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"Soda water and a strait waistcoat!"
Yes, sir."

"Sky high ?"

"I said high,"

to advance four thousand pounds and to risk your
life about eight-and-forty times about overy four-you
and-twenty hours!"

"My dear doctor!"

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My dear young friend!"

"Do you mean to say that's all you want?"
"There's no security for the money!"
"Don't mention it! I hate such dull, prosaic
things as securities!"

sovan, and heir to a barony, with eight thousand
year at present, and a prospective twenty thou-
Land, call himself old! What a perversion of "No, no!" exclaimed the doctor-"no! Allow
me to explain! Ha, ha! you are the very man!
"Not at all, doctor-not at all!" said the Honour-What I want you to do, my dear young friend, is
able Philip Munson, as he removed his legs
from the sofa whereon had reclined his elegant
length for the last half-hour. "Not at all, doutor
-not at all! It's the pace that kills, and old and
young are but relative terms! Now, you are what
the world calls an eminent naturalist,' and you
know there are insects who are born at daybreak,
and about ten or cleven o'clock are in fresh and
lusty youth; by one or two they are sober citizens
of the insect world, and as the sun sets, they
droop into old age, becoming lean and slippered
pantaloons sans everything. And then they die.
Their life has been a summer's day. Well, doctor,
I am only one of those insects of a larger growth,
and my summer days have been more in number."
"But, my honourable young friend--"
"Don't-don't! You must see that I've run
my race, turned the corner, scattered downhill,
and in the mists and shadows of the valley at the
foot am finished and used up!"

Dr. Bowles rubbed his hands together and laughed.

"Oh, you are glad, are you?"


"Thank you!"

"And the risk to your life may be ever so much greater than I have stated."

"What of that ?"

"Charming and delightful young man!-hope
of philosophy and dream of sages! I contemplate
you with all the satisfaction that I should feel on
the discovery of some new species of reptile!"
"Oh, thank you--thank you! You overload
me with obligations, Bowles !"
"Don't mention it!"

"Yes, sir!"

"Oh, frivolity-frivolity!

[NOVEMBER 1, 1869.

"And so did I. Therefore, in a word—” What do you keep saying in a word for, when mean in a balloon ?" Now that we are on the eve of, perhaps, the most wonderful scientific results, he plays upon words and affects not to comprehend, when"

"Oh! there, there-that will do, doctor, When do you want to go?"

Next Thursday."
"Yes, sir!"

"My tablets.

Ah! Let me see-ThursdayThursday! Tuesday: Breakfast at four with the Coldstreams; Lady Tabby Cutler's rout in the evening-dine at Rag. Wednesday: Horticultural fête-sha'n't go; flowers do smell so! Row to Putney. Dinner at the marchioness's. Billiard match with Waghorn. Thursday-ThursdayThursday. What time did you say, doctor?" "At twilight-half-past seven." "Very good! Thursday: Up in a balloon, with down again, for that's sure to happen."

"Is there a lunatic asylum in the neighbour- Bowles. I needn't make an entry about coming hood ?"

"Not that I knows on, sir."

"Inquire; and tell them to send a cab and a

"My very worthy young friend, I congratulate couple of keepers." "Yes, sir."


"You do, do you?" "Sincerely!"

"That's satisfactory. You congratulate a fellow because he has nothing to live for-because he has seen everything and finds everything a swindle -because he is sick of all the shams of the world, and finds there's nothing in them. What on earth are you sniggering at now, doctor?"

"Because, my elegant and admirable young friend, am more than pleased to hear you speak in that way."

"Oh! you are?" "I am indeed. It was precisely because I thought you were the wretch you are, that I invited myself here this evening to your chambers in the Albany."


"Yes; I should have been wofully disappointed if I had found you in anything like a reasonable frame of mind."


The doctor laughed and wiped his spectacles.
"You are getting animated, my dear Munson,
and yet you are only on the threshold of what I
have to communicate to you. Now listen to the
actual communication itself."
"All right!"

"You must know, then --"

"I suppose you have no objection to me lying down ?"

"None at all."
"Nor smoking?"
"No, no!"

"Drive on, then!"

"I have invented and eliminated from the scientific consciousness of my inward man, a balloon !"

"You don't say so! I thought they were
always made of old silk dresses of the last year's
fashion, then filled with tobacco smoke, and up
they went!"

Can you be so ignorant ?"
"Oh, yes-worse than that!"
"My young friend, don't jest! In a word, I
invented a balloon!"

"Certainly. If I had discovered on this visit that you were anything but a frivolous, used-up nincompoop, I should have gone away disap-have pointed and aggrieved." "Thank you!"

"Yes, my elegant young friend, that is just the fact. But now that I find you useless to yourself and an encumbrance to society, I shall carry out my intention."

The Honourable Philip Munson sat up and looked at the doctor.

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"A balloon in a word? What do you mean, doctor?"

"I mean that, after scientific investigations on the subject of aerostation, I have conquered the difficulties and constructed a balloon that would carry us over the wide world with no more danger than that I have intimated to you."

"What a nice safe affair it must be !"

"I have nearly completed my experiments, and have been successful, with the exception of one little point."

"What's that?"

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"The deuce you did! Were you not all over limo and mortar, and that sort of thing ?"

"I don't mean that I built them myself, but I had them built, and they have to be paid for." "That's more absurd than building them!" "But they enclosed my experiments: they enclosed my balloon: they enclose it still the silken globe; the ropes with their covering of slender twisted steel: the car of wicker and of various convolutions of high elasticity and strength; the apparatus for inflation--"

"Oh, ah !"

"And I'm drowned-

"In debt, in difficulty, in danger; and I know not how to escape. can fill my balloon-buoyant it rises, but not above my walls. The car seems as though it would bound from the earth. I am "We can go up-up-up-we can go laterally, like a bird upon the wing, but yet held down by diagonally, parabolically, the leaden weight of debt; and that is why, my young friend, I ask you for four thousand pounds." "Ridiculous!"

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"No, no: these are stern facts. I have no peace by day, nor rest by night. What shall I do?" "I'll tell you." "What?-what ?"

"Get into the car, cut the connection with this old planet, and away you go; while the debts, you know, remain behind."

"I never-thought-of-that!"

No, you philosophers have every sense but -en-common sense. Now, a fellow like me would have thought of that the first thing."

"Oh! it isn't half that trouble! All you've got
to do is to cut the what's-its-name-the painter,
or pendulum, or string that hangs you to the
balloon, and down you come-

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The doctor held up his hands in horror,
"He knows nothing-he has studied nothing.
The man who would descend from a balloon in so
unscientific a mode should only have belonged to
& pre-scientific age."
"Come, come, doctor-none of your fun.”
"Fun ?"
I always suspected that you were the
principal contributor to the comic periodicals of
the day for about once in six weeks there is a
joke in some of them."

"I am not joking-I never joke-I don't know
what a joke is, unless it be some perversion of
air!-language, the perpetrator of which ought to be
prosecuted. But, in a word, my young friend,
will you go?"

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"Yes, yes, with a liberal hand."

"Bosh! We'll give them a bill, then, for double
the amount, and take out half the difference in
cigars, French purses, and Seltzer water.
the way to carry on the war, doctor. Dick!"
"Yes, sir!"

"Something to eat, and more ice!"
"Yes, sir."

The doctor rubbed his hands together slowly, like some old fly in autumn.

"The car holds four; and, in case of accident, would it not be well if we could get two assistants ?"

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"But, sir, I-I am- "


"Bless my soul!" said the doctor.

The Honourable Philip laid down his cigar.

"Yes, sir!"

"Stop-stop!" shouted the doctor. "Stop, my
young friend, Von Smidge, or whatever your
name may be, have you any friends ?"
"None. When has the unfortunate friends ?"
"Any wife-family ?"

Van Smudge shook his head.

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Any hopes-expectations ?"

"Then will you go up in a balloon?"
Van Smudge retreated two steps and tumbled
over Dick.

There is a mist upon the river.

A soft spring rain is falling.


It is yet early in the year, although the London scason has, according to dates, actually commenced. and some of the more energetic of the world of fashion have begun the round of frivolity and folly incidental to the period.

There is a villa residence embowered in stately trees, and well known for the past century by the name of "The Nest."

This is the residence of Dr. Bowles, and its solo inmates consisted of himself and an aged housekeeper-any extraneous assistance that might be required being hired for the occasion from the neighbouring village.

The doctor had not exaggerated when he talked of his four walls, for there they were, enclosing a space among the trees in one of the wildest parts of the grounds of The Nest.

"Will you go up in a balloon?" repeated the doctor. Up-up with a rush and a whirl into the regions of space? Up among the glorious galaxy of stars? Up into the silver moonbeams undimmed and unrobbed of their glories by earth's vapours? Up into the pure ether to breathe which is a luxury for gods. My dear Van Smudge, will The actual structure had been constructed according to the doctor's directions at a manufacturVan Smudge looked amazed, and the Honour-ing town in the Midland Counties, and brought able Philip Munson lay on his back and kicked with easy secrecy and privacy to The Nest.

Within that space was the balloon.

There it lay, half supine and entirely free from any observation, except some one else had possessed similar means of overstepping the high. walls that enclosed it.

The Honourable Philip Munson shook his head you go up in a balloon?" slightly.

"Don't know him."

Dick retired, but only to return in a few with delight. seconds.

Please, sir, he says he's a hartist."

"Speak!" added the doctor-"speak! Oh, Von Smear, will you traverse the Libyan Desert? Will "Give him my compliments, and tell him I am you peep down from the ramparts of the clouds very sorry, but can't help it." upon the silver course of the dreamy Nile and the "Yes, sir." dense forests of Central Africa ? Will you float in safety and in majesty in an Aladdin's palace of

Dick returned.

"Please, sir, he says as he's brought Miss which you will be the enchanter over those gorFedora Fredolini's picture, sir."

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"Who's Fedora Fredolini ?"

"Young lady, sir, as plays Prince Prettypan at Royalty, sir: short skirts, sir, and

"Young man," said the doctor, "that will suffice; we do not require your description of anything further."

"There wasn't anything further, sir."

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My glorious friend and patron, Julio Romano of the Arts' Medici the Magnificent, I bring you the slight expression, full-length and in colour, of the sylphic form you condescended to admire !" "Oh, that's you, Smudge, is it?"

"I have the honour to be Smudge, Sir Philip, at your service. Behold!"

Van Smudge was attired in a blouse rather the worse for wear, a broad-brimmed felt hat, and a beard.

Under his arm he had carried the portrait of Fedora Fredolini, which he now posed against a chair, and then flung himself into an attitude of rapture as he gazed at it.

Van Smudge knew that imitation went a long way, and he thought that if he initiated the applause he expected and wished for, it might probably come.

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geous oriental cities where the old caliphs held
their lustrous sway? Will you-

"Oh, sir," said Van Smudge, "a biscuit or two
and a pint of porter would just now be-be-
Van Smudge sank into a chair.
"Wretch that I am!" exclaimed the doctor.
"Here-here! Eat, my friend-eat! But answer
me: say will you make a fourth in our sky voy-
ages? Say-oh, say!"

"A fourth?" said Van Smudge, with his mouth
full of grouse pie.

"Yes: we three that you see here: I, this
honourable gentleman, and this boy."

Boy indeed!" said Dick, as he drew himself
up to his full height-four feet eight.
"Up," said Van Smudge, "in a-a balloon ?"
"Yes, in search of adventure- of scientific
analysis-of boundless wealth!"

Van Smudge tried to embrace the doctor.
"Don't-don't! We accept your allegiance,
worthy Smear. Half-past seven on Thursday
evening, remember."

"At Cremorne, sir ?"

When in a state of non-inflation, the balloon, although of considerable size, was not of extraordinary bulk, and the doctor's neighbours, although they were well aware that some mysterious operations were going on within the space enclosed by the four walls, had no idea what it really was.

The doctor himself was his own mechanician as regarded the steering apparatus on which he so much prided himself.

The means of inflation of his balloon he sought of course from the ordinary supply of gas attached to the villa; and although the gaseous authorities action came, at the sudden extraordinary supply might be very much surprised when the time of of gas at Thames Ditton, the doctor might be easily off on his sky voyage before they could take any action in the matter.

Everything, therefore, was in readiness, and by seven o'clock on the eventful evening of Thursday, the balloon was in a partial state of inflation.

There it lay-a huge misshapen mass, seeming to breathe as it reposed on the grass, while a gradual stream of gas poured buoyant power into its silky convolutions.

The doctor was in a state of ecstatic enjoyment. He heeded not the soft summer rain that fell upon his bare head.

The sullen, misty condition of the evening affected him not.

What difficulty would there be in piercing a stratum of a mile or so of low-lying clouds, and "Horror! Cremorne? Certainly not. Do you emerging into the pure blue sky above? know Thames Ditton ?"

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"As the dial to the sun, sir. I suppose I may
bring some sketching apparatus ?"
"What you please; we can throw it over at
any time. And now, Sir Philip, allow me to re-
mark before I take
my leave-
"Master's gone to sleep, sir," said Dick. "He
went right off, sir, when you was a lookin' down
from them clouds on to some of them outlandish
places that you was a speakin' of."

"Then I will not disturb him. Good night,
Dick; and good night, Mr. Van Smudge. Remem-
ber-oh, remember!"

"Had I three ears, I'd hear thee," said Van Smudge.

Dr. Bowles sallied out into Piccadilly, and thence up Regent Street, gesticulating as he went, and full of enthusiasm.

How successful had he been!

In one short hour he had procured the three recruits he wanted for his aerial voyage, and by the happy suggestion of the Honourable Philip Munson he had lifted from his mind the load of care contingent upon his indebtedness.

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Yes," he cried-"yes, all will go well. My newly-invented steering apparatus will carry us wherever we please, and the balloon itself is a tower of strength. We shall live a life of new sensations, and the elevation of our imaginations will emulate the elevation of our bodies. The petty cares of this life will be literally as well as mentally beneath us. The geographical questions which have vexed the world will be solved, and we shall be the wonder and the admiration of ages!"

"Move on!" said a policeman. "We can't have this hero disturbance at half-arter ono o'clock in the mornin!"


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This dream of aerial navigation had possessed him for years.

For it he had dissipated his means, neglected his patients, and estranged his friends.

And now the time had come when he was to carry into operation the pursuit and the vision of a life.

He was calm and collected.

The usually excited manner which characterised him had passed away, and there was a subdued earnestness about his tone quite unknown to him.

"Yes," he murmured, "I am right-I know I am right; and if I am wrong I am right, however paradoxical that may appear, because it is always right to try to do that which will advance the knowledge and happiness of mankind."

The doctor glanced round at his book-shelves, and sighed.

"It may be that I shall perish and never look upon these old familiar companions again."

An ancient clock chimed the quarter-past seven. "Time-time !" he said. "I must tell Martha what to do in my absence."

The doctor beat on the floor with the heel of his boot.

That was his usual mode of summoning his old domestic.

"The old woman will miss me," he said, "and perhaps I shall miss her; for if she were not very blind, and deaf, and obstinate, she would be a capital servant.'

"What now?" bawled Martha, as she put her It is Thursday evening, and the two clocks of old wrinkled face in at the door, and spoke very Thames Ditton are striking seven.

loud, as most deaf people do.

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"I said away!"

"Well, you needn't bawl-I'm not so deaf as that. What's in the wind now ?"

"Ah!" said the doctor, as he glanced out at the casement into the night air, "I wish I knew what was in the wind; but we shall find out in the course of an hour. Come here, Martha."

"Oh, I'm not afeared!" said the old woman. "Come here, I say. Take this money." Martha clutched at the few gold coins which the doctor handed her.

"Listen, Martha. If I don't come back in a year and a day, you may sell all the goods in The Nest, and go your way."

"The first of May ?" said old Martha. "No; a year and a day."

"A yard of clay? What do you mean by a yard of clay, doctor ?"

"Heaven grant me patience with this old woman! Martha-Martha-I will tell you a secret." "Get along, do! I'm not a foolish young creature to be talked over by the men!" "I am going up in a bal-loooon! you will drive me mad before I go!" "That's no news," said Martha: "mad people are always worse with the moon."

And I think

A sharp ring at the doctor's gate-bell announced a visitor.

Martha was forgotten, for surely this was one of his companions of the perilous aerial voyage.

It was Van Smudge, accompanied by a small cart drawn by a donkey, and containing all the litter of an artist's studio of the attic description, from the centre of which protruded an easel of gigantic dimensions.

Van Smudge was guiding the donkey with a maulstick.

"Here we are, doctor," he said.

"I see you are," said Dr. Bowles. "But I only want one of you, and which that is to be I leave to yourself."

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My dear sir!"

"Don't dear sir me! If you imagine for a moment that we are going to take a cart-load of goods into the car of a balloon, you are much mistaken." "Hurrah!-hurrah!" shouted several boys, who had followed the donkey-cart. "Hurrah!-hurrah! It's a balloon!-bal-ball-balloon!"

The doctor's secret was discovered! And all through Van Smudge! "Wretch !" exclaimed Bowles. "You may yet be the ruin of the hopefullest project the world ever had; for if the gas collector hears of it, who knows but he may interfere at a critical moment, when in consequence of the specific gravity of the balloon and its appendages not being overcome by

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There was a rush of wheels.

A dog-cart stopped at Dr. Bowles's gate. The Honourable Philip Munson alighted, and so did Dick.

"Welcome! "thrice welcome!" "Ah! All right! Here, Dick!" "Yes, sir!" "Take the cart to the Blue Lion, or the Sir Somebody's Head, and tell them to keep it and the horse at livery till wo come back."

welcome!" shouted the doctor

"Yes, sir."

"And get back as quickly as you can, Dick," cried the doctor, "or we shall be off without you." Well, doctor, how are you? Oh, you're here, Smudge, are you?"

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"Yes," cried the doctor, "and that's his luggage.

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He can't take that," laughed Philip. Certainly not."

"Start it, then."

The Honourable Philip Munson, if the darkness had not shrouded his acts, might have been seen to take a diamond scarf-pin from his breast, with which he certainly goaded that unfortunate donkey, who on the instant flung out his hind legs, dealing the cart a tremendous kick, and then starting off at a gallop, singing something down the road which was not from Bellini nor Mozart. "My goods-my goods!" shouted Van Smudge. "Never mind!" cried the doctor, as he dragged him into The Nest. "You shall repay yourself from the palace of the Emperor of China, at Pekin, where all that is not gold is rubies."

There was a confused murmur in the village, above which arose the cry of "Balloon!-bal


"What's the row?" said the Honourable Philip Munson.

"We are lost!" cried the doctor. "How do you mean ?"

"There is not enough gas: they do not turn * full on to the mains until half-past seven." "It's that now."

"This tap, then, may yet save us."

The doctor turned a tap to its full extent which carried the gas to the balloon.

"Open!-open! Pull the gates down-climb over! Stop him!-stop him! Balloon!-balloon!" Poor Dr. Bowles turned white with anxiety. His enemies were upon him. His creditors

Perhaps the inexorable gas collector.

He rushed rather than ran to the enclosure where was the balloon.

He raised a cry of exultation.

There it was, fully inflated, rising majestically above the top of the walls, an immense pearshaped dome, glistening and mysterious in the faint night light.

The dream of a life was accomplished. What was there now to do but to step into the car and at one bound seek safety, security, and delight in endless space?

The fever of the doctor's mind was terrific. His pulses beat in unison with the wild excitement of his brain.

The blood boiled and bubbled through every artery of his system.

There was a terrible dread

A dread that at the last moment he might be defeated.

If once a mob were collected, and if once that mob made its way into The Nest, and thence to the sanctuary of those four walls, the spirit of destruction would certainly be awakened, and all the doctor's labours destroyed

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"Cut the painter!" said Philip.

The doctor flourished a knife.

There was a grating sound.

The balloon and the car made a terrible lurch to one side.

Something yet detained it.

"Good heavens!" cried the doctor, "what is it ?-what is it?"

"There's a pipe or something or another!" said Philip, quietly puffing at his cigar. The doctor uttered a yell.

"It's the gas-pipe-the gas-pipe! I forgot it!" "Ya, ya! Whoop, whoop!"

The mob burst into the enclosure.

All is lost! No! The doctor cast away the gas-pipe. Another lurch of the balloon. Another and yet another.

Then gently swaying from side to side, while it slowly moved round in a circle on its own axis, the balloon began to ascend.

The doctor did everything now by yells and screams.

"Where's Dick ?"

"Ah!" said Philip Munson, as he tapped the ashes of his cigar on to the head of Van Smudge, "it seems to me we shall leave him behind.”

"Steady!" gasped the doctor-" steady!" The balloon reached the top of the walls, the car slightly touched the topmost portion of the brickwork, and then grated over it.

The mob raised a yell of disappointment. With a slow and stately motion like a thing of life, and still gently describing that circle on its own axis, the balloon rose.

It cleared the wallsIt cleared the trees.

It seemed inclined to come in rather close com

The balloon that stood there upon credit-a credit that could never be again achieved. "No," he shouted-"no! They shall not foil me, or if they do they shall take my life! Onon, brave friends! Philip Munson, hastenhasten! Now, Smear, add wings to your feet!" "Ah!" said the Honourable Philip Munson, "Ipanionship with the topmost chimneys of The have always found that it's never any good to be Nest, but it cleared them in an easy coquettish in a hurry; things generally wait for you if you sort of way, and drifted over the High Street of will but let them, and haste and hurry derange Thames Ditton. your cravat and inevitably spoil your gloves." "Oh, my sketches!" moaned Van Smudge"my portfolio-my easel-my donkey!"

"Be at ease," said Philip Munson; "it seems we are going to take one up in the car with us." The gate of The Nest was broken in, there was a rush of the infuriated mob of Thames Ditton: not that they had any object, not in the least-not that they knew what they were infuriated about, by no means; but there was a riot, and something to destroy-something to shout about, and to awaken the savage element which lies hidden in the breast of all mobs.



THE enclosure which held the balloon was safely reached.

Martha was doing battle with the intruders into The Nest. She listened to no explanations; and if she had and could have heard, they would not have been forthcoming; but armed with a formidable broom-handle, she performed prodigies of valour.

It was something to hear the dull, heavy sound which the broom-handle produced upon the heads of the foremost of the crowd.

And how precious were the passing moments! "Now-now!" shouted the doctor. "We

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Another moment, and the doctor was standing "There is an alarm-those wretched boys have upon the back of Van Smudge, holding on to a spread my secret far and wide." complication of ropes which connected the car with the balloon.

"Then let's be off."

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"He ought; he's bound to do everything." The doctor quickly uncoiled a rope-a fuzzy, strange-looking rope, bound round and knotted with clumps of worsted and cotton, with knots here and there of various sorts and sizes.

It was a struggle between the rope and the balloon and Dick.

For an instant the doctor gave it up, for the rope trailed a foot or two above the head of the Honourable Philip Munson's tiger.

But Dick made a leap and caught it, and his weight was sufficient not only to arrest the progress of the aerial machine, but to bring it slowly down towards the ground again.

Dick found the task of climbing the knotted rope an easy one, for he was an adept in gymnas. tics, and had often performed feats of far greater difficulty.

Scrambling into the car, then, Dick touched his hat to his master in the most commonplace way imaginable.

Allow me to remark," said Van Smudge, "that you are all standing on my back."

"Get up," said the doctor-"get up! Oh, this is glorious! Oh, this is wonderful! It is doneit is done! We are no longer denizens of the earth! Already my lungs expand to the freedom of space! We are off and away: companions of the stars, fellow-travellers with the comets!"

"Ah!" said Philip; "but it seems we are going slow!"

"That's soon remedied," said the doctor. "You see these little canvas bags? There are twenty-five of them, and each is filled with wet sand; and now you will observe, my dear young friend, the effect of throwing one or two over. Lend a hand, Dick; since you are here, my lad, you may as well be useful."

The doctor flung over one of the little sacks of sand; they looked very like money-bags of the Bank of England.

"Yes, sir," said Dick; and, by way of being too useful, he canted three or four more over the edge of the car before the doctor seized him by the throat and stopped him.

The effect upon the balloon was instanta


Up it shot like an arrow from a bow, whirling round as it went at an awful rate; the rush of air, as the huge machine passed through it, presented all the sounds and effects of a storm, and the occupants of the car were for the space of two or three minutes gasping for breath.


HAVE you ever had the curiosity to put your head under the black cloth which hangs over the Camera of the Photographer, and see what it is that he looks at when he stands adjusting the instrument? If you have not, you had better ask permission to do so the next time you go with a friend to have a picture taken. You will see in the instrument the image of your companion standing on his head.

One can easily make a simple experiment which illustrates this inversion of the image. With a fine needle pierce a hole in a card,and then hold the card between a lamp or candle and a screen. The image of the light will be seen reversed upon the screen. In order to make the image distinct to the eye the room must have no other light than the one used, and the hole in the card must be very small.

When the light of the sun falls upon objects in nature it is reflected from them, with modifications resulting from the character of the surface of the objects; and the reflected rays are, in most cases, thrown in every direction in which they can proceed in straight lines. If at one side of the object so illuminated a screen be interposed so as to cut off the rays proceeding in some one general direction, and a small hole be made in the screen, it will result that rays passing through this hole will reproduce an image of the objects from which they are reflected upon whatever surface may be presented at a convenient distance beyond the screen to receive them.

This image, however, will be inverted, the upper part of the external object appearing at the bottom of the image, the lower part at the top, the right-hand side at the left, and the lefthand side at the right. The cause of this is, that the rays passing through the aperture from the upper part of the objects in question, since they must descend in a straight line, will cast their light upon the lower part of the surface where the image is formed, while those reflected from the lower part of the illuminated objects, passing upward through the aperture, will be thrown upon the upper part of the surface.

This experiment may be tried by holding some screen opposite a keyhole in a dark room, if there are brightly illumined objects in view outside the door. If, instead of a keyhole, which is of irregular form, a round aperture b3 made, and a lens of suitable form be inserted in it, in order to give distinctness to the image, and the room be made very dark, so as

to render the image visible to the eye, the forms, colours, and motions of external objects will be reproduced with a magical effect. This is the Camera Obscura-that is, the "Dark Chamber."

In order to bring the image into its proper position for the eye, it should be received upon a mirror set at an angle of forty-five degrees, so




as to restore the image to the upright position, and cast it upon a table with a white surface below. The eye is such a "dark chamber" as we have described. The pupil is an aperture in a cur



tain or screen, which is called the ms. On either side of this screen-that is, in front of the iris and behind it-are the lenses, which serve to give distinctness to the image; and the back of the chamber, the whole interior of which is coloured black, receives an inverted image of external objects. The illustration on this page shows the essential features of the eye. Thus it is that the eye receives the image of all the world upside down! How it is that the nervous organisation, in reflecting

this image into the mind, reinverts it to the upright position again, has been the subject of much controversy.

But there is another more curious question arising out of the peculiar structure of the organs of sight.

We have two eyes, and each produces its own separate image of any external object. Why is it, then, that we do not see two images instead of one ?

It is easily proved that there are two separate images. Look at any small and bright object in front of you, and then, by pressing the finger upon the outer end of one eyebrow, draw the upper lid gently to one side, so that it will press upon the eyeball of one eye, and thus move it slightly from its natural position. The effect of this slight change in the relative position of the lenses of the two eyes is that we become conscious that they furnish to us two separate images. The images then become, so to speak, separated to our consciousness, and we see that there are two. When the pressure is removed, and the eyeball returns to its natural place, the two images merge in one again.

These two images, although they seem wh 'told to unite, are not exactly alike. Woaching, and with one eye is always a little mail-coach was what we see with the other are in a different position.

the same size, and present the same general objects, but one gives a little more of the right side, and the other a little more of the left side of each.

For the sake of those who wish to look further into this subject, and to see how far the "dark chamber" of the eye within the space of an inch exceeds all that man can do, we give the following:

The globe of the ball, which is about one inch in diameter, is composed of three coatsthe sclerotic, choroid, and retina. The sclerotic is formed of dense white fibrous tissues, and gives to the ball its figure and white colour. The choroid is the vascular coat, consisting of arteries and veins, and lined interiorly with black pigment. The retina is the nervous coat, and is formed by the expansion of the optic nerve. The optical mechanism consists of the cornea, three humors, the iris, and the screen or black pigment. The cornea is shaped and fitted into the sclerotic like a watch-glass into its case. The three humors are the aqueous, crystalline, and vitreous. The vitreous occupies about four-fifths of the bulk of the eyeball; the aqueous lies immediately behind the cornea; the crystalline is situated between the aqueous and the vitreous. The aqueous humor is divided by the iris into two portionsthe anterior and the posterior. The crystalline humor, or lens, is double-convex in figure, held in position by the ciliary ligament and muscle. The vitreous humor is held in position by a delicate membrane, which traverses it in every direction. The iris is composed of muscular fibres, some of which pass circularly round the centre opening, or pupil, while others are arranged as radii. When a strong light falls on the iris, the circular fibres contract and diminish the opening of the pupil. The black pigment is the screen of the eye, on which the

humors bring the image of objects to a focus. The retina is formed by the expansion of the optic nerve. The optic nerves do not pass directly from each eye to the same side of the brain, but they meet at a short distance behind the orbits, so that a portion of those from one eye pass to that side of the brain, and a portion to the other. Thus there is a perfect communication between the eyes, and anything which affects one of them is almost sure to produce disturbance in the other. The accompanying illustration shows the essential parts of the mechanism of the dark chamber of the human eye: a a is the cornea; r the retina; i the iris; e the lens; manterior chamber of the aqueous humor; p posterior chamber; dr'r' ciliary body: v vitreous humor; o optic nerve.


Hold up your left hand open before your two eyes in a vertical position, in such a way that the thumb and the forefinger will be visible, and will conceal, as much as possible, the other fingers behind them. If now, without changing the a'titude, the right eye be closed and the left opened, you will see something of

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THE harvest moon, lighting up one of our pleasant old English lanes in the west country, revealed the forms of a young man and woman in the humbler ranks of life walking slowly, hand in hand, engaged in deep and earnest conversation, sighing at intervals as though their minds were ill at ease, and bad news or misfortune had reached them. At the end of the lane they paused and looked towards the village which now faced them. Few lights appeared in any of the cottage windows, for most folks kept early hours in Grassdale.

The young man's name was Jonas Fletcher. He filled the situation of clerk to Mr. Burgess, attorney and man of business in general to Sir Michael Saxilby, the Lord of the Manor, a man of force passions and unforgiving disposition, showing small mercy to either poachers or trespassers

on his estate.

Mildred Thornley, the young woman of whom we have spoken, was a village maiden of eighteen summers, and three years younger than her lover. "Well, Jonas, here we are at the turnstile, and I must begin to think about wishing you good night, for the old church clock is just beginning to chime nine," sighed Mildred.

Jonas retained her hand within his own, and seemed very unwilling to part with it. "And so you really leave for London by the mail to-morrow evening, Mildred ?"

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Yes, Jonas; I've a good place offered me there, and father and mother think it best for me to take it," she replied.

"You can't imagine, Mildred, how the thought It seems as if of our having to part grieves me. I was about to lose you for ever." "How foolish of you, Jonas !" returned Mildred, trying to force a laugh. "I didn't expect the All our news would cast you down like this. friends think I'm very lucky to get a situation so easily in a rich London family, and say there is nothing like service for every young girl."

"Say what you will, Mildred, it's a sad blow to me. I thought we might soon be man and wife and live so happily down here."

"And so no doubt we may, dear Jonas, in course of time; but I know our parents think we're far too young at present; and father says young folks who marry in haste very often repent at leisure." "Old folks never seem to think of the time when they were young. I suppose, Mildred, our hearts get harder as we grow older."

"I don't think my parents have hard hearts, Jonas, and I'm sure yours have not-at least, as far as you are concerned, for you're their only son, and I know they almost worship you."

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Well, bless their old hearts, I believe they do!" said Jonas. "And don't you think I love them, Mildred ?"

"I'm sure you do, and that's the more reason you should be ready to obey them. Mother says it would be much better for us to wait a few years before we marry, and have a little money to make a start in life with. I've heard there's a good chance of saving money in a London service if one's careful. Why, Mrs. Norris told me when her daughter Margery had a place in a gentleman's family, she saved up as much as ten pounds in one year."

Ten pounds appeared to be a great sum to the inexperienced girl, and even Jonas thought it was no inconsiderable amount.

"It almost breaks my heart when I think of our having to part; but I suppose, Mildred, there's no help for it."

"They say everything happens for the best, Jonas, and I hope it will be so in tl is case."

They passed through the stil; and as they neared Mildred's cottage, she saw her father looking from the door as if expecting lier.

"Late hours-late hours, young folks!" said the old man, in a reproving voice; but I suppose, as the time draws on for Mildred's journey to London, you've a world of things to talk about." Yes, Master Thornley, we have. going away is a great blow to me."

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"Ay, ay, no doubt it be; but you'll meet again all the happier for it. Mildred will see life and gain experience, and in the meantime you must try and push your way in the world, for your wage is rather small, I take it, to think of supporting a wife with."

Jonas confessed that was really the case, but he hoped soon to have an increase of salary, and would also induce his friends to try and procure him a situation in London where he would get a cried the doctor.



within, "wish Jonas good night: you've to leave way of living?" asked Robert. "Because, if you
here by the mail that passes here to-morrow even- do, I don't. No, I look upon hares and rabbits as
ing. You've got a long journey to get over, and wild animals of the earth, and pheasants and par-
tridges, and such-like birds I regard, in the same
will need all your strength, my lass."
The lovers parted, Jonas making an appoint-light. They feed on every man's land, and I look
can lay hold of the creatures."
ment to see Mildred off by the coach on the fol-upon 'em as being the property of any man who
lowing evening.

This was a new doctrine to Jonas, and he felt alarmed as he listened to it; the thought crossed him that it would be as well to cut Robert Ray"You are leading a bad life, Robert., I took you burn's acquaintance, so he spoke as follows: for a very different sort of man, and I think you and I had better be strangers to each other for the future."

"Just as you please, Jonas. So, if you'll oblige me with what you owe me, and promise to be silent as to what I've told you-for, of course, a of turning informer-we'll burn the writings, as young man of your strict principles wouldn't think they call it, and not speak together for the future, as you say."


Jonas Fletcher was considered to be the steadiest young man for miles round, and his parents looked forward to the day when they should be enabled to article him as clerk to a London solicitor, and enable the lad to make his way in the world. But when Jonas reached the age of one-and-twenty, he seemed anxious to let the village seo he knew the importance of arriving at man's estate: he commenced frequenting the Ash Tree Inn every evening after parting with Mildred, began to stay out late, drank more than was good for him, played at cards and mostly lost, outran his means, and found himself in debt. He kept all this a secret from Mildred, also from Perhaps it will be as well," answered Jonas. his parents, for he knew, if they had been aware of his habits, how soundly he would have been rated. Since his more frequent visits to the inn he had "I promise you I'll not turn informer; but I can't No one at present." made the acquaintance of a certain Robert Ray-promise you that I can pay you the trifle I owe you burn, a constant visitor at the Ash Tree. knew how this man lived. He always seemed well provided with money, had a reckless freeand-casy manner with him, and was always ready to treat an acquaintance. He gave out that he received a yearly allowance from his father to keep ont of London and remain quiet in the country, beyond the reach of certain evil companions he was once associated with. No one saw any reason to doubt this, and as he was always hail fellow well met with everybody, full of life, fun, and frolic, Grogram, the landlord of the Ash Tree, looked upon him as one of his most valued customers.

To this man young Jonas was indebted for the loan of a few shillings on account of gambling debts; he also owed him half a sovereign borrowed money; in addition to this there was a long score against him at the Ash Tree, and Jonas began to get to pay it. He had also been rebuked by his troubled in his mind as to how he should be able parents for the late hours he kept, and it gradually occurred to him he was getting in a bad way. As he walked towards home he turned these things over in his mind, and resolved that his visits to the Ash Tree should be discontinued from that very night.

But it unfortunately happened he had to pass the inn door, and as he did so the merry laugh of Robert Rayburn, and the joyous voices within, told him that something unusual was going on He paused, and promised himself he would only just take one peep inside to see who was there, and then proceed straight home. But the man who hesitates on the threshold of temptation is lost. Robert Rayburn's eye fell upon him in a moment, and, taking Jonas by the arm, he vowed he should make one of the company.

Jonas made but a feeble resistance. He felt down-hearted at the prospect of parting with Mildred; and as no one was ever found wanting with an excuse for drinking, he deluded himself with the idea that a tankard of the Ash Tree's home-brewed would do him a world of good-besides, it would cost him nothing. This was Robert Rayburn's birthday, and that worthy paid for all.

Still Jonas was not up to his usual mark, and as Robert and he walked towards home together the former alluded to his unusual reserve.

You've not been yourself to-night, old fellow," remarked Robert.

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Why, no, I've not," answered Jonas, with a sigh of anxiety.

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What's the matter, lad?" asked his friend.
"Oh, nothing of consequence, Bob," replied
Jonas, forcing a whistle, and trying to appear un-

"Well, if it's nothing of any consequence, you
may as well tell me, and then, maybe, I could give
you a little advice in the matter."

"The fact is, Bob, I don't want advice-I want money.'

"Well, Jonas, my lad, perhaps I could put you in the way of getting some."

"You could!" exclaimed Jonas, with a start of surprise. "How?"

"Why, by the same means that I get it, my
friend," said Rayburn.

"And what may they be?" asked Jonas.
Robert paused, placed his hand on Jonas's
shoulder, and whispered in his ear:

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"Poaching!" echoed Jonas, with a start of
alarm and surprise.
"Hush!--not so loud!" cried Robert, grasping
arm. "If, as they say, walls have ears, hedges
complication ou a poacher? Is that how you live?"
with the balloon. a voice of dislike and alarm.
ink that's such a very wicked

How do you mean ?"
"There is an alarm-those wretched boys have upon the Bay have the same."
spread my secret far and wide."

"Then let's be off."

You owe me thirty shillings, altogether, and as they say short reckonings make long friends, I shall be happy to receive it."

And Robert Rayburn held out his hand as if he expected to be paid on the spot.

You know I haven't the money at-at present," stammered Jonas. "I must get you to wait a little time."

"It wouldn't be convenient for me to do that, for I think I'd better leave here to-morrow morning early. I find I've told you too much, and in some "No, I promise you I'll not do that." unguarded moment you may let my secret slip out."

"I don't want your promises," said Robert, beginning to swagger. "I want what's due to me; all you know, if you like." give me that, and when I've left here, you can tell

"Didn't I just tell you I hadn't got the money?" "You must get it, lien!" "How am I to do that?" "Ask your father for it." "Never! I wouldn't let him know for the world!"

Then I'll precious soon go and tell him!" Robert was striding on up the lane which led to old Fletcher's cottage, wlien Jonas grasped him by the arm and exclaimed:

"You'll never be so hard with me as that! Would you lower me in my parents' esteem for ever?"

"Certainly not, if you'll listen to reason, and "How's it to be done?" asked Jonas. not be so particular to a shade; perhaps then we can arrange matters and be better friends than ever."



"Well, then, to make no bones about it, I'm at the head of as clever a gang of poachers as ever set a snare; Sir Michael's lands swarm with game, One of our party and every night when occasion serves, we make a fine haul, I promise you. sprained his ankle the night before last, and we're a man short. Now look here, my lad: just you join us, and then

He was prevented from saying more by feeling "Villain!-tempter! would you seek to lead me Jonas suddenly grasping him by the throat. into crime?"

And as he spoke, Robert was hurled back withi a force that laid him on the ground.

"Oh, very well!" muttered Robert, rising "Curse slowly and speaking between his teeth. me if I don't tell your parents all now: how you've been carrying on at the Ash Tree-your gamb ling, drinking, borrowing, and all the rest of it!"

He was again making off in the direction of the enough to dread induced the young man to call him back. cottage, when the exposure Jonas was weak You don't give a

"Hold on, Bob-hold on! fellow time to think!"

"I didn't know you wanted to think!" returned Bob. "Make haste! What is it? Because, mind you, I'm not going to be played with!"

"Well," stammered Jonas, "tell me exactly what you want me to do?"

"Ah, now, that's coming to business! Well, then, for the first night or two we shall only want you to keep a sharp look-out for the keepers while we're at work, and perhaps help us in a few other little harmless matters. I suppose you never set such a thing as a snare in your life?"

Never. I was always tanght to look upon such a thing as one of the greatest crimes."

"Bah! Old-fashioned notions, my lad, that are rapidly disappearing now-a-days! I warrant you and I live to see these tyrannical game laws repealed, and every man have the right to kill the animals he finds feeding on his own lands; no matter where it may be."

"I shouldn't like my father to hear me talk

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