55,274,790 * The analysis of the French budget, and its comparison with our own, is a subject too interesting for me not to intend to return to it, while I am glad to find this occasion of saying, that some very able articles which appeared in the Spectator, and also a very interesting book, lately published by Mr. Wells, afford much greater facility for doing so than formerly existed.

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