the case of the Royal Literary Institution great and, to some extent, successful efforts have been made to meet this difficulty. We have ventured, it may be, upon dangerous ground, and if so, we have only to plead, what has so often been pleaded in vain, a good motive. We confess we should like to see this fine and valuable institution placed upon a broader and more popular basis, if it were possible ; and yet, at the same time, we are not unacquainted with the practical difficulties which embarrass any effort in that direction.

In addition to the general library, the Rev. Leonard Blomefield has presented his own private collection of works on Natural History and Science. Mr. Blomefield, being profoundly versed in scientific subjects, bestowed no little care in collecting the works which constitute this collection for his own use, and the gift of it, together with his herbarium of British plants, whilst exhibiting the donor's liberality, constitutes a most valuable addition to the literary treasures of the institution. The collection, consisting of 1,800 volumes, occupies a separate upper room, and is known as the “Jenyns Library”—Jenyns having been the donor's original name.

In 1881, valuable books were presented by Mr. J. W. Morris and Mr. J. S. Bartrum, and in the same year. Mr. Mackillop gave an interesting series of Autographs. The late Mr. Gore, on many occasions, and also in 1882, contributed many valuable books. In 1883, some valuable books were given by Judge Falconer, who died the same year, when his brother, Mr. Alexander Pytts Falconer, added others from the same collection. In 1884, also, books were given by various donors. In 1886, the reprint of Sowerby's Botany was given

. by Mr. Cossham, and various works by other gentlemen. The late Mr. C. E. Broome, in 1887, bequeathed a collection of botanical works, together with Hoare's Antient Wilts, to the library.

The reading room, which contains the bulk of the general library, is large, airy, and well constructed. The tables are covered with magazines and the current periodical literature and newspapers of the day. The large room on the south, originally intended and used as a lecture room, is now devoted to the exhibition of Mr. Charles Moore's geological collection. This collection has been recently augmented by further specimens, presented by Mr. Handel Cossham, M.P., who at the same time provided the galleries for their reception. At the death of Mr. Moore, in 1882, it was deemed expedient that this collection should be purchased, and in 1883 it became the property of the institution, the purchase money having been derived from public subscriptions. In the geological department, moreover, the institution and the public owe no small thanks to the Rev. H. H. Winwood. A portion of the frescoes which were formerly at Fonthill adorn the ceiling. The Roman antiquities found an appropriate home in the vestibules and lobbies of the institution. Formerly this important collection was in various places, and was under the care of the corporation. In 1827, these, and on different occasions since, similar treasures have been deposited in the Museum. These remains were first described by Pownall, then by Warner, then more fully and completely by the Rev. Prebendary Scarth, in 1864.' The active and well-directed exertions of Mr. F. Shum have been of great service to the institution.

The memories of J. Stuart and Philip Duncan will ever be revered in Bath as generous philanthropists and citizens. Both were active and liberal in promoting the interests of this institution. The widow and daughter of the former, moreover, presented to the institution a beautiful collection of the local fauna, which has been arranged with scientific care by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns. In the galleries of the building

"The antiquites discovered in the later excavations, 1871, remain to be described in a manner worthy of their importance. It may be hoped that Prebendary Scarth may see his way to the compilation of a work worthy to rank with that referred to above.

? Mrs. Fraser, widow of Bishop Fraser of Manchester,


is also placed the ornithological collection of the late Col. John Race Godfrey, presented to the institution by his widow, in 1856. The late Miss Lockey, moreover, bequeathed a very choice and valuable collection of British insects, medals, minerals, together with valuable models, foreign weapons, and implements, well and scientifically arranged.

The late able and intelligent librarian, Mr. C. P. Russell, made a valuable and unique collection of local maps, systematically and chronologically arranged. This collection having been purchased of Mr. Russell by public subscription, is deposited at the institution for public inspection. Mr. Russell died in 1886, and his loss is much felt. In addition to his duties as librarian, which he had discharged for thirty-six years, he superintended with diligent care the meteorological observations and other scientific formula. IIis knowledge of local literature and bibliography was only exceeded by that of the late Mr. C. Godwin.

There are two associations connected with the Royal Literary Institution, although they are not integral parts of its organization--the Literary and Philosophical Association, whose meetings during the session are held in the readingroom, when valuable and interesting papers are read and discussed ; and the Bath Naturalist and Antiquarian Field Club, whose proceedings, in their published form, are a most valuable addition to our local literature.

BRIDGES. Cleveland Bridge. —This bridge is of cast iron, of very elegant design. Mr. H. E. Goodridge was the architect. The bridge formed a direct communication between two most important parishes, heretofore only accessible by a circuitous route or a troublesome ferry passage. The immense mound of stone raised to bring the Bathwick side to a level with that of Walcot was completed at the expense of the Duke of

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Cleveland. In digging the foundations of this bridge, a very large collection of Roman coins, chiefly copper, of the age of Constantine, was found near the north-east buttress on the Walcot side of the bridge.

The North Parade Bridge was designed by W. Tierney Clark, of London, in 1835. It is of cast iron, springing from stone piers, supporting also two handsome lodges. The arch is 183 ft. span. This bridge connects Bathwick with the North Parade.

Suspension Bridges. — The Widcombe foot-bridge, on the south side of the Great Western Railway. It is of iron and has a span of 96 ft. There are also the Victoria, the Albion, the Midland, and the Grosvenor bridges.

CEMETERIES. Lansdown Cemetery.—The tower was erected in 1831, by the late Mr. Beckford, from designs by Mr. H. E. Goodridge, the builder being John Vaughan, of Bath. It was intended as a place of retirement, where Mr. Beckford might go daily from his residence, in Lansdown Crescent, and enjoy his books and works of art, and the splendid air and view from the top. The structure is in the Greco-Italian style, and was always admired by Mr. Beckford for its simplicity and grace. There were many designs made before the present one was decided

The upper part is octagonal, having angular futed columns, and is of wood. The cornice and roof are taken from the choragic monument of Lysicrates, at Athens, and is very chaste. This was not in the design first decided on, which was altered afterwards. That design finished with a hippo-Italian roof over the belvedere. The building was carried up to the first cornice of the tower in 28 working days. Mr. Beckford


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