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of the tower. The receding portions of the elevation are bounded on either side by projecting wings, making the entire frontage 210 ft. This, as well as the Royal College, just described, was built by Mr. J. Wilson, F.S.A.
THE BATTLE OF LANSDOWN AND MONUMENT.
The latter erected near the fourth milestone, close to the spot on which Sir Bevil Granville fell.
The trophy consists of two quadranguler pedestals set on each other, without any proportion or harmony betwixt them ; they are surmounted by an Attic base, a cap of dignity, bearing the figure of a griffon passant whose breast is supported by a shield, which finishes the top of the monument. The arms of England resting on the joint arms of the Duke of Albemarle and the Earl of Bath, Sir Bevil's son, with military ornaments under them, adorn the right side of the body of the pedestal, and were intended to allude to the restoration of King Charles II. The left side has a bas-relief, alluding to the actions of Lord Lansdown in Hungary, consisting of military trophies ; the Granville arms, borne on a Roman eagle, with inscriptions, and the date September 12, 1683, occupy the centre.
On the north tablet are the following lines :-
But took new force from his inspiring hand;
William Cartwright, 1643. “Thus slain thy valiant ancestor' did lie,
When his one bark a navy did defy,
Martin Llewellen, 1643.
July 5, 1643,
This column was dedicated By the Right Hon. Geo. Granville, Ld. Lansdown, 1720.
DULCE EST PRO PATRIA MORI."
The following is on the south tablet :“In this battle, on the king's part, were more officers and
The hero of Kingsley's “Westward Ho !"
gentlemen of quality slain than private men ; but that which would have clouded any victory, and made the loss of others less spoken of, was the death of Sir Bevil Granvile : he was indeed an excellent person, whose activity, interest, and reputation, was the foundation of what had been done in Cornwall, and his temper and affection so public, that no accident which happened could make any impression in him ; and his example kept others from taking anything ill, or at least seeming to do so: in a word, a brighter courage, and a gentler disposition was never married together, to make the most cheerful and innocent conversation." -Clarendon.1
On the west side are trophies of war; on the east, the king's arms and those of Granville.
We have given the description of Granville's monument exactly as it is, and as it was erected by Lord Lansdown, the grandson of the hero himself. It would be interesting to know a little more of the battle. We know that a great battle there was, and we know that Waller led his army from his fortified quarters in Bath, but no one has yet told us in what part of the small city, within the walls, those quarters were or could be. We know that the only part of the walls which was capable of even a short resistance was that which encompassed the city on the west, on the strength of which Charles I. had spent £7,000, just before the city had been taken by stratagem, or betrayed by the commandant to the Parliament. Be this as it may, we think it is certain that whilst Waller made Bath his head quarters, the main body of his army occupied an entrenched
"We feel little doubt that-having read nearly every account of the battle-Clarendon's is the most authentic. From that account Waller possessed himself of the north-west part of Lansdown-i.e., the hill which "looked towards Marsfield ” (Marshfield), at daybreak, and that implies that he must have encamped on the down either the day or some time before the morning of the battle. The account is not only eloquent, but it is clear that the writer must either have seen the site of the battle, or been guided in his description by an accurate plan of the country.
camp outside the Westgate. Again we have never, with even approximate certainty, been informed by what line of march Waller reached Lansdown, and retreated to Bath. It was physically impossible that an army of any kind could have marched by the Northgate up the rugged face of what we now know, and traverse daily, as Lansdown Road. It seems probable that Waller marched his troops by two lines, which would, for strategic purposes, have converged on or near the present racecourse ; the more important line of the two would have been by the Via Julia to the village of Weston and thence by the road emerging close to the inn on the Down; the other, the old bridle road which is entered at the end of the village, which by a slightly circuitous route leads to the south side of the Down.' The former of these two lines is that by which Queen Elizabeth most probably, and Queen Anne on both her visits certainly, reached Bath." Roads, as such, there were none in 1643, but there were well-beaten tracks which, in the month of July, could be traversed with comparative ease by troops little encumbered with any kind of heavy vehicles and very little artillery. We have met with very few persons, however intelligent, who were not impressed with the belief that Waller ascended and descended Lansdown by the present road.
Again, we do not believe that the “peculiar appearances on the north-west brow of Lansdown,” near the spot where Granville fell, were works thrown up by Waller. They do not indicate a military purpose. Waller, no doubt, availed himself of the irregularities of the ground for offensive and defensive purposes, which would, as the Rev. J. Wright, in “ An Enquiry concerning the Fortified Hills near Bath,” says, explain Lord Hertford's taunting message to Waller, that he hoped they
1 See note on page 237. 2 In a picturesque little hollow near the gate opening into the down is the traditional well of St. Elphage, the water of which is singularly pure, and flows into an ancient stone coffin.
"might fight no more in holes, but in the campane.” Steep as the north-west brow of Lansdown no doubt was, by which the royal troops ascended, the severity of it was nothing in comparison with the south-east declivity, nor even with the Weston approaches which we have described.
THE BATH AND WEST OF ENGLAND SOCIETY
SOUTHERN COUNTIES' ASSOCIATION. This Society, which claims to be the oldest existing Agricultural Society in England, was established in the city of Bath in 1777,"for the encouragement of Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, and the Fine Arts,” and the founders of the Society were among the first to promote a systematic co-operation between the tillers of the soil and the cultivators of science, art, and literature, whilst they also recognised the intimate connection between Agriculture, Manufactures, and Commerce.
The actual originator of the Association was Mr. Edmund Rack, a native of Norfolk, who, having taken up his residence in Bath, was struck by the agricultural deficiencies of the West in comparison with the East of England. His scheme was influentially supported, and the committees appointed in connection with it included, among other distinguished men, the celebrated Dr. Priestly, Dr. Hunter, Dr. Falconer, and Curtis, the Botanist. The Society thus instituted entered at once upon a career of usefulness which was very generally recognised. Its publications were contributed to by many eminent authorities, and the cosmopolitan character of its operations is evinced by the varied nature of the services it promoted in the distribution of its honours, the gold medallion,