any matter, however small it were, would be in contravention of the promises that he had given to them, and a procedure which was not practised by Christian sovereigns. And, he continued, with regard to the currency of Xeque Ismael's money in Goa, he was greatly astonished at their entertaining the idea of such a thing, for kings were accustomed to value very highly their royal prerogatives, which consisted in their people and their subjects living in obedience to their laws, and in their coinage being received and current throughout their kingdoms at such value as the kings fixed upon it, and that a king would not on any consideration bring himself to permit any one to mint money in his land.

The ambassador answered that he had come to Goa with an embassy addressed to the Çabaio, and the instructions which he brought ordered him to speak upon these points; but, as he found the Çabaio dead, and his lordship Afonso Dalboquerque in possession of the kingdom of Goa, he had not exceeded his instructions in repeating to him the message of the Xeque his lord, for he was his ambassador; but if he had herein done anything wrong, he begged him of his graciousness to forgive him, for the first duty of ambassadors was to adhere faithfully to their instructions, and his duty in this case was to do what was most to the service of his King. And when this interview was concluded, the ambassador begged he would despatch his affairs, for he was desirous of setting out on his return journey.

Afonso Dalboquerque told him not to be annoyed, for he desired to make ready a messenger to be sent in company with him to the Xeque Ismael, and as soon as the ambassador had betaken himself to his house again, Afonso Dalboquerque sent word for the ambassador from the King of Ormuz, and enquired of him the reason of his coming, and what message it was that he brought for the Çabaio. The ambassador told him that Cogeatar had sent him, and the

principal reason of his coming was to make an offer of the whole of the estate of the King of Ormuz to the Çabaio, begging of him assistance and co-operation against the Portuguese; and, relating to him how things had gone lately with Ormuz, he told him not to be surprised or annoyed at the conduct of Cogeatar, because the captains had been the cause of all the dissensions that had sprung up between them.

When this interview was over that Afonso Dalboquerque held with the ambassadors, he busied himself with despatching without delay Ruy Gomez, the servant of King D. Manuel (he had been sent in banishment from the Kingdom of Portugal to India in the Marshal's fleet)—in order to send him to Xeque Ismael in company with the Xeque's ambassador, and through him he sent a letter to the Xeque, and another to the King of Ormuz, which are given here in full further on, and he also delivered him instructions as to what he should say to the Xeque Ismael on his part. And this Ruy Gomez was accompanied by an interpreter and a servant. As soon as Afonso Dalboquerque had arranged all the matters for the journey, he sent for the ambassador of Xeque Ismael, and shewed him much respect in the king's name, and then took his leave of them and gave them their pass, and the two embarked in two ships, whereof the captain and factor was Cogeamir, a noble Moor of Cananor, whom he found in Goa, and whom the Rumes had enslaved on the occasion of his coming in one of his ships from Ormuz with a cargo of horses and saying that he held a permit to navigate the Indian Sea from the King of Portugal and not from the Grand Sultan. And by this man Afonso Dalboquerque wrote a letter to Cogeatar, wherein he told him that if he would return to the obedience of the King of Portugal his Lord, and pay him the tribute which had been agreed upon, past troubles should be forgotten; and he begged him earnestly that this ambassador from Xeque Ismael

should not be charged any duty upon his merchandize, and that he would provide Ruy Gomez, whom he sent in the position of an ambassador, with relays of horses, and with money and everything else that he or his should have need of; and that he desired that the merchandise which Cogeamir carried with him-belonging to the King his Lord, should be exchanged for horses; and that the ships which should sail from Ormuz to Goa should carry with them his signature to their papers, and all come to Goa and no other port, for unless they came there he would not hold them free.


"Very great and powerful Lord among the Moors, Xeque Ismael: Afonso Dalboquerque, Captain-General and Governor of India, in behalf of the very high and very powerful King D. Manuel, King of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and on that side of the sea, in Africa Lord of Guinea, and of the conquest, navigation, and commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, and of the Kingdom and Lordship of Ormuz, and of the Kingdom and Lordship of Goa: I give you to know that when I captured the city and kingdom of Goa, I found therein your ambassador, to whom I shewed great honour, treating him as ambassador of so great a King and Lord, and I looked to all his affairs just as if he had been sent to these parts to the King of Portugal. And whereas I am informed that the King D. Manuel, my Lord, would be pleased to have an understanding and alliance and intercourse with you; therefore I send to you this present messenger to whom you are to give credit in respect of all things which he shall relate to you on my behalf, for he is a knight and servant of the King my Lord, a man well-versed

in military matters, bred up in arms according to our custom, and of all the affairs of the kingdom of Portugal he will be competent to give you a very good account.

"You are well-informed how it was that I gained the city and kingdom of Ormuz in accordance with the command of the King, my Lord, and how from that time forward I strove to gain information concerning your estate, power, and command, and desired to send messengers to you, if the business of Ormuz had not miscarried, which I hope to God will soon be re-established, for I am in expectation of going thither in person, and thence I will endeavour to have an interview with you on the coast of the sea and harbours of your kingdom; for the powers which I carry from the King my Lord, of ships and mariners, are for destroying and casting out the ships of the Sultan that may enter India and desire therein to establish themselves—which deed, with the help of God, we have brought to pass, for the Sultan's captain, Mirocem, and his fleet were routed at Diu,1 and all his ships and artillery taken, and all his people killed, and

Concerning this important event in the history of the Portuguese in India, spoken of in the early chapters of this Second Part of the Commentaries, Camões contains the following passage:

"Qual o touro cioso, que se ensaia

Para a crua peleja, os cornos tenta

No tronco d'hum carvalho, ou alta faia,
E o ar ferindo, as forças exprimenta :
Tal, antes que no seio de Cambaia
Entre Francisco irado, na opulenta
Cidade de Dabul a espada afia,
Abaixando-lhe a tumida ousadia.

“E logo, entrando fera na enseada
De Dio, illustre em cercos e batalhas
Fará espalhar a fraca e grande armada
De Calecut, que remos tem por malhas:
A de Melique Yaz acautelada,
Co'os pelouros que tu, Vulcano, espalhas,
Fará ir ver o frio e fundo assento,
Secreto leito do humido elemento.

now I have put them to flight and gained the city of Goa and all its fleet and cast all the enemy out of it, as your ambassador will relate to you.

"And whereas I have been informed that he is your enemy and makes war upon you, I send you this news, offering to you for employment against him my person and fleet, and the men of the King my Lord, to help to destroy him, and I will be against him whensoever you shall require this of me. And if you desire to destroy the Sultan by land, you can reckon upon great assistance from the Armada of the King my Lord by sea, and I believe that with small trouble you must gain the lordship of the city of Cairo, and all his kingdom and dependencies, and thus the King my Lord can give you great help by sea against the Turk, and thus his fleets by sea and you with your great forces and cavalry by land can combine to inflict troublous injuries upon them.

"And in India he has great fleets wherewith he can help you. And thus you will gather that you ought to desire to obtain alliance and co-operation with so great a king as is the King my Lord by sea and by land, and you ought to send him your ambassadors, for he will be very glad to see any one who is competent to give an account of your kingdoms and your dependencies. And if God grant that this intercourse and alliance be ratified, come you with all your power against the city of Cairo and the lands of the Grand Sultan which are on the borders of your own, and the King my Lord shall pass over to Jerusalem and gain from him all

"Mas a de Mir-Hocem, que, abalroando,

A furia esperará dos vingadores,

Verá braços, e pernas ir nadando,
Sem corpos, pelo mar, de seus senhores:
Raios de fogo irão representando
No cego ardor os bravos domadores:
Quanto alli sentirão olhos, e ouvidos,
He fumo, ferro, flammas, e alaridos."

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