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other chief Officer of the Crown, in a Town of Village; or of a Lord, in a Manor. Provoft is the common antient Titule of the chief Magistrate of any City or Borough; but, of later Days, the Titule and Office have moftly merged into that of Mayor.

THE modern Word Mayor, antiently Meyr, in Charters called, Major, is sayed to be derived from the British, Mire, or Myre, a Steward or Keeper, or from the old English, Maier, which fignifies Dominion or Authority. Mayor with Us implies the fame with Præfectus Urbis, or Prætor Urbanus among the antient Romans. I fhall here confine my self to our City, where the Titule of our chief Magistrate is raised to that of Lord Mayor.

As the KING is the Head of the Common-Wealth, fo is the LORD MAYOR Head of the City; and, next to the KING, or his Vicegerents, is intituled to the first Rank and Dignity in the City. He was formerly of the King's Privy-Council. He is to prefide in the Councils of the City, to fee all the Laws, relating to the City, executed, and to cause Right and Juftice to be ftrictly and equitably adminiftered to all Men, without Partiality, or Respect to Perfons.. Above all, he is to be watchful and tenacious of the Estate and Re venues, of the Privileges, Liberties and Franchises of the whole City in general, and of every individual Citizen in particular: For, this is the principal End of the Inftitution of the Office.

THE LORD MAYOR, by Common Law, is a Justice of the Peace, during his Office, and by Patent, during Life. The Lord Mayor, for the Time being, is the principal Jufice or Judge of the City Court, where all civil and criminal Matters are triable by the ordinary Course of Law, and where alone the Citizens fhould fue and be fued. In the Quarter-Seffions, he is to have the Recorder and two Juftices of the City, to constitute a Court. He is empowered to regulate the Hire or Wages of Laborers and Artificers, and to afcertain the Affize, Quality and Price of Bread, Ale and Beer.

THE LORD MAYOR is the fole Judge of a Court of Equity or Confcience to the Extent of fourty Shillings, from which, there lyes no Appeal.

THE LORD MAYOR is to have a watchful Eye on the Conduct of every Inhabitant of the City, particularly on that of the City Officers and Servants, for whofe Misconduct the City is anfwerable. He is empowered to execute or infpect the Execution of several Statutes, particularly for cleanfing and paving the Streets, removing Nuifances and Encroachments, preventing Dirt or Rubbish being thrown in the Streets, Lanes or wafte Places in the City; to punih Perfons, who keep above an hundred Weight of Gun-Powder toge ther, within the City. He is to look into Offences against the State, as well, for the general Promotion of Peace and good Government, as to execute the Office of Efcheator, in fiifing and fecuring all Ef cheats, to the Ufe of the City: He is empowered to judge and determine whether Coin offered in Payment, be current or counterfeit, and to tender an Oath to obtain a certain Information concerning N n

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it: He is to punish Drunkenness upon Sight, or upon the Teftimony of one credible Witness, with a Fine of five Shillings or fix Hours Confinement in Stocks: He is to enquire concerning unlawful Gaming, fearch and inspect into Places fufpected to be Gaming-Houfes, and commit Perfons found or proved playing unlawful Games: He is Judge of all Difputes between Mafters and Apprentices and Servants, may punish, discharge, order Wages to be payed, &c. and to compell, idle, able Perfons to go to Service or Labor.

THE LORD MAYOR is the civil and military Governor of the City: Without his Permiffion, no Shews, Stage-Plays, Games, or Pafs-Times may be publicly exhibited in this City; not even by the King's Patent; nor may any armed Force march into, or through, the City, in an hoftile Manner, or in military Array, even by the King's Commiffion, without Licence from the Lord Mayor: Soldiers or Servants may not be quartered or billited within the Liberties of the City, without exprefs Orders from the Lord Mayor, who is to take Care, that no Servant or Soldier be, by any Means, quartered on any free Citizen, without his Consent.

THE LORD MAYOR is to punih prophane Curfing and Swearing, with a Fine or Confinement in Stocks: To punish idle, vagrant Beggars, and caufe fuch, as will not work, or pretend to be lame, blind, or otherwife maimed, in order to excite Charity and cover their Idleness, to be whipped through the Streets.

BESIDES the ordinary Authority of Mayors, to keep a public, eftablished Standard of Weights and Measures, and to try and regulate thofe of all Buyers and Sellers thereby, and to correct Defects or Exceffes, with Power to burn, or destroy, such as are found deficient; the Lord Mayor, as Clerk of the Market, has a more extensive Power, in this Refpect: He is to determine all Difputes arifing between Buyers and Sellers, in the Markets, Shops, &c. to punish Brawlers, Scolds and other Difturbers of the Market: He is authorised to vifit all Markets, Ware-Houfes, Coal-Yards, CoalShips, &c. all Shops, Ale Houfes, Inns, Taverns, &c. and to assay, try or prove their feveral Weights, Scales and Meafures; to feal or mark them, that answer the Standard, and to feife, burn, or otherwife publicly deftroy all fuch, as are found unfealed, false or de fective. He is Judge of the Market Court; and may order the Sherifs to impanel a Jury before him; which Jury is to be charged with the Care of the Market, and to prefent all fuch, as ufe or keep falfe or unfealed Scales, Weights or Meafures, and all, that fell unlawful Bread or other unwholefom Provifions. The Offenders, in these Instances, are liable to be fined, or to a Seisure of their falfe Scales, &c. or bad Wares, by the Lord Mayor.

FROM this fhort Sketch of the Inftitution and Office of a Lord Mayor, his Duty and the Importance of the Trust must clearly appear.

UPON his entering on the Office, he takes the following

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The OATH of a LORD MAYOR.

"YOU fall fwear, that you shall truly and faithfully ferve

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"Mayor of the City of Dublin; and that the fame City you "fhall fafely and furely keep to the Ufe of our fayed Sovereign "Lord the King of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, and of "his Heirs and lawful Succeffors, Kings and Queens of Great"Britain and Ireland; and the Profit of our fayed Sovereign "Lord the King you fhall do, in all Things that belongeth unto "you to do, and the Right of the King, in whatsoever apper"taineth to the Crown, within the fayed City, you fhall truly " and faithfully keep and preserve; and that you fhall not affent "to the taking away, or Concealment of the Rights, nor the "Franchises, nor the Privileges of the King's Majefty, and that "wherein foever you fhall know the Rights of the King, or of "his Crown, be it in Lands, or Rents, or in Franchises, or in Suit, to be concealed, or fubftracted, you fhall put all your En"deavor to withstand the fame; and if of your felf you can not "do it, you fhall declare, or reveal the fame, unto the King's Deputy, or Lieutenant of this Kingdom, or to fuch of his Highness's Council as you know will reveal the fame to the King's Deputy, or Lieutenant; and that lawfully and rightfully 66 you fhall intreat the People of your fayed Bailiwic; and that

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you fhall do equal Right unto all Men, as well unto Strangers, 66 as unto the Citizens, and as well unto the Poor as to the Rich, ❝in all that appertains to you to do; and that neither for Great"nefs, nor for Riches, nor for Gift, ne for Promise, nor for Fa

vor, ne for Hate, you fhall not do Wrong to any Man; and "that you fhall not hinder any Man of his Right, nor nothing "fhall you take, whereby the King may lofe, or his Right be disturbed; and in all Things that appertaineth to the Office of Mayor of the fayed City to do, you shall do well and truly and "faithfully behave your felf.

"So help you GOD in JESU CHRIST."

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The LORD MAYOR'S OATH, as Efcheator, and Clerk of the MARKET.

OU fhall swear by the holy Contents of that Book, to

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" II. you shall well and truly serve our fayed Sovereign Lord the King's Majefty, in the feveral Offices of Efcheator and Clerk of "the Market, within the County of the City of Dublin, and "Franchises thereof, to the utmost of your Power, fo long as

you shall abide in the fayed Office; you fhall make true and di"ligent Inquiry for all Manner of Efcheats, Rights and Profits, "that fhall grow due to his Majefty, within the County of the Nnz

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"City of Dublin aforefayed, and what you fhall find by any fuch "Inquifition, to fall and belong to his Majefty, the fame to fig"nify into his Majefty's Court of Chancery, or Exchequer; you "fhall cause reasonable Rates to be fet on all Manner of Victuals "and Accates, that shall come to be fold within the County of "the City of Dublin aforefayed, and upon all other neceffary "Provifions, which to the Office of Clerk of the Market be"longeth; you shall diligently and carefully look to the Affize of

Bread, Ale and Beer, that the fame be performed and kept; "and that true Weights and Measures be used by all People "within the fayed County and Liberties of the City aforefayed: "These and all other Things to the fayed several Offices of Ef "cheator and Clerk of the Market, belonging or in any wife appertaining, you shall well and truly execute, perform and do, 56 to the uttermost of your Power.

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"So help you GOD, and by the holy Contents of that Book."

As the KING is the HEAD of the great Body Politic, or ComMON-WEALTH; fo, is the LORD MAYOR, Head of this Corporation. And, as the KING is intrufted with the general Government of the REALM, fo, is the LORD MAYOR, with that of the Corporation of this CITY. The one, as well, as the other, is to confider, that his refpective Office was inftituted for the GOOD of the PEOPLE, and that every Power, Prerogative, Privilege, Pre-eminence or Authority, he enjoys, is derived from, and held in Truft for, the PEOPLE.

THE LORD MAYOR is therefore to execute, or cause to be ex ecuted, all the Common and Statute Laws concerning this City, as well, as the By-Laws of the Corporation, fully, justly, truly and indifferently, without Regard to Perfons or Places, to private Regards or Prejudices.

AN other great Part of the Office and Trust of the Lord Mayor is that of being Prefident of the Courts and Councils of this City, And the Discharge of this requires not less Sense and Virtue, than other Branches of his Duty. To execute thefe important Trufts duly, the Lord Mayor fhould be no Stranger to the general Syftem of our Laws, from which alone he may draw the Office and Duty of the Magiftrate and the Rights and Liberties of the Subject in general. He fhould be perfectly converfant in our Charters and in the By-Laws and general Conftitution of the City; by which alone, he may learn the Extent and Limits, the particular Duties of his Office and the peculiar Rights and Privileges of the Corporation of the City and of every Member thereof; which he is bound to preServe from every Degree of Violation or Incroachment. He is to hold the Quarter-Seffions and Quarter-Affemblies at the ftated Times and Places; and, to fuffer nothing either unlawful or unjust, to pafs in either. In the Councils, he is but a Prefident, and must execute and keep the Laws and Refolutions made by the Majority of the Council. He may call them together upon all Occafions; but,

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he can neither confine their Deliberations, nor diffolve, nor adjourn them, but as the Majority of the Assembly agrees and directs." He is not to fuffer any Council in the City to clash or interfere with an other; but keep up a true and exact Balance between the Aldermen and Commons, and all other Parts and Members of the Community. In every Affembly, he is to fee, that the Eafe and Liberty of the Members be perfectly fecure; that the Commons fit in an open Place, with a Gallery, to which every Citizen may have Access; that at the Clofe of every Affembly, the Court of DAREIN HUNDRED fhould be fummoned, by ringing the Tholfel Bell, that the Suffrages of the Citizens be fairly and freely collected upon every prohibited or controverted Question, and that no Act of Assembly should be ratified or executed, before it receives the Sanction of the Citizens in this Court.

FOR these Ends, the Lord Mayor fhould be a Man of sound and quick natural Parts, as well, as of a liberal Education; of good Underfanding in the national Conflitution, and perfect Knowlege of the Conftitution, Rights and Liberties of the City. He should be confirmed in the moft fteady Principles of Morality and Laws; to which End, he fhould be of found Senfe and clear Judgement. With thefe good Qualifications, the wife and great Ends of the Inftitution must be answered, and without them, We can have nothing but Anarchy and Distraction.

A MAGISTRATE formed upon found, conftitutional Principles, will have the End of his Office always in view, as the chief Object of his Care. He will abate no Right or Privilege of his Office; always remembering the Importance of the Truft repofed in him. He will neither caufe or fuffer any Man to be oppreffed or injured; but, will prove a watchful, tender and indulgent FATHER to all the Inhabitants of the City, especially, to the Citizens, who are, as it were, his legitimate or political Children: He is to fuffer none of their Rights or Privileges to be invaded by any Man; and, like the good, old, Roman Magiftrates, who used to proftrate or bow the Fafces or Enfigns of Magiftracy before the Affembly of the Citizens, acknowleging them the Origine of his Power, he will pay all poffible Refpect to the Commons and Citizens, and demonftrate, upon all Occafions, his Readiness to execute the Powers derived from them, for the general Good of the Community.

LET US now look into the fecond Point propofed.

II. Of BAILIFS, 07 SHERIFS.

HE Word, Bailif, called in our Charters, Ballivus, is fayed to be derived from the French, who formerly gave that Titule to the Prefidents of their provincial Parlements and other great Officers, Bailif was the ordinary Titule of an Officer, who prefided in every Hundred, or in every County: For, it is obfervable, that Hundreds, or Counties, are frequently called, Balliya, or Balliwic. Bailif is, at this Day, the Titule of the

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