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enjoyment of its green earth, its blue sky, its murmuring lake, and its gently flowing river, Spenser composed the first and finest part of his greatest work, "The Faerie Queen." The first three cantos of the poem having been highly praised by Sir Walter Raleigh, were published in 1590. The Queen approving this fragment of the work, the first three books were quickly given to the world. A pension of fifty pounds, awarded him by the Queen, and the position of Sheriff of Cork, caused the poet to carry back to Ireland a happy heart and a determination to execute with fidelity, the duties of his new and difficult office.
At about the age of forty-one, Spenser was united in marriage to a lovely young lady by the name of Elizabeth; and in honor of this union, he composed one of the most beautiful marriage songs in the English language. The fourth, fifth and sixth books of "The Fairie Queen,' were taken to England for publication in 1596, and then the poet returned home, expecting to live in happiness and quietude with his gentle wife. Spenser had, however, always been disliked by the Irish, and when the insurrection occurred in 1598, himself and wife were compelled to flee. Their infant child perished in the flames, which destroyed their home, and the poet himself survived this sad event but a few months. He died in London, October, 1598, and was buried in Westminster Abbey beside his illustrious predecessor, Chaucer.
"Next Chaucer's bones sleepes Edmund Spenser's dust, in death;
In genius each, in tomb, the other nigh. Here, near great poet Chaucer, poet Spenser lie,
As near in Sepulture as poesy.
While thou wert living, England's muse lived joyauntly;
Dying, while thou art dead, she fears to die."
"The Fairie Queen" was to have been written in twelve books, only six of which were completed. Some biographers say that the other six were written and lost at sea; this, though, is hardly possible, as Spenser had no time to write them. It is not, however, to be regretted that only the first half of the poem was writ
ten, as the vigor and freshness which abound in the first, second and third books, seem to decline in the fourth, fifth, and sixth. Prince Arthur, the hero of the whole, becoming enamored of the Queen of Fairie Land, seeks her realms and reaches them just as she is holding a twelve days' feast. Twelve knights, representing in Allegory twelve moral virtues, in which Prince Arthur is to be perfected, accomplish twelve adventures, one for each day of the festival. The hero of the first and finest book is the Red Cross Knight, or Holiness, who overcomes Heresy and espouses true Religion. The second book relates the exploits of Sir Guyon, or Temperance; the third those of Britomartis, or Chastity; the fourth those of Triamond, or Friendship; the fifth those of Artegall, or Justice; and the sixth those of Sir Calidore, or Courtesy. Spenser's other works are "Mother Hubbard's Tale," "Colin Clouts Come Home Againe," "Astrophel," "Daphnaida,” and a fine prose composition entitled "A View of the State of Ireland." The stanza in which he generally wrote was afterwards called the Spenserian.
He was one of the finest descriptive writers in the language, and though at times his poems grow a little tedious, we cannot but enjoy his beautiful descriptions of nature, which are so exquisitely worded that the scenes he portrays with the pen, become almost visible to the eye. The following lines are selected from his marriage song, called "Epithalamion:"
Wake now, my love awake; for it is time;
The rosy morne long since left Tithon's bed, All ready to her silver coche to clyme;
And Poœbus 'gins to shew his glorious hed. Hark! how the cheerfull birds do chaunt theyr laies,
And carroll of Love's praise.
The thrush replyes; the mavis descant playes;
Ah! my deare love: why doe ye sleepe thus long,
When meeter were that ye should now awake, T'awayt the comming of your joyous mate,
And hearken to the bird's love-learned song,
For they of joy and pleasance to you sing,
My love is now awake out of her dreame,
And her fayre eyes, like stars that dimmed were With darksome cloude, now shew theyr goodly beams
More bright than Hesperus his hed doth rere.
But first come ye fayre houres, which were begot
OF the many petty states that in ancient times were numbered in the Grecian nation, Sparta was the most warlike. The population was divided into three classes: first, the Spartans, who were the descendants of the Dorian conquerors, and the nobles of the kingdom, holding in their own hands the entire political power; second, the free inhabitants of the country towns and villages; these were citizens in a certain sense; they fought in war as heavy armed troops, but were not subjected to the military training required of the Spartans; third, the Helots, or slave population, who cultivated the farms of their Spartan masters, and as a rent, paid one-half of all they produced.
And all, that ever in this world is fayre,
And ye three handmayds of the Cyprian queene,
And as ye use to Venus, to her sing,
The whiles the woods shall answer and your eccho ring." Viva.
There is nothing so successful as suc
Heaven oft in mercy smites, e'en when the blow
and habits, prepared a code of laws. This code, while ostensibly intended for the benefit of the whole nation, was in reality designed to enhance the interests and strengthen the hands of the Spartans, at the time about nine thousand in number, and was adopted only after severe opposition. It tended to unite the Spartans in the strongest ties, and to enable them to preserve their ascendancy as they had won it-by the sword. To do this it subjected them to a discipline which, for sternness and rigor, is without a parallel in the history of any people.
Every child born in Sparta was examined publicly, and if found deformed, was exposed to perish on Mount Taygetus. At the age of seven, the male children were taken from their parents, and placed in charge of officers appointed by the state. Each child was trained in all kinds of gymnastic exercises, and in all the maneuvres required of Spartan troops in the field. He was also required to
The Helots were at first few in number, but after the Messenian wars they became the most numerous class in the state. From this time the Spartans feared them, and employed every means in their power to debase and weaken them. Among other things, they were required to wear a peculiar kind of dress engage in hunting, and to endure hardby which they found. were known wherever The growing weakness of the crown alarmed the Spartans. About the year 850 B. C., Lycurgus, a member of the royal family, though not in the direct line of descent, who had spent many years traveling in foreign lands, observing their manner of government, customs
ship and privation without repining. His courage was still further tested by a severe scourging received at the altar of
Artemis, where many a youth died under
the lash, without a murmur. He was re
quired to wear the same clothing winter
and summer. His meals, which consisted of the scantiest fare, were taken at
the public table, and he slept with his
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Upon arriving at the age of manhood, the Spartan had but a slight release from his severe discipline. He still ate at the public messes and siept in the public barracks. He was required to marry at the age of thirty, and was punished if he failed to do so; and though married, he enjoyed no private life, since this was a privilege enjoyed by those only who were sixty years of age and upwards, when they were freed from their obligations of service to the state. Before that time their occupation consisted of military duties or hunting.
Girls also were required to engage in gymnastic exercises, that they might become healthy and robust, and give to Sparta vigorous sons. They married when twenty years old, and though de
| prived almost entirely of their husband's society, they enjoyed greater freedom and respect than in any other of the Grecian states. Cowardice was by them held in the greatest contempt, while gallant conduct met their warmest praise. "Return with your shield or upon it," was their exhortation to their sons when going to battle.
BLUNDERS are blessings in disguise. Of course, there are times when blunders may be attended with disastrous results; still, while it requires an unusually philosophical and repentant frame of mind to take this favorable view of our errors, nevertheless, it may be set down as a truism, that blunders are blessings in disguise. And for this reason: No amount of theoretical reasoning, and no amount of reflection on the experience of others has yet had the effect of making persons pursue any other than the course that suits them best. It is not to be presumed that everyone is not sometimes right, nor that everyone is
This trait in their characters is forcibly illustrated in the life of Pausanius, a great Spartan general, who in the war with the Persians, favored the enemy; his guilt being discovered, he fled into the temple of Minerva to escape popular vengeance, where his indignant mother, unable to tolerate his act of treason, brought the first stone to wall up the entrance, and the populace completed the work; he being unable to escape, starved to death in the temple.
It is a remarkable fact that, notwithstanding the life of rigor and hardship which the Spartans led, they were exceedingly polite and courteous; parents were held in the greatest esteem, and old age was universally venerated. In this respect, as well as in many others, the Spartan youths were models for us, notwithstanding their fierce life as compared with ours.
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not sometimes wrong. One will always find it a matter of difficulty to make another see that he is wrong, however conspicuous that wrong may be, unless his interests are so manifestly effected that he is compelled to see his error. It is not right that man should always be wrong, yet his proneness in that direction is so proverbial that, were it not for the kindly intervention of natural circumstances, brought about so mysteriously that it is difficult to trace their source, one might almost despair of the world ever getting right. And thus it is, that when a man has just gone far enough in the wrong direction, he trips, and then learns that he has made a big, bouncing
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blunder. He feels sore; his figurative | bones fairly ache with the force of his fall; but he learns to pursue a different If he be but half as wise as he should be, his blunder will prove of incomparable value to him-hence the blessings. Moreover blunders give evidence of character. The most successful men, in nine cases out of ten, are those who have been guilty of the most and the greatest blunders. To the shrewd and successful man, every blunder is fraught with a deep and lasting lesson, a lesson from which he gleans wisdom, wisdom which has been applied, an application from which he has reaped immediate, and will reap future benefits. It has been of benefit because it has taught him to avoid committing a like blunder again. Blunders give evidence of character, for the reason that a man of character never succumbs to them. To such a man, every blunder is an additional round in the ladder by which he ascends to wealth and position; while the person who does not profit by his mistakes, who cannot rise above them, falls to rise no more of his own power, and in the eternal fitness of things, is lost. In the different effects blunders have upon different individuals, is found the evidence of character. The most permanent and influential reputations have been acquired by the exhibitor of tact in turning his blunders to profit, and thus turned, they give a character and credit to men and to institutions such as can be secured in no other way.
period, was to be transformed into a college of the general order. Dr. Park had been called, and without a moment's intimation, was told to assume control, and instructed by the Chancellor and Board of Regents to re-organize the institution on the college plan. He was given two weeks in which to mature a plan, perfect all the arrangements, and commence operations on the new basis. The change was effected; but it was precipitate. It did not allow sufficient time for the consideration of many questions that would otherwise have arisen. The change had become necessary, and while, in order to accommodate the existing requirements, it must have been thorough and complete, the one adopted was too radical. The catalogue of the University, for the academic year of 1870-71, advertised the institution to give three courses--a classical, a scientific and a normal. The classical was sub-divided into freshman, sophomore, junior and senior years, the studies being of a character similar to those to be found in the colleges generally of that period. The scientific course required three years study. In the normal course the studies were the same as those taught in the scientific, excepting that a series of lectures were given in addition to the studies, which related to the theory and practice of teaching. Outlines of the several lectures were published in the catalogue, and these embrace so much matter, are so thorough, and so comprehensive, that it is a debatable question if a more exhaustive basis for a series of lectures on the sub
The University of Deseret has not been without its experience in making mistakes, ject stated, could be laid down now, and in the posssssion of a reputation for after eleven years of rapid progress. rising above and profitting by its blunThe school was at once preparatory and ders, is the institution already reaping final, as well as a normal college. In addithe rewards, which are the portion of those fortunate enough to enjoy such a reputation. It is not a creature of circumstance; it has a character which it has acquired as the result of years of
tion to the departments mentioned above, was another called the "Model School." The catalogue says, "The original design of the Model School was to afford the means of exhibiting the best methods of
study and intelligent progress, and it wields an influence in proportion to the high character it has attained.
teaching, discipline and classification, in connection with the normal department
of the University, illustrating practically the principles taught, and giving an op
portunity to normal students for obser
The University, after having been conducted as a commercial college for a
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vation." This continued to be a pri- | istry; J. L. Rawlins, assistant professor
of mathematics; Geo. Careless, professor of vocal and instrumental music; Dan Weggeland, instructor in drawing; Miss Ida I. Cook, instructor in academic department; M. H. Hardy, principal of intermediate department and instructor in phonography; Miss Mary E. Cook, principal of primary department; Miss Seraph C. Young, Miss Dora Wilcken, and Mrs. Mildred E. Randall, assistants in primary department.
mary object as long as the Model School had an existence as such. It was also held in the light of, and so employed, as a preparatory school, and consisted of three departments: "A primary, an intermediate, and an academic, which, if followed closely through successive grades, offer an opportunity for the most economical, judicious and profitable expenditure of time and application in study." Still extracting from the circular: "Enough time and effort, it is believed, are usually spent by those attending our schools, in desultory and consequently almost profitless study, that, if wisely disposed and directed, would enable them to reach a respectable degree of education. It is recommended, therefore, that all who enter the school, pursue regularly and fully the course here laid down, which, though it may not be completed by them, will still result in their greatest improvement." Thus we have a primary, an intermediate, an academic, a classical, a scientific and a normal department; in other words, the whole range of school and college education was practically embraced in the University of Deseret at that date, though the three lower grades were really conducted as adjuncts. This much time has been devoted to the University, as it existed in 1870-71, because of the magnitude of the undertaktaking an undertaking which would hardly be attempted anywhere in this day with any reasonable hope of permanent success, and which would naturally be a failure in 1870-71.
The circular regarding this mammoth institution, was not a mere advertisement; every effort was made to secure the success of the enterprise. The array of professors was equal to that of many colleges even at this day. The faculty and board of instruction embraced the following well known persons: John R. Park, M.D., president and professor of natural history; Orson Pratt, Sen., A.M., professor of mathematics, astronomy and moral science; Karl G. Maeser, professor of ancient languages and German; F. D. Benedict, M.D., professor of chem
The college began operations under the most auspicious circumstances. It had an array of talent in its professors equal to any institution that could possibly have been required for years; it was supported by an almost enthusiastic public; it supplied a want that existed and was keenly felt at that time, and supplied a great deal more; it had a remarkable scholarship, the attendance in the several departments aggregating five hundred and eighty pupils; and still, with all these encouraging features, it could not survive in that condition. Of all the mistakes of the University, this was the greatest and its history in this regard, aptly illustrates the fact that all premature enterprises, however worthy, and be their prospects ever so bright, are certain to fail of the object intended. It is not unfrequently the case that, instead of being beneficial in their results, such premature enterprises bring in the wake of their failure a train of ills, from which it is oftentimes impossible to recover.
While the basis on which the University was organized and put in operation in 1869, was premature for that day, and the conditions as they then existed, as it would be even now, nevertheless it was not attended with fatal results. It was controlled by Dr. J. R. Park until September, 1871, when that gentleman was sent to Europe, remaining abroad almost one year. During his absence the college continued in operation until the close of the academic year, in June, 1872, It had been ascertained by Dr. Park, soon after the commencement on the college basis, that the plan was impracticable, and therefore the work of training the school to the actual requirements